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Zh/Cessna 172P

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Cessna 172P Skyhawk
FlightGear
C172p-preview2.jpg
C172p-panel-landing.jpg
类型 民用飞机, Civil utility aircraft
构型 High wing aircraft, Fixed gear aircraft
动力 螺旋桨飞机, Single-engine aircraft
制造商 Cessna
作者
  • David Megginson
  • Gilberto Agostinho
  • Wayne Bragg
  • Juan Vera del Campo
  • onox
  • Fernando Barbosa
  • Daniel Dubreuil
  • Jonathan Schellhase
  • Israel Hernandez
  • Tuomas Kuosmanen
  • Anders Gidenstam
  • Waldo Kitty
  • algefaen
FDM JSBSim
--aircraft= c172p
开发状况 Advanced production
 FDM Stars-5.png
 系统 Stars-5.png
 驾驶舱 Stars-5.png
 模型 Stars-5.png
支持功能 Tutorials Checklists
开发
 代码仓库 The development repository of the Cessna 172P Skyhawk.
下载地址 The UFO comes as part of the base package.
涂装 Browse the FlightGear livery database for the Cessna 172P Skyhawk.
论坛 'Cessna 172P Skyhawk' topic on the FlightGear forum.
维基百科 塞斯納172 This is a link to a Wikipedia article
Note  这是FlightGear的默认机型,并被包括在FlightGear主程序中。

塞斯纳172P “天鹰” 是一架四座位、单引擎、固定上单翼飞机。该机型首飞于1955年,至今仍在生产。塞斯纳172是目前为止世界上生产数量最大的飞机。 自2000年开始,塞斯纳172就是Flightgear的默认机型,取代了原有的Navion飞机。这个机模经过了长时间的的开发,具有很多优秀的特性。2015年,开发者对这个机模进行了大更新,加入了引擎选项、选择轮胎大小以及浮筒等功能,并更新了全新的驾驶舱贴图。这个全新的C172版本成为了FlightGear 3.6及后续版本的默认机型。

特性

这架全新的C172P拥有非常完善的3D(三维)模型以及非常完整的贴图。您可以操作驾驶舱内所有的开关。这架飞机同时还拥有一个很好的空气动力学模型(FDM)、复杂的飞行程序以及全新的,真实的检查单、全新的声音效果与损坏效果模拟。如果在您飞行时发生失误,飞机将可能被损坏,例如重着陆时起落架可能会坍塌。

C172p-bodensee-panorama.jpg

这架机模目前有五个变种,可以在飞机菜单中选择:

  • 常规轮胎
  • 26" 轮胎
  • 31" 轮胎
  • 浮筒
  • 水陆两用浮筒
  • 雪橇

同时,在同一个菜单下,您可选择两种不同功率的引擎:

  • 160 HP
  • 180 HP (推荐在使用浮筒、水陆两用浮筒以及雪橇时选择)

目前这架飞机在撞击、坠毁、重着陆或大过载的情况下,将发生损坏。损坏效果包含了起落架坍塌、机翼折断等。您在飞机菜单中可以选择关闭损坏功能。同时,在飞机菜单中还可选择修复飞机。

现在本机模的机窗拥有起雾和起霜效果,是否起雾起霜取决于机舱外部与内部的气温。飞行员必须使用机舱加热和机舱气流控制杆(位于襟翼操作杆右侧)来控制舱内气温。这个效果亦可在飞机菜单中被关闭。该效果依赖于FlightGear 3.5及以后版本中的ALS实现,在FlightGear 3.5以前的版本中会出现窗户变灰的现象。

该机模的空气动力模型十分精确。比如说,飞机可能会在进入不对称失速时进入螺旋状态。本机模的气动模型(FDM)也可以模拟在水上起降时的气动效果,以及使用新的180HP引擎时的气动效果。

这架飞机有许多涂装可供选用,包括一些在涂装选择界面标注了“HD”的高清涂装。每一个高清涂装都包括了独特的驾驶舱和客舱贴图。

这架飞机模拟了 Bendix/King KAP140 Autopilot.

与此同时,如果您在FlightGear中启用了ALS (Atmospheric light scattering)渲染功能,便可以在 "Cessna 172P" 菜单中开启手电筒功能,并可在白光、红光中切换。

现在,本飞机支持航前检查。你可以安放、取下轮档、固定绳以及皮托管套,也可以进行燃油管理,检查燃油是否被水污染。这两项功能可以在Aircraft Options中启用。

Carburettor icing is also modelled. Accumulating carburettor ice will result in loss of power. Applying carb heat will help to melt it. If the engine starts to cough when carb heat is applied, it means that ice has indeed been accumulated in the carburettor and now is being melt. To reduce the cough during the melting process, one can lean the mixture.

As of version 2016.3, static objects can be toggled in the Ground Equipment dialog. These include cones under the wings, a fuel truck, a ground power unit and ladders. The ground power can be used to recharge the battery and the fuel truck can be used to refuelling the tanks. The walker can climb the ladder by walking towards it, which makes it easy to access the fuel tank cap in order to refill it.

Cessna 172P's flashlight in the cockpit

掌控这架飞机

航前准备

Cessna 172P secured at Aosta Airport

It's recommended to use any exterior view or activate the walker for these procedures.

  • Fuel quantity: add by clicking on the fuel tank caps above each wing (you can add a ladder in the Ground Equipment dialog and climb it with the walker as well)
  • Left wing: remove tie-down
  • Left wing: remove pitot tube cover
  • Left wing: check for fuel contamination by clicking under the wing and take a fuel sample. If the sample is light blue, the fuel is not contaminated and can be returned to the tank. If the sample is transparent or partially transparent, you must discard it and take new samples until they are completely light blue
  • Tail: remove tie-down
  • Right wing: remove tie-down
  • Right wing: check for fuel contamination
  • Nose: check for oil quantity by clicking on the oil door in the nose. Critical oil level for either engine is 5.0 quarts.
  • Nose: remove wheel chocks

引擎启动 (复杂的手动启动)

  • Priming: prime the engine at least 3 times
  • Mixture: Rich (red lever all the way in)
  • Throttle: Open 1/8 (black lever at 20%)
  • Parking Brake: Applied ( Shift+B)
  • Prop Area: Clear
  • Master switch: ON (both)
  • Magnetos: Both (Press } three times)
  • Ignition: Start (S)

引擎启动 (使用AutoStart自动启动)

  • Click on the menu "Cessna C172P" and select "Autostart" in order to start the plane. Please note that the Autostart attempts to start the engine with the mixture full rich, so if you are taking off from a very high altitude airport you may need to manually start the plane.

起飞

Cessna 172P ready for take off
  • 无襟翼
  • 油门推满
  • 空速55节时抬头

爬升

  • 无襟翼
  • 油门推满
  • 空速保持75节

巡航

  • 油门65%
  • 混合器富油
  • 空速保持在100节左右

着陆

Cessna 172P about to touch down
  • 满襟翼
  • 空速60节

空速

另外参见 Aircraft speed#V speeds

The information in this section is based on external resources.[1][2][3]

Airspeed CAS
Stall speed, landing configuration, VS0 33 kt
Stall speed, clean, VS1 44 kt
Rotation speed, VR 55 kt
Best angle of climb speed, VX 59 kt
Best rate of climb speed, VY 76 kt
Maximum flap extended speed, VFE 85 kt
Maneuvering speed, VA 96 kt (floatplane)
99 kt (landplane)
Maximum structural cruising speed, VNO 127 kt
Never exceed speed, VNE 158 kt

常见问题

这里列出了一些人们频繁询问的有关本机模的问题:


Q: I am experiencing grey windows, what is happening?

A: If you experience grey windows, you do not have the correct FlightGear version. This aircraft requires 3.5 or above.


Q: Why does the aircraft keep turning left?

A: Please see understanding Propeller Torque and P-Factor. If using the amphibian model on a solid runway, note that at the taxiing is done by differential braking (the rudder becomes more and more effective as the plane gains speed).


Q: Why will the engine not start?

A: You can start the engine automatically by clicking on the menu "Cessna C172P" and selecting "Autostart". For a manual start, please follow the checklists available by clicking on the menu "Help" followed by "Aircraft Checklists". As seen above, the engine must by "primed" before starting. If oil management is activated, you must have enough oil for the engine to work (more than 5.0 quarts). If fuel contamination is activated, the fuel must be light blue in order for the engine to properly work. You must also make sure that the battery is charged enough (you can check and recharge it in the Aircraft Options dialog).


Q: Why does the Autostart fail to start the engine?

A: That's probably because you are attempting to take off from a very high altitude airport. Autostart always tries to start the engine with the mixture full rich, and if it fails to do that properly then you must manually start the engine after properly leaning the mixture.


Q: Why does the engine die immediately after startup?

A: Probably because the throttle is being incremented too fast after startup as the engine needs a few seconds to stabilize itself.


Q: Why can't I start the sim with the engine running?

A: You can! Go to the menu "Cessna C172P", select "Aircraft Options" and tick the option "Start with engine running".


Q: Why I keep running out of battery?

A: Just like in the real airplane, it's always a bad idea to keep the battery switch on for a long time while the engine is not running, as the battery will run out of charge. When the engine is running, the alternator will make sure that the battery is always recharging. If you run out of battery charge, go to the Aircraft Options dialog and recharge it.


Q: Why the aircraft doesn't move?

A: The aircraft won't move if you have the parking brakes set, or if either of the wing tie-downs, the tail tie-down or wheel chocks are in place (if the option "allow securing aircraft" is enabled in the aircraft menu).


Q: Why the airspeed indicator doesn't work?

A: If the option "allow securing aircraft" is enabled in the aircraft menu, then very likely you forgot to remove the pitot tube cover.


Q: How can I switch to the bush tires/pontoons/amphibian?

A: By clicking in menu "Cessna 172P", selecting "Aircraft Options" and then selecting the other landing gear options.


Q: How can I switch to the 180 HP engine?

A: This is also done by clicking in menu "Cessna 172P", selecting "Aircraft Options" and then selecting the engine power option.


Q: Why can't I take off from the water without crashing the plane?

A: Taking off and landing on water can be quite tricky. Try applying a little bit of back pressure on the yoke while accelerating to 55 KIAS. It's also recommended to use the 180 HP engine instead of the default 160 HP, as the extra weight of the pontoons make it really hard to climb with the default engine.


Q: Why is the simulator lagging so much?

A: As with any complex 3D model, this new version of the c172p is a bit more demanding on the computers than the older one. If you are having troubles with performance, try using non-HD liveries which use textures with lower resolutions, as well as other solutions that can improve performance (disabling certain graphical options in the Rendering Options, lowering the resolution of FlightGear, etc.).

Some tricks that help to increase fps is by disabling all GUI windows, including the menu bar and the orange fps counters at the bottom of the screen. You can display an alternative fps counter in the top left corner via the "Debug" menu and then selecting "Cycle On-Screen Statistics". Make sure to hide the menu bar by pressing F10 to see the counter.

A second trick is to simply disable the rendering of all clouds if you don't mind. Start FlightGear with "--prop:/sim/rendering/draw-mask/clouds=0".

If you notice heavy slowdowns when flying over certain scenery and you see FlightGear generating many "Warning:: Picked up error in TriangleIntersect" messages in the terminal or log file, you can disable this by starting FlightGear with "--prop:/sim/rendering/osg-notify-level=fatal".


Q: Why are the windows getting foggy/frosty?

A: If the dew point of the cabin air temperature is higher than the surface temperature of the windshield, the windows will get either foggy or frosty. Use the Cabin Heat and Cabin Air levers (on the right of the flaps) to control it. The dew point rises with the temperature in the cabin, and it rises faster than the windshield temperature can adjust, resulting in temporary fog. If the air is very humid, the dew point is going to be very close to the cabin temperature, which makes it likely that it will be higher than the windshield temperature. Extra passengers will create a more humid atmosphere in the cabin. Try to increase air flow using the Cabin Air lever or overhead air vents in order to decrease the humidity or temperature. Alternatively, disable the effect by going to the menu "Cessna 172P", selecting "Aircraft Options" and disable the option "Enable frost and fog".


Q: How do I increase the cabin air temperature?

A: Increase the cabin air temperature by opening the Cabin Heat lever. In order to actually get a heated air flow, you need a medium or high EGT (Exhaust Gas Temperature -- the instrument between the yoke and the ADF instrument), and airspeed and/or sufficient propeller RPM.


Q: How can I click on a switch which is being covered by the yoke?

A: You can hide the yokes by clicking on them or by going to the menu "Cessna 172P", selecting "Hide/Show Yokes".


Q: Why my engine seems to be losing power?

A: Assuming that you have the mixture correctly leaned according to your altitude and atmospheric pressure, then another possibility is that you are accumulating carburettor ice which results in loss of power. Apply carb heat and the ice should slowly melt. Notice that if the engine starts to cough when you apply carb heat, it means that ice is being melt and is a sign that icing was indeed your problem. To reduce the cough during the melting process, lean the mixture.

开发状态/问题/TODO

This aircraft is undergoing a constant development, which can be followed on its repository, where a list of issues and future enhancements can also be found.

画廊

外部链接

參考資料
  1. Triangle Aviation[dead link]
  2. OtisAir's Airborne Observations[dead link]
  3. Type Certificate No. 3A12, Revision 79 (pdf). Published by FAA. Retrieved 9 October 2015.