Learjet 35-A

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Learjet 35A
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Type Business Jet
Author(s) Xsaint,PH-JBO
FDM YASim
--aircraft= Learjet2
Status Early production
FDM Stars-4.png
Systems Stars-3.png
Cockpit Stars-4.png
Model Stars-3.png
Download
Cquote1.png Nothing else can take you there faster, on less fuel. Absolutely nothing.

It's a incontrovertible fact. The Learjet 35A covers more miles in less time on less fuel than any other business jet.

Period.

In fact, even slower jets consume more fuel than the Learjet 35A. The Cessna Citation S/II, for example, takes about 15 minutes longer than the Learjet to complete a typical 500-n.m. mission at high-speed cruise--and gulps down 100 ponds more fuel in the process.

No other aircraft offers a better blend of speed, efficiency, and versatility than the Learjet 35A.

Ask the U.S. Airforce. Before selecting a manufacturer for their C-21 utility jet, they conducted a four-month comparison of contenders. When it was over, the choice was clear. The USAF ordered 80 Learjets.
— Flight International (advertising of Gates Learjet)[1]
Cquote2.png

The Learjet 35-A is not included with the FlightGear base package, nor is it available from the Central FlightGear Hangar.

This aircraft, in FlightGear, is a creation of xsaint. Copyright info (from learjet-set.xml): Learjet 35A Feb 2009 Xsaint , based on Syd's Bravo FDM(). Its tweaked by PH-JBO 2011-12-22. Licence: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

History and technical details of the Learjet 35 can be found on Wikipedia with links towards the Learjet and Bombardier history.

Learjet35banner.png

Installation

  1. Download the aircraft from here: Download LJ35A
  2. Place the Lear2 directory and files in your Aircraft directory.
  • If you have previously installed the Learjet please remove it from the Aircraft directory. FlightGear will otherwise get confused.
  • The pre-previous version required a custom Instruments-3d, if you still have that on your hard drive, pls remove it.

Impressions

Positive

  • This Learjet is at this moment (2011-08-25) the only business jet in FlightGear with a predictable autopilot (as far as I know).
  • Despite the oddities, this aircraft is perfect to practice IFR flight, radio navigation and ILS approaches.
  • It has the mild character of an airliner, combined with the umph of a fighter jet. So it's perfect as a trainer for both types of aircraft.
  • There are not a gazillion buttons to press, perfect for lazy pilots that want mileage.
  • It is a beast to fly. It is possible to take off from a postagestamp, pull up like a rocket and land on a dime.

This aircraft needs more pilots! (and positive reviews)

Negative

  • The interior is not of a Learjet, the instruments were designed for the Cessna Citation Bravo. The looks and animations of the aircraft is not sleek and finished.

Oddities

For this aircraft but perhaps also for other aircraft with this setup. Some oddities are probably on-purpose.

  • The ADF frequency in the cockpit is not in sync with the Radio window.
  • NDB beacons can be entered as NAV1 or NAV2. That's a big positive! They will give distance but no radial for the autopilot.
  • If changing course (radial) in the Radio Window be sure to press apply to feed the Primus. For the other values the apply key isn't needed.
  • If FMS is used once, the Primus will get confused and ILS beacons will not show the glidescope.
  • In the Autopilot Pitch (VNAV) and V/S do not work as expected.
  • If the Autopilot is turned on it will also turn on a vertical control, Pitch, V/S or Altitude depending on what is pre-selected. Standard is Pitch.
  • I have not discovered any effect from the Roll Knob.
  • NAV2 can only be used for reference. It can not be used for radial navigation.
  • The compass is b0rken. It has a strange deviation and can not be set with Instrument settings. The compass shows Magnetic, the NAV (also when an NDB has been entered) indicators True, the ADF indicator Magnetic, the course deviation bars show Magnetic, extremely confusing. Since the course bars show Magnetic, VOR navigation (Autopilot) is also done with Magnetic. If this is true for this aircraft it probably is true for all Primus 1000 aircraft.

Technical

V speeds

VA = 220 KIAS (use autopilot above to manoeuvre)
VR = 129 KIAS
VR 8o = 119 KIAS
VR 20o = 115 KIAS
VR 40o = 109 KIAS
VC = 220 KIAS at FL410
VS1 (clean) = 96 KIAS
VS0 (landing) = 87 KIAS
VMCA = 112 KIAS
VMCG = 103 KIAS
VMO = 350 KIAS above FL80
MMO = 0.82 Mach
VMO = 300 KIAS below FL80
VFE8o = 198 KIAS
VFE20o = 183 KIAS
VFE40o = 153 KIAS
Field length (takeoff 8o) = 4800 feet (ISA)
Field length (takeoff 8o) = 6300 feet (elevation 5000 feet)
Field length (landing) = 3075 feet
  • Spoilerons (airbrakes) may be extended up to VMO provided flaps are not extended, or while on ground during landing.

V speeds based on typical load.

(FL = flight level)

Landing speeds

Weight x 1000 10 11 12 13 14 15 15.3 16 17 18.3 lb
Speeds ↓
Vref & LDG Climb 105 110 115 119 123 127 129 131 135 140 KIAS
Appr & Climb 111 116 121 126 130 134 136 138 142 147 KIAS

Dimensions and weight

Gates Learjet 35A - Technical Data
Specification Metric Imperial
Length 14.83 m 48 ft 8"
Wing span (over tanks) 12.04 m 39 ft 6"
Height 3.73 m 12 ft 3"
Weight (empty) 4,590 kg 10,120 lb
Max. take-off weight 8,235 kg 18,300 lb
Max. landing weight 6,940 kg 15,300 lb
Max. landing tip-fuel weight 420 kg 925 lb
Max. fuel load 3,524 l 931 Gallons
Max. level speed TAS 872 km/h (7,620 m) 542 mph (25,000 ft)
Max. climb rate 1,451 m/min 4,760 ft/min
Max. service ceiling 13,715 m (approx.) 45,000 ft (approx.)
Power plant 2 x Garrett TFE731-2-2B Turbofan
Power plant output 2 x 3,500 Thrust (dry)[lbf]
Fuel consumption 2 x 0,504 SFC (dry) [lb/lbf hr]
Range 2789 NM
Max. time full-throttle 5 mins
Max. occupancy 2 x crew, 8 x passengers

In FlightGear the limits are more flexible as the real thing. If you would cross over limitations in reality the thing would go poof.

  • The data gathered is not guaranteed to be 100% accurate, some sources contradict each other. The most probable reason is that many aircraft have been refitted and improved (wing-tips, undercarriage, fuel tip) and often models are mixed (C21, 36, 35A etc).

Aircraft configuration

Please note. Despite best efforts the description does not depict the real aircraft. If you have one of the real things, call me, I'd love to hop aboard, but use the Flight Manual for your planning.

Fuel system

This Learjet is equipped with five fuel tanks. The two characteristic tip tanks, two wing tanks and one tank in the fuselage. The tanks are filled from the tip tanks and during filling the fuel is distributed by gravity. This means that after filling each tank has the same percentage of fuel.

All weight above 13,500 lbs should be wing and tip tank fuel.

The flight characteristics are negatively influenced by the tip tanks (Dutch roll and front weight) that is why it is common to burn the tip tanks first.

From Equipment=>Fuel and Payload it is possible to open or close a tank.

There is only one type of jet fuel in FlightGear. To go from Gallons to pounds, multiply with 6.72 .

  1. Calculate from your planning the amount of fuel needed.
    1. 1st hour 223 Gallon
      2nd hour 194 Gallon
      3rd hour 164 Gallon
      4th hour 134 Gallon
    2. For flights less then two hours fill the tanks to the max. landing weight (15,300lb) then add the amount of expected fuel burn. (i.e. for a two hour flight fill to 15,300 lb, then add 223+194 Gallons)
    3. Make sure there is a reserve of at least 90 Gallons in each wing that can be used for a go-around procedure.
  2. Load the amount of fuel using Equipment=>Fuel and payload. Made sure the sliders are above each other so to simulate gravity.
  3. Before taking off close the wing and fuselage tanks keeping only the tip tanks open.
  4. After approx an hour into the flight open the fuselage tank.
  5. After another half hour open the two wing tanks.
  6. Just before approach check the content of the tip tanks. If a tank holds more as 138 Gallons jettison (empty) the tip tanks. Else they could snap off during landing.

There is an upgrade kit available to increase the length of the tip tanks giving a longer range of the aircraft.

Altitude and flight planning

  • Flight duration 1 hour, fly between FL300 and FL330.
  • Flight duration 2 hours, fly between FL330 and FL370.
  • Flight duration 3 hours, fly between FL370 and FL400.
  • Flight duration 4 hours, fly between FL400 and FL430.

Engines

The engines can take N1 105% for about 5 seconds before you will have to replace them. They can take N1 103% for about 5 minutes which is just sufficient for an emergency ascend to FL180. (some documents state 1 second for 105% and 1 minute for 100...103%) Continues power is possible at N1 101.5% but it's best is to keep at or below 100%. Optimal cruise and climb, lowest fuel burn, is at N1 85%.

N1 63% gives about 210 KIAS at FL 250, N1 73% gives about 250 KIAS.

Flaps and brakes

The flaps have three settings.

  1. 8o makes the wings more efficient and provides a good deal of additional lift. It does not slow down the aircraft much. To make the aircraft take off easier, reducing the need for new tires, this setting is used. If you are sure to stay below 200 knots during VFR flight, touring over the country side, the throttle has more grain giving perfect control during slow, low level flight. The Learjet 35-A is certified for VFR flight.
  2. 20o gives enough drag to slow down an aircraft. It also makes the wings more efficient during take off and this setting should be used with heavy loaded aircraft.
  3. 40o is almost like a handbrake on your car. The aircraft wants to make a full stop on this setting. It provides some additional lift and should be used during take-off with with MTOW but be sure to shift to a lower setting as soon as possible. With this setting you can perform an emergency descent with a negative pitch of up to 40. During landing you will have to set N1 between 60...80% to prevent stalling. With higher speeds the aircraft will have an extreme pitch behaviour.
  • The three settings are sufficient for normal use however there is an upgrade kit available giving a notch at 15 and 30. This makes the aircraft more flexible as a cargo transporter.
  • Spoilerons (airbrakes) can be used at any speed below VMO. One thing to remember is, do not combine spoilerons with flaps, except during slowing down on the runway. The flaps want to push down the nose, the spoilerons do not have this effect. Be sure to retract them when you have reached the desired speed.
  • Reversers can only be used below decision height and on the ground. If enabled the amount of reverse thrust depends on the throttle. It is advised to keep N1 below 85%. It should not be used below 60 knots with to prevent debris flying around everywhere, even entering the engines. Reversers can be used, on ground, to "powerback" (go backwards), use low thrust and never (ever!) use the brakes, use forward thrust instead. After use of the reversers they must receive an inspection therefore they can only be used once. It is against regulations to use reversers prior to take-off and with touch-and-go landings. It is a known risk that reversers can get stuck in the reverse position. (14 CFR Part 39 Amendment 39-4361; AD 79-08-01 R1 & MIA97FA213) Reversers will reduce the length needed for landing however plan to use a runway with sufficient length without reversers.

Cockpit and control panel

This Learjet 35-A has been refitted with the control panel of the Cessna Citation Bravo. The usage and information provided is the same.

Please note that most heading information the Primus 1000 gives is Magnetic except the arrows, those show True. As the deviation-bars also show Magnetic radio navigation should be based on Magnetic. Since runway headings are based on True they should be corrected for the magnetic deviation before entering this information in the machine. For an ILS there isn't much of a problem since it gives just one radial, but for airfields without an ILS but with a VOR-DME the deviation can be well noticeable. The deviation can be retrieved from Equipment => Instrument Settings => HI offset. Add this value to the heading of the runway.

Autopilot

Differences from expected behaviour,

  • VNAV/Pitch will set climb, level or descend depending on the previous setting on the Altitude. If you were climbing with autopilot, Pitch will continue the climb.
  • VNAV/Pitch will not be lit on the dashboard.
  • VS does not work.
  • B/C Back Course does not work.
  • V/S Pitch up down does not work.
  • Roll Knob does not function.

Passengers and cargo

This aircraft is configured for 8 passengers, 6 luxury leather seats, one flight attendant and one flap-down seat. There is room in the front for the luggage of the pilot and co-pilot with a max of 100 lb. Between the wings, just behind the last seats is the cargo hold that has room for 500 lb.

The maximum weight of the aircraft, without fuel, is 13,500 lbs.

It is possible to overload the aircraft with the risk of leaving the undercarriage and tires somewhere on the tarmac. There is an upgrade kit available making it stronger.

If your passengers are claustrophobic advise them to wait for an airliner. The width of the tube is 4.95ft (1,8 meters) and the height is 4.4 ft (1,34 meters) so not much room to take a walk.

The more weight in the back the better, so have your passengers sit from the back to the front.

Warning systems

  • This aircraft has a MK VIII installed. It will callout the height and will give out warnings about flaps, landing gear and when the ground is too close. Most annoying is the alarm sound for lowering the gear.
  • TCAS is installed and visible on the MFD. Use the centre console to change visible radar range.
  • The FC 530 AP will warn for stall and overspeed.
  • The stall warning will give a high pitch sound. In this simulation there is no stick shaker. The stall warning will shutdown the autopilot and will enable the caution alarm. The stall warning system is not perfectly capable of detecting a stall while banking. Contrary to the real aircraft this simulation does not include a stick push. When the alarm sound the aircraft is in a stall, not nearing a stall.
  • The overspeed alarm sounds like a clicking sound, a reason to slow down quick before the aircraft disintegrates. It will enable the caution alarm. Limitations are:
  • Caution when Mach > 0.74 and no AP
  • Caution when KIAS>300 and ALT < 8,000
  • Caution when KIAS>350 and ALT > 8,000
  • Stick pull KIAS>354 or MACH >0.82
  • The Caution alarm sounds like honk honk, silent, silent. It can be stopped after the cause of the alarm has been taken away. Just press the button to shut it off. Check the aircraft limits when the cause of the alarm is unknown.
  • The autopilot will also shutdown in the following events: G-forces over the limit or engines have stopped.

Stall behaviour

When the speed is reduced the Lear will nose-dive before there is a stall. If you fight that behaviour, pull up, you will find that a stall without flaps can cause loss of control diving left or right to start a spin. With flaps you can steer left and right without loosing control sinking at an extreme rate. To get out of a stall the easiest steps are to give max power and lower nose. With one engine down however max power will worsen the situation so lower nose to pick up speed, get control back and then increase thrust slowly. Stall character of the Learjet 35-A is described as very mild.

Flight characteristics

The Learjet loves to go up, it loves to go down. But it doesn't like level flight. The Autopilot has a Yaw Damper function to help level flight. Heavy tip tanks combined with low speeds can cause a Dutch Roll, it will make your passengers sick and can,in extremes, cause loss of control.

This machine is build to be happy above FL390, it's possible to fly KTAS 471 keeping N1 at 100%. Below FL390 the engines are not strong enough. The ceiling at 45,000 is for the standard machine, for research aircraft have been fitted with better seals keeping the cabin pressurized at higher altitudes.

Above 220 KIAS and/or above FL180 the aircraft should be flown with Autopilot since the slightest stick movements, above that speed, can cause scary things.

There are some things you should not do,

  • Give full throttle with one engine down when the aircraft is near a stall during landing. (The aircraft will be pushed to one side)
  • Set the altimeter to the wrong QNH, mistaking a 2 with a 3. (The aircraft can be a 1000 feet lower as expected).
  • Set the autopilot to an undefined high (twist the button) and then forget to set it correctly. (Making the aircraft fly too high, loosing pressure and oxygen making the aircraft fly a long way on autopilot before the engines shut down due to loss of fuel)
  • Fly near the Falklands during a war. (The British might use you for target practice)

Procedure flight

Startup

  1. Fuel up the machine.
  2. Check brakes are ON.
  3. Check flaps are retracted.
  4. Check spoilerons are retracted.
  5. Check trim is centred.
  6. Throttle on 0, the machine will auto-throttle during start-up.
  7. Start the engines:
    • Manual:
    1. Switch BATT (DC Power) to ON.
    2. Avionics Power.
      1. Switch to INV 1.
      2. Right switch to ON.
    3. Ignition switches (LH and RH) to NORM.
    4. Click LM button on Engine Start (LH light will light up while revving up, wait till the light is off).
    5. Click RH button on Engine Start (RH light will light up while revving up).
    6. Check if the engines are running, N1 should hover around 50%.
    7. Switch L GEN (DC Power) to ON.
    8. Switch R GEN (DC Power) to ON.
    9. Switch BATT (DC Power) to OFF.
    10. Click the Master Warning Reset button to acknowledge the warning.
    11. Exterior Lights COLL to AMT.
    12. Exterior Lights NAV to UP.
    • Or use the Autostart option.
  8. Close the wing tanks and the fuselage tank.
  9. If the outside temperature is below -25o idle engines for at least three minutes.
  10. Tune to ATIS and set ALT to QNH by turning the BARO knob below the display.
  11. Pre-set the autopilot.
    1. Open Autopilot=>Autopilot settings.
    2. Click HDG (or NAV) and ALT to arm the Autopilot.
    3. Enter the heading in the HDG BUG box.
    4. Enter 39,000 in the ALT SET box.
  12. Release the brakes, give some throttle and go to runway start.

Take off and Ascend

  1. At runway start,
    1. Check spoilerons, flaps, trim, brake.
    2. Give 8o flaps (or more with loads MTOW, or short runways).
    3. Release brakes.
    4. Give throttle, keep N1 below 103% but above 95% (105% will kill the engine)
    5. While accelerating on the runway increase N1 when possible.
    6. Push yokes a bit down, specially with sidewind.
    7. Pull the jokes at VR.
    8. Rotate to 14 degrees.
    9. Check N1
  2. Speed is above 170 KIAS
    1. Retract landing gear.
    2. Retract flaps.
  3. Above 3000 feet AGL.
    1. Set N1 to 85%.
    2. Turn.
    3. Trim to keep speed between 190 and 220 KIAS.
    4. Slowly reduce the attitude to 7 degrees.
  4. At reaching 18,000 feet, (about 5 mins after takeoff).
    1. Enable the Autopilot, centre and release the yokes ("5").
    2. Click STD to set the altimeter to pressure altitude.
    3. Check N1.
  5. After reaching FL 390, (about 16 mins after takeoff).
    1. Enable Low Bank in the autopilot.
    2. Let the aircraft gain some speed till above 200 KIAS.
    3. Set the altitude to 41,000 feet.
  6. It takes about 18 minutes, 90 NM miles and 65 Gallons of fuel to reach FL 410.
    1. At 41,000 feet let the aircraft gain speed to near 220 KIAS which takes about 4 mins.
    2. Set IAS to 220 in the autopilot to prevent overspeed.
    3. If needed to go higher wait till the speed is above 200 and set altitude bug.

Alternative, when there are obstacles (mountains) near:

  1. At takeoff rotate to 14 degrees.
  2. When speed has picked to above 160 rotate to 20 degrees.
  3. Retract landing gear.
  4. When speed is above 170 KIAS retract flaps.
  5. When you are above safety altitude reduce N1 to 85% and do as described above.

Level flight

At an altitude of 41,000 feet and with an airspeed of 220 knots (=N1 85%) you get a groundspeed of about 420 knots. This is the most economical speed and height for this aircraft. At 41,000 feet you can push it to an airspeed of near 240 knots, giving 460 KTAS, but that will hit the envelope of this aircraft.

Monitor the amount of fuel in the tiptanks. If a tiptank is below 100 Gallons open up the fuselage tank. If the fuselage tank is below 100 Gallons open up both wing tanks. The centre of gravity will move to the back of the aircraft reducing drag.

Fly your course using the Radio beacons you can find. Intercept radials on NAV1.

  • Use the Display Controller (DC-550) to the left of the Display.
    • The left bearing knob (BRG O) will show the direction of NAV1 or the ADF.
    • The right bearing knob (BRG <> ) will show the direction of NAV2 or the ADF.
    • The NAV button will switch between NAV1 or NAV2 (or ILS 1 and 2) and will display the set Radial.
      • Avoid using FMS. Do not use NAV2 for automated flight.
  • Use the Autopilot Window to set the heading bug.

If a VOR has no reception it will show North. If the ADF has no reception it will show Up (tricky).

Descend

  1. At a slant distance of about 115 NM start your descent towards the runway (assuming RW elevation of near zero AMSL, if the RW is higher you can descent later). The sink rate will be about 1970 ft/min.
  2. Set the altitude to 10,000 AGL (so if the runway has an elevation of 1245 feet set to 11,245 feet), set speed to 170 KIAS, engines will run idle . While descending it is possible to fly very very fast at the cost of a large amount of fuel and with the risk of overspeed.
  3. The autopilot has been tuned to give a glidepath of a bit more as 3 degrees.
  4. At FL 180 set the altimeter to QNH. Disable Low Bank. Set the heading bug to the current course towards the runway.
  5. Set the runway heading into the Radial of Nav 1 of the radio and set the frequency of the ILS.
  6. At 10,000 AGL the distance to the runways should be about 30 NM. If needed use the spoilerons to slow down to increase sinkrate.
  7. Descend to 1,500 feet AGL and aim to intercept the radial of the ILS at about 7...5 NM away from the runway. While making turns you can go to a speed of 240 KIAS. Use spoilerons to slow down.
  8. Hit NAV to intercept the radial.
  9. Slow down to 170 KIAS, retract spoilerons, give 8o flaps.

You can only intercept the ILS radial if you are nearer as approx 40 NM of the runway. A speed below 170 KIAS can cause the aircraft to sink during high bank turns.

Cheatsheet 3 degrees altitude/distance
altitude 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 6 10 20 30 feet
distance 3.1 4.7 6.3 7.8 9.4 11.0 12.6 18 31 63 94 NM

( ALT(ft) * 1000 / 318.12 = Dist(NM) )

Landing

The ILS takes away the need for horizontal control. To stay inside the glidescope it is needed to change pitch (yokes) and speed (autopilot). The ILS won't work below decision height (200 feet AGL).

The intention is to slow as much as possible, but with sufficient control for a go-around.

  1. Calculate Vref (see table above).
  2. At a distance of 4.7 NM (attitude 1500 feet) you should intercept the glidescope on the ILS. Due to mountains or weather reception of the ILS can be hindered, the gildescope can also be caught at 1000 feet and 3.1 NM.
  3. The speed is 170 KIAS with 8o flaps, flying on the radial.
  4. At one degree below glidescope (the green dot is on the dot above centre).
    1. Speedbug at Vref KIAS.
    2. 20o flaps.
    3. Close the autopilot window.
    4. Hit APPR to catch the glidescope.
    • If the glidescope is not shown on the ILS, reset Altitude on the Autopilot to "0" (zero).
  5. The nose will dive down, pull it up slowly so that the aircraft remains about horizontal.
  6. Pull up nose when too low, decrease speed when too high but keep the speed above Vref KIAS.
  7. Aim to a sinkrate of 400...700 feet/min
  8. At the 1000 mark check tiptanks and weight, jettison fuel if needed.
  9. Set flaps to 40o, the engines will give more power.
  10. At the 500 mark deploy landing gear.
  11. At decision height (set with Primus 1000) the autopilot will shutdown, stallwarning-system is disabled.
  12. Prepare to do a go-around is visibility is insufficient.
  13. At runway threshold set power to idle.
  14. Land the aircraft on two wheels, nose up, and correct for winds.
  15. On nose touchdown enable spoilerons (Ctrl-B), deploy reversers (DEL) and give max. power.
  16. Below 60 knots, set throttle to idle, stow the reversers.
  17. Hit the parking brake (SHIFT-B) to make a full stop.
  18. Take a deep breath.

Park the aircraft.

Non-precision Approach

  1. 7+ NM from RW: 180...165 KIAS, flaps up, gear up.
  2. 7...5 NM from RW, aligned at 1,500 AGL: Vref + 30 KIAS, 8o flaps, descend if required.
  3. 5...1 NM from RW, descending: Vref + 20 KIAS, 20o flaps.
  4. 500 feet AGL: 40o flaps, N1 up, gear down.
  5. Threshold: Vref KIAS.

Shutdown

Reverse the startup procedure described earlier.

Eating a bird

At lower altitudes an engine can eat a bird and shutdown.

Flying with one engine down is good possible however,

  • double the runway length, for both take-off and landing
  • half the rotation, half the climb
  • half the cruise altitude
  • do not use AP during climb

Landing is described at Landing, one engine out.

Flight school

Some things a pilot should be able to perform so find a nice long runway with an ILS and ask permission from ATC to do some practising. Keep the tarmac clean and don't scare the neighbours by crashing.

Restart engines

Since there is a risk that fuel runs out, forgetting to open up the fuselage or wing tanks.

  1. Go to 15,000 feet, level flight, 200 KIAS
  2. Shutdown both tip tanks to force engine shutdown.
  3. Open up fuel tanks.
  4. Restart engines.

Stall - clean

  1. Go to 15,000 feet, level flight, 170 KIAS.
  2. Disable speed bug (autopilot SPD).
  3. Set throttle to idle.
  4. Take the yokes.
  5. Keep the aircraft from sinking by pulling the yokes gently.
  6. Ignore the lower-gear warning.
  7. At stall warning, full throttle, give flaps. Only lower nose if needed to take away stall symptoms (banking).
  8. Let the aircraft pickup speed and when above minimums enable autopilot again. Have the yokes centred before enabling the autopilot.

Stall- landing configuration

  1. Go to 15,000 feet, level flight, 170 KIAS.
  2. Set 8o flaps.
  3. Set speedbug to Vref KIAS.
  4. Set 20o flaps.
  5. Lower gear.
  6. Below Vref + 25 set full flaps.
  7. Use pitch (yokes) to get a stable sinkrate between 400...700 feet/min at Vref KIAS.
  8. Disable the speedbug, do not change throttle.
  9. Pull nose to get to a level flight. Pull more when sinking again.
  10. At stall warning max power, lower nose if needed.
  11. At positive rate of climb pull up gear.
  12. Set a pitch of 14 degrees. Retract flaps, centre yokes and enable autopilot.

Stall- landing configuration, one engine out

Perform the same stall but this time shutdown one engine and keep flaps at 20.

Landing, one engine out

As a normal landing but with the following critical differences.

  1. Set speed to Vref +20 and don't go below that. Use pitch only to control glidescope.
  2. Set flaps to 40o at 100...150 AGL (not earlier), immediately idle the left-over engine, land. Do not use reversers...
  3. There should be sufficient speed and power for a controlled go-around.
  4. After landing you can use the left-over engine to push the aircraft to the parking place.

Touch-and-go is not possible. Required RW length is double. When the speed is too low a power-up, for a go-around or to prevent a full stall, will push the aircraft uncontrollable to one side. This manoeuvre should be practised on a virtual runway well above the real one before attempting this on hard tarmac.

Go-around

This procedure (Go-around, Missed approach) should be practised and should be applied when visibility is insufficient for a landing. Practice on a virtual runway a few 100's feet above the real runway. This procedure works for normal landings and with one engine out.

  1. At decision height (200 feet AGL, set with Primus 1000) the autopilot will shutdown and the stall warning will be disabled.
  2. The indicated airspeed should be just above Vref or Vref + 20 with one engine out. AP should be off.
  3. Give max throttle (keep N1 below 103.5%).
  4. Rotate to 7 degrees.
  5. Check vertical speed.
  6. With positive rate of climb, retract gear.
  7. Call ATC.
  8. Centre trim.
  9. Above Vr retract flaps.
  10. Reset AP.
  11. Rotate to 14 degrees until above 3000 feet.

You should have 180 Gallons left in the wings to go-around or to find another runway nearby.

Tweaking aircraft files

Change livery

Waves Livery

The livery can not be changed as easy as with other aircraft.

  1. Locate in the directory Models the files Paint1.png and Paint1 (2).png
  2. Rename Paint1.pnt to Paint1 (1).png
  3. Rename Paint1 (2).png to Paint1.png
  4. Restart FlightGear

Modify livery

  • The *.psd layers of the wavevom livery are available Paintkit Learjet35a.zip (zipped file)
  • If you have Gimp, Paint dot net or Photoshop you can open and edit the layers of the file.
  • Save the modified file as a flat non-transparent (24 bits) png image with name: Paint1.png.
  • Place the file in the Models directory after making a backup of the original Paint1.png file.

Development status/Issues/Todo

  • Development has taken a different turn. In short, we will use the aircraft files, but we will completely redo them as like making a new aircraft. So, new interior, new exterior, new systems, new instruments etc etc.

Updates

Version 20120130

  • FC-530 behavior
  • TCAS installed
  • MFD and NAV view
  • Reversers possible below decision height
  • Contrails and smoketrails
  • Overspeed and Ceiling don't stop AP
  • Engine maintenance (Turbine<=>Fan)

Version 20111222

  • N1 0...110% with the risk of blowing up the engine
  • Thrust at N1 101% 3500 lbs
  • Changed engine sounds
  • Wind with landing gear and flaps
  • Stall warning
  • Overspeed warning
  • Caution sound
  • Engine start and shutdown sounds
  • Yasim wing sweep correct
  • Panel N1 and ITT now in real range with real colours (but in bars and not dials)
  • Different MK VIII setting
  • Limits and warnings on N1, spoilerons and flaps *2, reversers, engines out, stall and overspeed. Some will cause the warning sound, some will shut down the AP, some just tell the aircraft has broken up into fragments.
  • Instant Replay
  • Aircraft help
  • Micro HUD
  • Prepared for FG 2.6.0

Version 20111111

  • Remodel Yasim according to drawings.
  • Two tip tanks, two wing tanks and one fuselage tank.
  • Corrected empty weight.
  • Increased power at altitude.
  • Separate Instruments 3-d no longer needed.
  • Completely different flight behaviour, less predictable, more fun, more real.
  • Animated reversers.
  • Correct flap angles.
  • AP Low bank functional.
  • Limits implemented.
  • N1 and N2 tweaked to almost real.

From v2009 to v2011-10-21

  • Fuel-load 2 x 465.5 Gallons.
  • Thrust 3500
  • tsfc (fuel consumption) 0.504
  • Autopilot climb attitude from 3.5 to 7.1
  • Altitude was system altitude, corrected to indicated altitude.
  • Livery shadow fixed.
  • Autopilot Y/D now functional.
  • DC-550 a bit more visible.
  • Removal of non available animations.
  • Clean-up of obsolete and redundant files.

Related content

External links

References