Turns About a Point

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OBJECTIVE: To develop the pilot's ability to subconsciously control the airplane while dividing attention between the flightpath and ground references, and scanning for other traffic.


A. How to select a suitable altitude. B. How to select a suitable ground reference point with suitable to emergency landing areas. C. Orientation, division of attention, and planning. D. Configuration and airspeed prior to entry. E. Entry technique. F. Wind drift correction. G. How to maintain desired altitude, airspeed, and distance from reference point. H. Coordination of flight controls.

SCHEDULE: Pre-flight instruction: 10 Minutes Travel to training area: 10 Minutes Instructor Demonstration: 10 Minutes Student Practice: 20 Minutes Return from practice area: 10 minutes Post-flight Review: 10 Minutes Total Time: 1:10

EQUIPMENT: Functional aircraft.

INSTRUCTOR’S ACTIONS: A. Conduct preflight training on the elements of S Turns. B. Demonstrate S Turns F. Conduct post flight briefing.

STUDENT’S ACTIONS: A. Ask questions, review homework. B. Perform preflight. C. Observe demonstrations. D. Perform IAW PTS.

COMPLETION STANDARDS: Student performs S Turns IAW the PTS.

COMMON ERRORS: A. Faulty entry technique. B. Poor planning, orientation, or division of attention. C. Uncoordinated flight control application. D. Improper correction for wind drift. E. Failure to maintain selected altitude or airspeed. F. Selection of a ground control reference point where there is no suitable emergency landing area within gliding distance. Introduction: Turns around a point are another exercise to fine tune your ability to adjust for the wind. In this exercise you are trying to maintain the same distance from the reference point. You do this by adjusting the angle of bank to keep the point in the same spot through out the turn.

A. Lesson Requirements:

1. Task: Perform a turn about a point.

2. Condition: Given a functional aircraft.

3. Standard: IAW the PTS.

a. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to turns around a point.

b. Determines the wind direction and speed.

c. Selects the reference point with an emergency landing area within gliding distance.

d. Plans the maneuver so as to enter at 600 to 1,000 feet (180 to 300 meters) AGL, at an appropriate distance from the reference point, with the airplane headed downwind and the first turn to the left.

e. Applies adequate wind-drift correction to track a constant radius circle around the selected reference point with a bank of approximately 45° at the steepest point in the turn.

f. Divides attention between airplane control and the ground track and maintains coordinated flight.

g. Completes two turns, exits at the point of entry at the same altitude and airspeed at which the maneuver was started, and reverses course as directed by the examiner.

h. Maintains altitude, ±100 feet (30 meters); maintains airspeed, ±10 knots.

B. ELO 1: Understand the effects of wind on a flying airplane.

1. The air is more like the ocean than a solid mass. As the wind blows it will tend to push an airplane in the direction of airflow. This is just like an boat in a river as it flows in the direction of the stream. Pilots compensate for this by adjusting the crab angle in straight slight, and by adjusting the angle of bank in turns.

2. How do winds affect groundspeed? Moving downwind (with the wind) causes the airplane to have an increase in groundspeed. Moving upwind (against the wind) causes the airplane to have a decrease in groundspeed. In both cases the airspeed indicator may read the same.

3. How do winds affect the angle of bank and rate of turn? When traveling on the downwind side of the turn the airplane tends to increase speed and a greater rate of turn must be used to compensate for the increased airspeed. On the upwind side of the turn, the bank will be shallower because the airplane is moving slower.

4. Student Check:

What portion of the turn will have a steeper angle of banks? _______ Where do you enter the turn relative to the wind? ______

C. ELO 2: Identify common errors in the S-turn.

1. Faulty entry technique.

2. Poor planning, orientation, or division of attention.

3. Uncoordinated flight control application.

4. Improper correction for wind drift. S

5. Selection of a ground control reference point where there is no suitable emergency landing area within gliding distance..

E. ELO 3: Perform a turn around a point.

1. Pick an appropriate entry altitude (700-1000 ft agl works well). NO LOWER than 500 feet agl.

2. Pick your reference point.

3. Enter the maneuver WITH the wind. Once you reach the point, start a 360 degree turn.

4. Keep the reference point by increasing or decreasing the angle of bank.

5. Watch altitude and airspeed.

6. Continue the maneuver until told to stop.