Piper PA34-200T Seneca II

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Piper PA34-200T Seneca II
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Type Civilian aircraft
Author(s) Torsten Dreyer
FDM JSBSim
--aircraft= SenecaII
Status Production
FDM Stars-5.png
Systems Stars-5.png
Cockpit Stars-4.png
Model Stars-3.png

Introduction

The real Seneca II

This is a model of a Piper PA34-200T Seneca II. The Seneca has been made by Piper since the early 1970's and some 4500 were made since then. It has six seats in a pretty large cabin, two turbocharged counterrotating engines producing 200hp up to 12,000 ft. It cruises at 170ktas in 12,000ft at 65% power. Certification for flights into known icing conditions and the nice single engine behaviour made the Seneca a popular multi engine trainer.

The model was built using the Pilots Operating Handbook, a real Seneca (D-GEJL) and some flight performance data derived in real flights.

Features

The 3d cockpit

Full functional 3d cockpit

Almost all controls, switches, gauges and indicators are implemented and functional in the cockpit. For description of the panel have a look at the Seneca II Panel Reference. The default KI227 ADF indicator can be exchanged into a KI228 RMI indicator coupled to ADF and NAV1 radio. To use the KI228, simply set the property

/instrumentation/adf/model

to

ki228

in the property browser or use the command line switch

--prop://instrumentation/adf/model=ki228

when starting up the Seneca

Tutorials

Using the menu items Help->Start Tutorial a bunch of tutorials are reachable.

  • Cold Start Puts your aircraft into hibernation mode. Everything is off.
  • Hot Start Everything is ready to go, just start the engines and fly.
  • * Check These are the checklists from Seneca II Checklist

Structural Icing

Icing on the temperature probe

Since the Seneca provides anti- and deice equipment, I tried to model structural icing into flightgear. A little nasal script does most of the work: First it reads the property nodes under /sim/model/icing where any number of iceable elements configure the ice sensitive elements of the aircraft. Each element have a name, a sensitivity to icing, may have a salvage control and the name of a output property where the collected amount of ice is written to. After the initial configuration, a timed loop is executed every 2 seconds. It

  • calculates the spread by OAT and dewpoint
  • checks visibility (see remark) to tell if the aircraft is within clouds
  • if the spread is below 0.1 degc and visibility is below 1000m, assumes potential icing condition and icing severity is calculated
  • update all ice sensitive elements with the current icing conditions

The icing severities are defined as

severity inches per NM (still air)
NONE -0.3 80
TRACE 0.5 80
LIGHT 0.5 40
MODERATE 0.5 20
SEVERE 0.5 10

The rule for calculating the severity is

OAT_min OAT_max severity_min severity_max
-99 -30 NONE TRACE
-30 -20 TRACE LIGHT
-20 -12 LIGHT SEVERE
-2 -0 NONE MODERATE
0 999 NONE NONE

When oat is above zero degc, Ice melts at a rate of 0.5" per 10NM at 10degc, the warmer the faster.

Pitot Icing

The pitot tube is prone to icing, too. A little agent is waiting for you to get into icing conditions without switching on the pitot heat. If he gets you, he will fail your pitot system which will result in some strange airspeed indicator behaviour.

Pilot Operating Handbook

General

Engines

Number of Engines 2
Engine Manufacturer Continental
Engine Model Number (L)TSIO-360EB
Rated Horsepower Sea Level: 200, 12,000ft.: 215
Rated Speed (rpm) 2575
Bore (inches) 4.438
Stroke (inches) 3.875
Displacement (cubic inches) 360
Compression Ratio 7.5:1
Engine Type Six Cylinder, Direct Drive, Horizontally Opposed, Air Cooled

Propellers

Number of Propellers 2
Propeller Manufacturer Hartzell
Number of Blades 2
Propeller Diameter Maximum: 76 inches, Minimum: 75 inches
Propeller Type Constant Speed, Hydraulically Actuated, Full Feathering

Fuel

Fuel Capacity (U.S.gal) (total) 128
Usable Fuel (U.S.gal) (total) 123
Minumum Grade 100 Green or 100LL Blue Aviation Grade

Oil

Oil Capacity (U.S.quarts) (per engine) 8

Maximum Weights

Maximum Takeoff Weight (lbs) 4570
Maximum Landing Weight (lbs) 4362
Maximum Zero Fuel Weight (lbs) - Standard 4000
Maximum Weight in Baggage Compartment (lbs) Forward: 100, Aft: 100

Standard Airplane Weights

Standard Empty Weight (lbs): Weight of a standard airplane including unusable fuel, full operating fluids and full oil. 2823
Maximum Useful Load (lbs): The difference between the Maximum Takeoff Weight and the Standard Empty Weight. (All weight in excess off 4000lbs must consist of fuel) 1747

Specific Loadings

Wing Loading (lbs per sq ft) 22
Power Loading (lbs per hp) Sea Level: 11.4 - 12,000ft: 10.6

Limitations

Airspeed Limitations

Speed KIAS KCAS
Never Exceed Speed (VNE) - Do not exceed this speed in any operation 195 195
Maximum Structural Cruising Speed (VNO) - Do not exceed this speed except in smooth air and then only with caution. 163 165
Design Maneuvering Speed (VA) - Do not make full or abrupt control movements above this speed.    
At 4570 LBS G.W. 136 138
At 3068 LBS G.W. 121 122

CAUTION

Maneuvering speed decreases at lighter weight as the effects of aerodynamic forces become more pronounced. Linear interpolation may be used for imtermediate gross weights. maneuvering speed should not be exceeded while operating in rough air.

Maximum Flaps Extended Speed (VFE) - Do not exceed this speed with flaps extended. 107 109
Maximum Gear Extended Speed (VLE) - Do not exceed this speed with landing gear extended 129 130
Maximum Landing Gear Extending Speed (VLO) - Do not extend landing gear above this speed 129 130
Maximum Landing Gear Retracting Speed (VLO) - Do not retract landing gear above this speed 107 109
Air Minimum Control Speed (VMC) - Lowes airspeed at which airplane is controllable with one engine operating and no flaps 66 69
Best Single Engine Rate of Climb Speed 89 90

Airspeed Indicator Markings

Marking KIAS
Green Arc (Normal Operating Range) 63 to 163
Yellow Arc (Caution Range - Smooth Air) 163 to 195
White Arc (Flaps Extended Range) 61 to 107
Radial Red Line (Never Exceed - Smooth Air) 195
Radial Red Line (Minimum Control Speed - Single Engine) 66
Radial Blue Line (Best Rate of Climb Speed - Single Engine) 89

Power Plant Limitations

Maximum Rotational Speed 2575
Maximum Manifold Pressure (Inches of Mercury) 40
Maximum Cylinder Head Temperature 460 °F
Maximum Oil Temperature 240 °F
Minimum Oil Pressure (red line) 10 PSI
Maximum Oil Pressure (red line) 100 PSI

NOTES

Avoid continuous operation between 2000 and 2000 RPM above 32 IN. HG. manifold pressure.

Avoid continuous ground operation between 1700 and 2100 RPM in cross and tail winds over 10 knots.

Power Plant Instrument Markings

Tachometer  
Green Arc (Normal Operating Range) 500 RPM to 2575 RPM
Red Line (Maximum) 2575 RPM
Fuel Flow and Pressure  
Green Arc (Normal Operating Range) 3.5 PSI to 20 PSI
Red Line (Maximum at Sea Level) 25 GPH (20PSI)
Red Line (Minimum) 3.5 PSI
Cylinder Head Temperature  
Green Arc (Normal Range) either 360 °F to 460 °F
  or 240 °F to 460 °F
Red Line (Maximum) 460 °F
Oil Temperature  
Green Arc (Normal Operating Range) either 75 °F to 240 °F
  or 100 °F to 240 °F
Red Line (Maximum) 240 °F
Oil Pressure  
Green Arc (Normal Operating Range) either 30 PSI to 80 PSI
  or 30 PSI to 60 PSI
Yellow Arc (Caution) either 80 PSI to 100 PSI
  or 60 PSI to 100 PSI
Red Line (Minimum) 10 PSI
Red Line (Maximum) 100 PSI
Manifold Pressure  
Green Arc (Normal Operating Range) 10 IN. to 40 IN. HG.
Red Line (Maximum) 40 IN. HG.
Exhaust Gas Temperature  
Red Line 1650 °F

Center of Gravity Limits

Weight
Ponds
Forward Limit
Inches Aft of Datum
Aft Limit
Inches Aft of Datum
3400 82.0 94.6
4570 90.6 94.6

NOTES

Straight line variation between the points given.

Datum is 78.4 inches forward of wing leading edge from the inboard edge of the inboard fuel tank.

Maneuver Limits

All intentional acrobatic maneuvers (including spins) are prohibited. Avoid abrupt maneuvers.

Flight Load Factor Limits

Positive Load Factor (Maximum) 3.8 G
Negative Load Factor (Maximum) No inverted maneuvers approved

Types of Operations

The airplane is approved for the following operations when equipped in accordance with FAR 91 or FAR 135

  • Day VFR
  • Night VFR
  • Day IFR
  • Night IFR
  • Icing conditions when equipped.

Fuel Limitations

The usable fuel in this aircraft is 61.5 gallons in each wing or a total of 123 gallons.

Gyro Pressure Limits

The operating limits for the pressure system are 4.5 to 5.2 inches of mercury for all operations as indicated by the gyro pressure gauge.

Flight Into Known Icing Conditions

For flight in icing conditions the following equipment must be installed inaccordance with Piper drawings or in an FAA approved manner:

  • Pneumatic wing end empennage boots
  • Electrothermal propeller boots
  • Electric windshield panel
  • Heated pitot head
  • Wing ice light
  • Heated lift detectors
  • Propeller spinners must be installed

Operating Altitude Limitations

Flight above 25,000 feet is not approved. Flight up to and including 25,000 feet is approved if equipped with oxygen in accordance with FAR 23.1441 and avionics in accordance with FAR 91 or FAR 135.

Development status/Issues/Todo

FDM (JSBSim):

  • poor single engine performance
  • flap operation should not emit a flap motor sound
  • moving aircraft with parking brake set and full power

Avionics:

  • No transponder.

REMARK: There is a GTX330 transponder as an empty 3d model without functionality.

  • No GPS.

REMARK: There is a GPS155XL GPS as an empty 3d model without functionality.

General:

  • engine sound in cockpit does not differ from outside engine sound
  • animations of structural icing on wings, stabilizer, fin, etc.missing

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