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'''FlightGear''' is a collaborative project that aims to create a sophisticated free, completely open-source flight simulator framework.
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{{Infobox Software
 +
|title            = FlightGear Flight Simulator
 +
|logo              = FlightGear logo.png
 +
|logosize          = 200px
 +
|image            = Boeing 777-200ER cockpit.jpg
 +
|alt              = The cockpit of the [[Boeing 777-200ER]]
 +
|developedby      = FlightGear developers & contributors
 +
|initialrelease    = July 17, 1997
 +
|latestrelease    = {{current release|full}} ({{#time: j F Y |{{current release|fulldate}}}})
 +
|writtenin        = C and C++
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|os                = Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and FreeBSD<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.flightgear.org/download/main-program/|title=http://www.flightgear.org/download/main-program/|accessdate=February 15, 2015}}</ref>
 +
|platform          = Cross-platform
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|developmentstatus = Active (1996-present)
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|type              = Flight simulator
 +
|license          = [[GNU General Public License]]
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|website          = http://www.flightgear.org/
 +
}}
 +
[[File:OV10A-NASA-in-action.jpg|thumb|right|270px|NASA [[OV-10]] in FlightGear 1.0]]
 +
'''FlightGear Flight Simulator''' (often shortened to '''FlightGear''' or '''FGFS''') is a sophisticated, free, and completely open-source flight simulator framework, created by volunteers. FlightGear is released under the terms of the [[GNU General Public License]]. FlightGear is mostly written in the C and C++ programming languages.
  
The project was started in 1996, with the first release in 1997. The latest public release is 1.0.0 in December 2007, with specific builds for a variety of operating systems including Microsoft Windows (Win 32), Mac OS X, Linux, IRIX, and Solaris.
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Increasingly detailed and realistic versions of FlightGear have been released every year since the project was started in 1996.
  
Released under the terms of the GNU General Public License, FlightGear is free software.
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The latest public release is available as a free download at [http://www.flightgear.org/download/ flightgear.org/download/], with easy to install packages for a variety of operating systems including Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux.
  
==History==
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== History ==
 +
{{main article|FlightGear History}}
  
===Beginnings: 1996, 1997===
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FlightGear development started with an online proposal in 1996, using custom 3D graphics code. Development of an [[OpenGL]] based version was spearheaded by Curtis Olson starting in 1997. Many people have contributed to the project in the years since its inception.
Development formally started in the late-1990s with an online proposal and code being written in 1996, but using custom 3D graphics code. Development of an OpenGL based version was spearheaded by Curtis Olsen starting in 1997, after the initial start in 1996. A large community response lead to many contributing to the project from its start in late '90s up to the present.
+
  
Rather than start entirely from scratch, FlightGear developers made use of the LaRCsim flight model from NASA, with OpenGL for 3D graphic code, and freely available elevation data. First working binaries came out in 1997, with an intense updating of newer versions for several years resulting in progressively more stable and advanced programs.  
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FlightGear incorporated other open-source resources, including the LaRCsim flight model from NASA, and freely available elevation data. The first working binaries, using OpenGL for 3D graphic code, came out in 1997.  Enthusiastic development of newer versions for several years resulted in progressively more stable and advanced versions. By 2001, the team was releasing new beta versions regularly, and by 2005, the maturity of software lead to more widespread reviews, and increased popularity. 2007 marked a formal transition out of beta development with the release of version 1.0.0, ten years after FlightGear's first release in 1997.
  
By 2001, the team was releasing new beta versions regularly (0.7.x, 0.8.x over 2001-2003). Later in the decade, the rate of final public releases slowed, but had larger amounts of content (0.9.8, 0.9.10, etc.). The maturity of software by 2005 lead to more widespread reviews, and increased popularity. The use of version numbers slowed dramatically after the late 2002 release of version 0.9.0. Versions 0.9.9 (2005) and 0.9.10 (2006) had about 8 all-new or redone [[aircraft]] adding to a total of 70-90 aircraft, while 0.9.11 has about 33 new or redone designs.
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[[File:FG-A-10.jpg|thumb|270px|3D Cockpit panel for [[A-10]] in version 1.0.0 in 2008]]
  
===Version 0.9.0-1.0 (2002-2007)===
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In 2008, version 1.9.0 of FlightGear included a major change from [[PLIB]] to [[OSG]], which caused the temporarily loss of some features like 3D clouds and shadows, while newly added features, such as particles, imparted another degree of realism to the simulation.
[[Image:FG-A-10.jpg|thumb|250px|3D Cockpit panel for [[A-10]] in version 1.0.0 in 2008]]
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FlightGear graphics are outdated in many respects compared to flight simulators such as ''Microsoft Flight Simulator'' of the same period, but can compare well to older versions. Also, the whole world is well represented using the freely available SRTM elevation data, and a number of special features are available, such as sloped runways. Over 20,000 runways, 3d clouds, multi-platform support, multiple open FDM choices, roughly 100 aircraft choices by version 0.9.10 provide a well-rounded feature set.
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== Software ==
  
Hardware needed for FlightGear is narrow to machines that support OpenGL and 3D hardware acceleration, with NVIDIA hardware having better support. Early versions had support for 3dfx cards, though this dropped as hardware requirements increased.
 
 
FlightGear has been used in a range of projects in academia and industry.
 
 
==Software==
 
 
The simulation engine in FlightGear is called [[SimGear]]. It is used both as an end-user application and in academic and research environments, for the development and pursuit of flight simulation ideas.
 
The simulation engine in FlightGear is called [[SimGear]]. It is used both as an end-user application and in academic and research environments, for the development and pursuit of flight simulation ideas.
  
This customizability of FlightGear is illustrated by the wide range of aircraft models that are available in FlightGear, from [[glider]]s to [[helicopter]]s, and from [[airliner]]s to [[militairy aircraft|fighter jets]]. These aircraft models have been contributed by many different people.
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This customizability of FlightGear is illustrated by the wide range of aircraft models that are available in FlightGear, from [[:Category:Gliders|glider]]s to [[Helicopter]]s, and from [[:Category:Airliners|airliners]] to [[Military aircraft|fighter jets]]. These aircraft models have been contributed by many different people.
  
The FlightGear aircraft use one of three main data models JSBSim, YAsim, or UIUC as of version 0.9.10. Currently only one terrain engine is used, TerraGear. Weather effects include 3D clouds, lighting effects, and time of day.
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The FlightGear aircraft in general use one of two main flight data models [[JSBSim]] and [[YAsim]]. Currently only one terrain engine is used, TerraGear. Weather effects include 3D clouds, lighting effects, and time of day.
  
===Flight Dynamics Models===
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=== Flight Dynamics Models ===
[[Image:FlightGear - 1903 Wright Flyer.jpg|thumb|250px|[[Wright Flyer (UIUC)|Wright Flyer]] in 0.9.9, which uses the UIUC FDM]]
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[[Flight Dynamics Models]] (FDM) are how the flight for an aircraft is simulated in the program. FlightGear uses a variety of internally written and imported flight model projects. Any aircraft must be programmed to use one of these models. Currently FlightGear is the only flight  graphical flight simulator all the FDM are used for, and UIUC and YASim were developed specifically for FlightGear.  
 
[[Flight Dynamics Models]] (FDM) are how the flight for an aircraft is simulated in the program. FlightGear uses a variety of internally written and imported flight model projects. Any aircraft must be programmed to use one of these models. Currently FlightGear is the only flight  graphical flight simulator all the FDM are used for, and UIUC and YASim were developed specifically for FlightGear.  
  
Early version used a FDM based on LaRCsim by NASA, which was replaced with more flexible FDM.  
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Early version used a FDM based on [[LaRCsim]] by NASA, which was replaced with more flexible FDM.  
  
*JSBSim - the default flight dynamics model software since 2000.
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* [[JSBSim]] - the default flight dynamics model software since 2000.
*YASim - another FDM using different calculation method. Introduced starting in 0.7.9 in 2002.
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* [[YASim]] - another FDM using different calculation method. Introduced starting in 0.7.9 in 2002.
*UIUC - another included FDM, developed by the UIUC Applied Aerodynamics Group at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, also made use of LaRCsim.
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* [[UIUC]] - developed by the UIUC Applied Aerodynamics Group at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, also made use of LaRCsim. Once being widely used, it is nowadays longer included in FlightGear by default.
*Flight Gear can also be setup to render using inputs from an external FDM source, such as from Matlab.
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* FlightGear can also be setup to render using inputs from an external FDM source, such as from [[MATLAB]].
*Other custom FDM for a specific aircraft type have been written, such as for lighter than air aircraft.
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* Other custom FDM for a specific aircraft type have been written, such as for lighter than air aircraft.
  
===FlightGear dependencies===
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=== FlightGear dependencies ===
Unlike commercial software titles, the main output of the project is simply the release of a collection of code. To turn it into a usable program it must be compiled for a given platform. The software libraries used to create FlightGear have varied over time. The main one is [[SimGear]], which is the underlying sim engine for FlightGear. TerraGear is not a dependency, but simply a name for the default terrain data program in FlightGear. OpenAL is used for sound/audio software, including support for SDL (since 0.9.5). PLIB is used for hardware support routines, formerly used for sound support also which was taken over by OpenAL. OpenGL is used for its integrated 3D graphics routines, and other hardware acceleration (namely DirectX) is not supported. OpenSceneGraph is also integrated into FlightGear. Finally, Simple DirectMedia Layer is a software library which is used for compiling. Some of the dependencies vary depending on which platform the code is being compiled for. FlightGear users must either compile the code themselves, or find a third party to release a binary, if it is not among the ones available from the project.
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Unlike commercial software titles, the main output of the project is simply the release of a collection of code. To turn it into a usable program it must be compiled for a given platform. The software libraries used to create FlightGear have varied over time. The main one is [[SimGear]], which is the underlying sim engine for FlightGear. [[TerraGear]] is not a dependency, but simply a name for the default terrain data program in FlightGear. OpenAL is used for sound/audio software, including support for SDL (since 0.9.5). PLIB is used for hardware support routines, formerly used for sound support also which was taken over by OpenAL. [[OpenGL]] is used for its integrated 3D graphics routines, and other hardware acceleration (namely DirectX) is not supported. [[OpenSceneGraph]] is also integrated into FlightGear. Finally, Simple DirectMedia Layer is a software library which is used for compiling. Some of the dependencies vary depending on which platform the code is being compiled for. FlightGear users must either compile the code themselves, or find a third party to release a binary, if it is not among the ones available from the project.
  
===Networking and multi-display===
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== Hardware ==
Several networking options allow FlightGear to communicate with other instances of FlightGear. A [[Multiplayer Howto|multiplayer]] protocol is available for using FlightGear on a local network in a multi aircraft environment. This could be used for formation flight or [[ATC|control tower]] simulation. Multiplayer was soon expanded to allow playing over the internet. Other features include a Google maps based moving up that allows users to observe where other players are.
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Hardware needed for FlightGear is narrowed to machines that support [[OpenGL]] and 3D hardware acceleration, with NVIDIA hardware having better support. Early versions had support for 3dfx cards, though this dropped as hardware requirements increased.
 
+
Several instances of FlightGear can be synchronized to allow for a [[multi-monitor]] environment. If all instances are running at the same frame rate consistently, it is possible to get good and tight synchronization between displays.
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===Additional software===
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[[Image:Fgfs-and-photo.png|thumb|250px|A comparison between a FlightGear 0.9.10 screenshot in late 2007 and a photo of San Fransico Airport]]
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 +
[[File:Fgrun-page2.jpg|thumb|left|270px|The [[FlightGear Launch Control|FlightGear Launcher]]]]
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== Add-ons and customization ==
 
There are programs that are either integrated into FlightGear (dependencies) or perform a function with it. Some of these are included in the release of FlightGear for a specific platform but made by the project, while others are independently distributed but are hosted by the FlightGear project.  
 
There are programs that are either integrated into FlightGear (dependencies) or perform a function with it. Some of these are included in the release of FlightGear for a specific platform but made by the project, while others are independently distributed but are hosted by the FlightGear project.  
  
One major additional software is the actual interface for launching an executable of FlightGear. For most of its early life FlightGear was only run through command line interfaces. However, the FlightGear Launch Control has been included with the ''FG launcher'' front-end since 0.9.3 in 2003. ''KFreeFlight'' is a launcher/front-end for KDE. ''FGTools'' is an alternative windows launcher front-end. ''FGKicker'' is a GTK+ based front-end.
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One major additional software is the actual interface for launching an executable of FlightGear. For most of its early life FlightGear was only run through [[command line]] interfaces. However, [[FlightGear Launch Control]] has been included since 0.9.3 in 2003. ''[[KFreeFlight]]'' is a launcher/front-end for KDE. ''FGTools'' is an alternative windows launcher front-end. ''FGKicker'' is a GTK+ based front-end.
  
Other significant programs include editors and projects for Terrain Data. ''[[Atlas]]'' is a chart/map support for FlightGear; ''[[Kelpie Flight Planner]]'' is a Java based flight planner for FlightGear. ''[[FlightGear Scenery Designer]]'' is a FlightGear scenery editor for working with terrain data. The ''[[World Custom Scenery Project]]'' is a project coordinating custom scenery efforts. Finally, ''[[TaxiDraw]]'' is an editor for airport runways and taxiways.
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Other significant programs include editors and projects for terrain data. ''[[Atlas]]'' is a chart/map support for FlightGear; ''[[Kelpie Flight Planner]]'' is a Java based flight planner for FlightGear. Finally, ''[[WorldEditor]]'' is an editor for airport runways and taxiways.
  
==FlightGear code vs. binaries==
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=== Aircraft ===
Unlike most commercial software, the project release dates only apply to a release of code, not an executable program. To create a runnable program the code must be compiled, which requires several specific libraries, including some general ones and, in some cases some platform specific ones. However, since this too difficult for most mainstream users, other contributors will work to make binaries available for a specific platform and operating system. These packages vary in their stability, performance, dependencies, and how up to date they are with the code base. For example, some older binaries work on Mac OS 9 but newer releases require specific Mac OS X versions.
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{{Main article|Table of models}}
  
For example, by late 2007 the latest code release was 0.9.11-pre1 (pre-release) and 0.9.10 (final). However, the actual binaries available vary significantly. Examples of actual binaries available a year after the release of the 0.9.10 code release:
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FlightGear started out with an aircraft included in NASA's LaRCsim, a Navion, which was replaced by a Cessna 172 by 2000. UIUC as well as JSBsim development brought several more aircraft with them, as did the development of YASim which have since become the main FDM used in FG. Over 400 aircraft in more than 900 unique liveries, are available for version 2.12, although only a few are included in the base package.
  
*Win-32 has ~138 Mb package (v0.9.10) (For Windows 98, 2000, ME, 32-bit XP)
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[[File:EHAM.jpg|thumb|270px|[[Boeing 737-300|Boeing 733]] docked in the [[EHAM]] scenery]]
*Linux- pre-built packages for specific Linux distributions
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**Slackware package (v0.9.10), Fedora Core 2,3,4 packages (v0.9.10), Pardus (v0.9.10), Debian (v0.9.9)
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*Solaris packages either for it running on either SPARC or x86 processors.
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** SPARC (v0.9.8),  x86 (v0.9.9)
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*Silicon Graphics IRIX
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**SGI binaries for (v0.9.9)
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*Mac OS X
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**Mac OS 10.4 (v0.9.10)
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**Mac OS 10.3 (v0.9.9)
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*FreeBSD has a package for(v0.9.10)
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==Critical reaction==
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=== Scenery ===
Although not developed as a game in the traditional sense, FlightGear has nevertheless undergone reviews in a number of online and offline publications. ''FlightGear'' 0.9.10 received many reviews, being highlighted as an accurate simulation but requiring patience and some pre-game work. PC Magazine noted how it is designed to be easy to add new aircraft and scenery.
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{{Main article|Scenery}}
 +
FlightGears [[world scenery]] project contains elevation and landclass data of the enitre world. Objects -like terminals, windmills and bridges- are collected in the [[FlightGear Scenery Database|Scenery Database]].
  
In contrast, an older review some years early, a June 2002 review by FlightXPress, had been more critical, noting a lack of functions and the scenery (this would be for version 0.7.10 of FlightGear).
+
=== Networking and multi-display ===
 +
Several networking options allow FlightGear to communicate with other instances of FlightGear. A [[Multiplayer Howto|multiplayer]] protocol is available for using FlightGear on a local network in a multi aircraft environment. This could be used for formation flight or [[ATC|control tower]] simulation. Multiplayer was soon expanded to allow playing over the internet. Other features include a Google maps based moving up that allows users to observe where other players are.
  
==Release timeline==
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Several instances of FlightGear can be synchronized to allow for a multi-monitor environment. If all instances are running at the same frame rate consistently, it is possible to get good and tight synchronization between displays.
Final build code release dates by year.  
+
  
{| class="wikitable"
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== FlightGear code vs. binaries ==
|-
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Unlike most commercial software, the project release dates only apply to a release of code, not an executable program. To create a runnable program the code must be compiled, which requires several specific libraries, including some general ones and, in some cases some platform specific ones. However, since this too difficult for most mainstream users, other contributors will work to make binaries available for a specific platform and operating system. These packages vary in their stability, performance, dependencies, and how up to date they are with the code base. For example, some older binaries work on Mac OS 9 but newer releases require specific Mac OS X versions.
! Date
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! Version
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|-
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|July 17, 1997 || First major code release
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|-
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|September 23, 1997 || 0.12
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|-
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|December 9, 1997 || 0.15
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|-
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|December 17, 1997 || 0.18
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|-
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|December 30, 1997 || 0.19 (first binaries)
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|-
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|January 6, 1998 || 0.22
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|-
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|Mar 11 98 || 0.37
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|-
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|April 8, 1998 || 0.41
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|-
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|April 14, 1998 || 0.42
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|-
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|April 23, 1998 || 0.43
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|-
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|Apr 28, 1998 || 0.44
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|-
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|May 7, 1998 || 0.45
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|-
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|May 11, 1998 || 0.46
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|-
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|May 18, 1998 || 0.47
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|-
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|June 9, 1998 || 0.48
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|-
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|June 27, 1998 || 0.49
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|-
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|July 13, 1998 || 0.50
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|-
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|July 21, 1998 || 0.51
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|-
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|August 15, 1998 || 0.52
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|-
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|September 2, 1998 || 0.53
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|-
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|September 25, 1998 || 0.54
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|-
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|October 23, 1998 || 0.55
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|-
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|November 23, 1998 || 0.56
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|-
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|January 21, 1999 || 0.57
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|-
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|February 10, 1999 || 0.58
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|-
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|March 31, 1999 || 0.59
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|-
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|May 26, 1999 || 0.6.0
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|-
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|June 21, 1999 || 0.6.1 (Stable)
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|-
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|rowspan=2 | September 11, 1999 || 0.7.0 (Development)
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|-
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|0.6.2 (Stable)
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|-
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|October 22, 1999 || 0.7.1 (Development)
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|-
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|February 17, 2000 || 0.7.2 (Development)
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|-
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|May 18, 2000 || 0.7.3 (Development)
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|-
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|July 20, 2000 || 0.7.4
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|-
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|September 18, 2000 || 0.7.5
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|-
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|Decemberember 19, 2000 || 0.7.6
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|-
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|June 20, 2001 || 0.7.7
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|-
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|July 13, 2001 || 0.7.8 
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|-
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|February 16, 2002 || 0.7.9
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|-
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|April 20, 2002 || 0.7.10
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|-
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|September 7, 2002 || 0.8.0
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|-
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|December 3, 2002 || 0.9.0
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|-
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| December 5, 2002 || 0.9.1
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|-
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|June 4, 2003 || 0.9.2
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|-
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|October 24, 2003 || 0.9.3
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|-
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|March 26, 2004 || 0.9.4
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|-
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|July 29, 2004 || 0.9.5
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|-
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|October 12, 2004 || 0.9.6
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|-
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|January 18, 2005 || 0.9.8
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|-
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|November 17, 2005 || 0.9.9
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|-
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|April 5, 2006 || 0.9.10
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|-
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|May 2007 || 0.9.11-pre1
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|-
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|December 17, 2007 || 1.0.0 (latest final build)
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|}
+
 
+
==Models & aircraft==
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FlightGear started out with an aircraft included in NASA's LaRCsim, a Navion, which was replaced by a Cessna 172 by 2000. UIUC as well as JSBsim development brought several more aircraft with them, as did the development of YASim which have since become the main FDM used in FG.  
+
 
+
===0.7.0 - 0.9.10, 1.0.0 aircraft===
+
[[Image:FlightGear - SeaHawk.jpg|thumb|250px|[[Hawker Seahawk|Hunter Sea Hawk]] in 0.9.9]]
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The basic installer is limited to about 15 aircraft, with several dozen more official aircraft at varying states of development for download. The CD/DVD version includes all official aircraft and terrain data, though all the same material can also be downloaded for free. Non official aircraft from third-party sources also exist, but are not included here. Also included are a number of custom buildings, especially around San Francisco; a [[Carrier Howto|Nimitz class aircraft carrier]] is included as well (which aircraft can be landed on). In addition, several of the developmental UIUC aircraft developed in the late 1990s were still included but were not all maintained.  
+
For example, by late 2012 the latest code release was 2.10 (pre-release) and 2.8.0 (final). Binaries are generally available for the last final code release on all major platforms. [http://www.flightgear.org/download/main-program/ Click here to proceed to the flightgear binaries download page]
  
All Official aircraft for 0.9.10, with flight data model type and cockpit type listed for some such as found on the 0.9.10 CD release of FlightGear. Some aircraft are FDM only. Third party aircraft are excluded from the list (such as in additional add-ons). Aircraft in 0.9.10 installer are noted with a *, and ** for the 1.0 installer. New or heavily re-worked aircraft up to 1.0 public release, including some that came out with the 0.9.11-pre1 FlightGear(pre-release version) as well as 9.10 aircaft. Many aircraft that have not been updated no longer work, such as ones before .7.x/.8.x/.9.x as well as a number in the later releases that were not maintained to the current version depending on the model and its dependencies.  
+
Binaries for other platforms such as IRIX are no longer supported, although pre-1.0 releases may work and can be found in the [[FlightGear Git|git source code repositories]].
  
{| border="1" class="wikitable"
+
==Applications and usages==
|-
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{{Main article|Professional and educational FlightGear users}}
! Model
+
FlightGear has been used and is being used in a wide range of projects in academia, industry (including NASA) and home-built cockpits.
! FDM
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! 3D Cockpit
+
! M. Update
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! Debut
+
|-
+
| [[Wright Flyer (UIUC)|1903 Wright Flyer]]*||  UIUC || -  || 0.9.9  || 0.8.0
+
|-
+
| [[Aerostar 700]]  || YASim || 3d cockpit ||1.0.0  || 0.9.10
+
|-
+
| [[Boeing 707]] || JSBsim v2 || - ||  || 0.9.10
+
|-
+
| [[Boeing 737|Boeing 737-300]]* ||    ||  0.9.4  || 1.0.0  || 0.9.2
+
|-
+
| [[Boeing 747|Boeing 747-400]]  ||JSBSim,YASim ||    ||  1.0.0, 0.9.10    || 0.8.0
+
|-
+
| [[Boeing 777-200]]  || YASim || 3d cockpit || ||
+
|-
+
| [[Boeing 787|Boeing 787-8]] || JSBsim  ||3d cockpit || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Boeing 314]]-A || JSBsim ||  || 1.0.0  || 0.9.9
+
|-
+
| [[E-3 Sentry|Boeing E-3B Sentry]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Boeing KC-135E]] (FDM only) || ||
+
|-
+
| [[Douglas A4 Skyhawk|Douglas A4F Skyhawk]]  || YASim, UIUC ||  || 1.0.0, 0.9.10  || 0.8.0
+
|-
+
| [[Grumman A-6E|Northrop Grumman A-6E Intruder]] || YASim || 1.0 ||  || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| Fairchild [[A-10|A-10 Thunderbolt II]]*||  YASim  || 3d cockpit || 1.0.0  || 0.9.2
+
|-
+
| [[Airbus A300]] ||  || || 1.0.0  ||
+
|-
+
| [[Airbus A320]]-200 || || || ||
+
|-
+
| [[Airbus A320]]-100 || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Antonov An-2]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Antonov An-225]] ||YASim ||  ||0.9.10    || 0.9.3
+
|-
+
| [[Arsenal VG-33]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Beech 99|Beechcraft 99]]  ||YASim, UIUC ||  || 0.9.5  ||
+
|-
+
| [[Beechcraft B1900D|Beechcraft B1900D]]  || YASim || 3d 1.0.0  || 1.0.0, 0.9.10    || 0.9.8
+
|-
+
| [[Beechcraft Starship|Beechcraft Starship I]] ||  YASim || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[B-1B|Rockwell B-1B Lancer]] ||  || 3d cockpit ||  || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[B-2 Spirit|Northrop B-2 Spirit]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[B-29 Superfortress]] ||JSBsim, YASim || || 0.9.10 || 0.9.9
+
|-
+
| [[B-52|B-52F Stratofortress]] || ||  || 1.0.0, 0.9.10  || 0.9.2
+
|-
+
| [[BAC TSR2]]  || YASim || ||  ||0.9.2
+
|-
+
| [[Blackburn Buccaneer]] || YASim || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Bleriot XI ]]  || YASim  || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Blohm & Voss BV 141]] || YASim
+
|-
+
| [[Bristol Beaufighter]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Cessna 150]]L ||  ||  1.0 ||  || 1.0
+
|-
+
| [[Cessna C172|Cessna 172P Skyhawk]]* (1981 model), 172-LE, 172R || JSBSim ||0.9.2 ||  0.9.10 ||
+
|-
+
| [[Cessna 182]]  || || || 1.0.0  ||  0.7.9
+
|-
+
| [[Cessna 182]]RG (FDM only) || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Cessna 310|Cessna 310R]] (1979 model)||  || 3D cockpit || 0.9.10  ||0.7.9 
+
|-
+
| [[Cessna 310|Cessna U-3A]] || YASim ||3D cockpit  || 0.9.10; 0.8.0  ||0.7.9 
+
|-
+
| [[Cessna 550 Citation II]]  || YASim || 3d cockpit || ||0.9.8
+
|-
+
| [[Cessna Citation|Cessna Citation Bravo]]*  || YASim || 3d cockpit || 1.0.0, 0.9.10  || 0.9.9
+
|-
+
| [[Cessna Citation X]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Comper Swift]] || YASim|| ||  ||0.9.4
+
|-
+
| [[Concorde]]  (v2.4) || || 3D cockpit || 1.0.0,  0.9.10  ||0.9.5
+
|-
+
| [[Douglas DC-3]]  || || || ||0.8.0
+
|-
+
| [[Dornier Do-335]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[de Havilland Beaver]](DHC2) || YASim || 3D cockpit || 1.0.0,  0.9.10  || 0.9.8
+
|-
+
| [[de Havilland Mosquito]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[de Havilland Dragon Rapide|de Havilland DH.89 Dragon Rapide]] ||YASim || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[de Havilland D.H.110|de Havilland D.H.110 Sea Vixen]] FAW 2 || YASim || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[English Electric Canberra]] B(I)8 || YASim || || || 0.9.10
+
|-
+
| [[English Electric Lightning]] F.1A  ||  || 1.0.0 || 1.0.0  || 0.9.10
+
|-
+
| [[F-15 Eagle|McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle]] (fdm only) ||  ||  ||  || 0.9.2
+
|-
+
| [[F-15 Eagle|McDonnell Douglas F-15C Eagle]] ||  || 3D Cockpit|| || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[General Dynamics F-16]]* || || 3D cockpit  || 0.9.10  || 0.9.2
+
|-
+
| [[F-18 Hornet|McDonnell Douglas F-18 Hornet]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[YF-23|Northrop YF-23]]  || YASim ||  ||0.9.10  || 0.9.2
+
|-
+
| [[F-80 Shooting Star|Lockheed F-80C Shooting Star]]  || ||  ||  || 0.9.10
+
|-
+
| [[F-86 Sabre|North American F-86F Sabre]]  || ||  ||  || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Lockheed F-104 Starfighter]]  || ||  ||  ||  0.9.2
+
|-
+
| [[F4U Corsair|Chance Vought F4U Corsair]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Farman IV]] || YASim || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Fieseler Fi 156|Fieseler Fi-156 Storch]] ||  ||  ||  || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Focke-Wulf Fw 190#Fw 190 A|Focke-Wulf Fw-190 A8]] || ||  ||  || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[FK 9 Mark 2]] || YASim ||  || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Fokker 50]] || || || 0.9.8 ||
+
|-
+
| [[Fokker 70]] || JSBSim || ||
+
|-
+
| [[Fokker 100]] || JSBSim ||  || 0.9.8 ||
+
|-
+
| [[Fokker Dr.I|Fokker Dr.1]] || UIUC ||
+
|-
+
| [[Grob G 115]] || YASim ||  ||  ||
+
|-
+
| [[Grumman Albatross]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Harrier]] || YASim ||  || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Hawker Hurricane|Hawker Hurricane IIb]]  || ||  ||  0.9.10  ||0.9.9
+
|-
+
| [[Hawker Hunter]] GA11*  || YASim || || 1.0.0,  0.9.10    ||  0.9.4
+
|-
+
| [[Hawker Sea Hawk|Hawker Sea Hawk]] || || || 0.9.10 ||
+
|-
+
| [[Hughes H4 Hercules]]||YASim, JSBSim  || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| Issoire [[APM 20 Lionceau]] || YASim ||    ||    ||
+
|-
+
| [[Soko J-22 Orao]] / IAR-93 ||  ||  ||  || 0.9.3
+
|-
+
| [[Junkers Ju 52]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Kyushu J7W]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Let 410|Let L410]] FDM only || JSBSim || 3D cockpit
+
|-
+
| [[Dragonfly|LiteFlite Dragonfly]] (Ultralight) || || ||
+
|-
+
| [[Lockheed C-130 Hercules]] || JSBSim || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Lockheed Constellation|Lockheed 1049]](Lockheed Constellation)  ||  ||  || 1.0.0  || 0.9.10
+
|-
+
| [[Lockheed P-38 Lightning]] & F-5B ||  ||  ||    || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird]] (2 FG versions)||  YASim || 3d cockpit  || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[McDonnell Douglas MD-11|McDonnell Douglas MD11]] ||  || || || 0.9.5
+
|-
+
| [[Macchi M.C.72|Macchi Castoldi M.C. 72]] || YASim ||  ||    ||  1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Mainair Flash 2 Alpha]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Dassault Mirage 2000]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Bf 109|Messerschmitt BF-109 G14]]*  || || ||1.0.0  ||0.9.10
+
|-
+
| [[Messerschmitt Me 262]] || YASim)|| || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[MiG-15]]bis || YASim ||  || 1.0.0,  0.9.10  || 0.9.9
+
|-
+
| [[Nakajima Ki-84]] (Hayate)|| || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Nakajima A6M2-N|Nakajima A6M2]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Nord Noratlas]]|| || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[OV-10|North American OV-10A Bronco]]  ||  ||  || 1.0.0  || 0.9.10
+
|-
+
| [[P-51D Mustang|North American P-51D Mustang]]* || YASim|| 0.9.2 || || 0.9.2 
+
|-
+
| [[Payen Pa 100]] || YASim || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[PBY Catalina]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Piaggio P180 Avanti|Piaggio P180 Avanti II]](FDM only)  ||YASim  || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Pilatus PC-7]] || || ||  1.0.0, 0.9.10  ||
+
|-
+
| [[Piper J3 Cub]] (J3C-65, 1946 model)* || || || || 0.8.0
+
|-
+
| [[Piper PA-24 Comanche|Piper Comanche 250]] (1962 model) || ||  || 1.0.0  || 0.9.10
+
|-
+
| [[Piper Cherokee|Piper Cherokee Warrior II]]* (1979 model) || ||
+
|-
+
| [[Piper PA34-200T Seneca II|Piper PA34-200T Seneca II]]  || JSBsim,YASim || || 1.0.0 ||
+
|-
+
| [[Pitts Special|Pitts S1C]] ||  ||  ||
+
|-
+
| [[Saab Draken|Saab J35Ö Draken]] (J35oe) || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Aermacchi S-211|Siai Marchetti S.211]](FDM only) || UIUC ||
+
|-
+
| [[Space Shuttle]] (fdm only) || JSBsim ||
+
|-
+
| [[Sopwith Camel]] 1F.1  ||UIUC, YASim ||  || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Supermarine Seafire|Supermarine Seafire MkIIIc]] || || || 0.9.10 ||
+
|-
+
| [[Supermarine Spitfire|Supermarine Spitfire IIa]] || ||  || 0.9.10    ||  0.9.5
+
|-
+
| [[Supermarine Spitfire variants#Mk IX|Supermarine Spitfire Mk IX]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Sukhoi Su-26|Sukhoi Su-26M]] ||  || ||
+
|-
+
| [[Sukhoi Su-37|Sukhoi Flanker-F]]|| YASim  || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Cirrus SR20|Cirrus SR-20]]  || ||  || 0.9.10  || 0.9.9
+
|-
+
| [[Cessna T-37]]  || || || 0.9.10  ||0.9.4
+
|-
+
| [[Northrop T-38]]* || || || || 0.9.2
+
|-
+
| [[Tupolev Tu-114]]  ||YASim || || || 0.9.9
+
|-
+
| [[Tupolev Tu-154]] || YASim || || || 0.9.5
+
|-
+
| [[A24 Viking]](Aeroprakt)  || YASim || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[V-22 Osprey|Bell/Boeing V-22 Osprey]]||  YASim  || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Avro Vulcan|Avro Vulcan B.2]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[North American X-15]] || ||
+
|-
+
| [[Martin-Marietta X-24|Martin-Marietta X-24B]] || JSBsim  || ||
+
|-bgcolor="efefef"
+
| colspan="5" align="center" | Helicopters
+
|-
+
| [[Bo 105|Bo 105]]* || || || 1.0.0, 0.9.10  ||
+
|-
+
| Boeing [[CH-47 Chinook]] || 1.0.0  ||
+
|-
+
| [[Bell 206|Bell 206 JetRanger]] || || || 1.0.0  || 0.9.3
+
|-
+
| Bell/Boeing [[V-22 Osprey]] || || ||1.0.0 ||
+
|-
+
| [[Piasecki HUP Retreiver]] ||  ||    ||    || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Robinson R22|Robinson R22]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
|  [[Sikorsky H-5|Sikorsky S-51]](R-5)||    ||    ||  || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Sikorsky S-58]](H-34) || YASim || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Sikorsky S-76|Sikorsky S76C++]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Sikorsky S-70]] (UH-60)|| || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Sikorsky CH-53E Super Stallion]] (S-80) || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Aérospatiale Alouette II]] || YASim  || ||  || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Aérospatiale Alouette III]] || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Aérospatiale Super Frelon|Aérospatiale SA 321 Super Frelon]] || Yasim || || ||
+
|-
+
| [[Eurocopter EC 135]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Eurocopter Ecureuil|Ecureuil AS 350]] (FDM only) || ||  || 1.0.0  || 0.9.3
+
|-
+
| [[Westland Lynx|Westland Lynx WG13]] || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-bgcolor="efefef"
+
| colspan="5" align="center" | Gliders & Miscellaneous
+
|-
+
| [[Schweizer 2-33]] (TG-4) (Glider) ||  || || 1.0.0 ||
+
|-
+
| [[Schleicher ASW 20]] (Single Glider)  ||UIUC ||  ||  || 0.9.3
+
|-
+
| [[Schleicher ASK 21]] (Glider) || || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[PZL Bielsko SZD-9 Bocian|Bielsko SZD-9 Bocian]] (Glider)|| || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Colditz_Cock|Colditz Escape Glider]] || ||
+
|-
+
| [[Airwave Xtreme 150]] hang glider || UIUC || ||
+
|-
+
| [[Paraglider]]  || JSBsim ||  || ||0.9.3
+
|-
+
| [[Hornet Autogyro]] || ||
+
|-
+
| [[UTIAS Ornithopter No.1|Ornithopter]]  || UIUC  ||    || ||0.9.2
+
|-
+
| [[Rascal 110]] (R/C)*  || YASim, JSBSim ||
+
|-
+
| Malolo1  (R/C) ||
+
|-
+
| Manta (R/C) (FDM only) || || - ||
+
|-
+
| Ogel ||JSBSim ||  ||  || 0.9.10
+
|-
+
| [[Santa Claus]] Sleigh ||  || 3d cockpit
+
|-
+
| UFO (Video Assistant), YardStik ||  || ||
+
|-
+
| [[Snowplow]] (Truck)(+AI) ||  || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
| [[Willys MB|Willys Jeep]] || YASim || || || 1.0.0
+
|-
+
|}
+
  
*Aircraft in 9.10 win-32 basic installer- [[Wright Flyer|1903 Wright Flyer]], [[Boeing 737-300]], Fairchild [[A-10 Thunderbolt II]], [[Northrop T-38]], Messerschmitt [[Bf 109]] G14, [[Eurocopter]] [[Bo105]], [[Cessna 172]]P Skyhawk, [[Cessna 310]] , [[Cessna Citation|Cessna Citation Bravo]], [[F-16 Falcon]], [[Hawker Hunter]] GA11, [[Piper J3 Cub]], [[P-51D Mustang]], [[Piper Cherokee|Piper Cherokee Warrior II]], Rascal 110 (R/C model aircraft), UFO  (flying saucer), as well  as several developmental UIUC aircraft.
+
== Reviews ==
 +
{{Main article|FlightGear Reviews}}
  
**Aircraft in 1.00 win-32 basic installer- [[787]], [[A-10 Thunderbolt II|A-10]], Beech 1900D, Bf 109, Bo 102, Bocian 1E, C172, DH2, J3 Cub, English Electric Lightning, P-51D, PA28-161, PA34-200, Seahawk, UFO, Sopwith Camel, T-38
+
== External links ==
 +
{{Main article|Links}}
 +
* {{Wikipedia|FlightGear}}
 +
* [http://www.flightgear.org Official website]
 +
* {{forum link|text=Forum}}
 +
* [http://code.google.com/p/flightgear-bugs/ Bug tracker]
 +
* [http://www.flightgear.org/proposal-3.0.1 Original FlightGear Proposal]
  
==External links==
+
{{Appendix}}
*[http://www.flightgear.org FlightGear's official homepage] - [http://wiki.flightgear.org/flightgear_wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page FlightGear Wiki] - [http://fgfs.i-net.hu/ FlightGear Community Site] - [http://macflightgear.sourceforge.net/home/ FlightGear for Mac]
+
*[http://cvs.flightgear.org/cgi-bin/viewvc/viewvc.cgi/data/Aircraft/ Official Flightgear CVS aircraft]
+
  
==Sources==
+
[[Category:FlightGear]]
  
http://en.wikipeida.org
+
[[ca:FlightGear]]
(I actually copied everything from there, I have to finish uploading the pictures.)
+
[[de:FlightGear]]
 +
[[es:FlightGear]]
 +
[[fr:FlightGear]]
 +
[[it:FlightGear]]
 +
[[nl:FlightGear]]
 +
[[pl:FlightGear]]
 +
[[pt:FlightGear]]

Latest revision as of 02:40, 7 June 2019

FlightGear Flight Simulator
FlightGear Flight Simulator logo
The cockpit of the Boeing 777-200ER
The cockpit of the Boeing 777-200ER
Developed by FlightGear developers & contributors
Initial release July 17, 1997
Latest release 2018.1.1 (6 February 2019)
Written in C and C++
OS Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and FreeBSD[1]
Platform Cross-platform
Development status Active (1996-present)
Type Flight simulator
License GNU General Public License
Website
NASA OV-10 in FlightGear 1.0

FlightGear Flight Simulator (often shortened to FlightGear or FGFS) is a sophisticated, free, and completely open-source flight simulator framework, created by volunteers. FlightGear is released under the terms of the GNU General Public License. FlightGear is mostly written in the C and C++ programming languages.

Increasingly detailed and realistic versions of FlightGear have been released every year since the project was started in 1996.

The latest public release is available as a free download at flightgear.org/download/, with easy to install packages for a variety of operating systems including Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux.

History

1rightarrow.png See FlightGear History for the main article about this subject.

FlightGear development started with an online proposal in 1996, using custom 3D graphics code. Development of an OpenGL based version was spearheaded by Curtis Olson starting in 1997. Many people have contributed to the project in the years since its inception.

FlightGear incorporated other open-source resources, including the LaRCsim flight model from NASA, and freely available elevation data. The first working binaries, using OpenGL for 3D graphic code, came out in 1997. Enthusiastic development of newer versions for several years resulted in progressively more stable and advanced versions. By 2001, the team was releasing new beta versions regularly, and by 2005, the maturity of software lead to more widespread reviews, and increased popularity. 2007 marked a formal transition out of beta development with the release of version 1.0.0, ten years after FlightGear's first release in 1997.

3D Cockpit panel for A-10 in version 1.0.0 in 2008

In 2008, version 1.9.0 of FlightGear included a major change from PLIB to OSG, which caused the temporarily loss of some features like 3D clouds and shadows, while newly added features, such as particles, imparted another degree of realism to the simulation.

Software

The simulation engine in FlightGear is called SimGear. It is used both as an end-user application and in academic and research environments, for the development and pursuit of flight simulation ideas.

This customizability of FlightGear is illustrated by the wide range of aircraft models that are available in FlightGear, from gliders to Helicopters, and from airliners to fighter jets. These aircraft models have been contributed by many different people.

The FlightGear aircraft in general use one of two main flight data models JSBSim and YAsim. Currently only one terrain engine is used, TerraGear. Weather effects include 3D clouds, lighting effects, and time of day.

Flight Dynamics Models

Flight Dynamics Models (FDM) are how the flight for an aircraft is simulated in the program. FlightGear uses a variety of internally written and imported flight model projects. Any aircraft must be programmed to use one of these models. Currently FlightGear is the only flight graphical flight simulator all the FDM are used for, and UIUC and YASim were developed specifically for FlightGear.

Early version used a FDM based on LaRCsim by NASA, which was replaced with more flexible FDM.

  • JSBSim - the default flight dynamics model software since 2000.
  • YASim - another FDM using different calculation method. Introduced starting in 0.7.9 in 2002.
  • UIUC - developed by the UIUC Applied Aerodynamics Group at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, also made use of LaRCsim. Once being widely used, it is nowadays longer included in FlightGear by default.
  • FlightGear can also be setup to render using inputs from an external FDM source, such as from MATLAB.
  • Other custom FDM for a specific aircraft type have been written, such as for lighter than air aircraft.

FlightGear dependencies

Unlike commercial software titles, the main output of the project is simply the release of a collection of code. To turn it into a usable program it must be compiled for a given platform. The software libraries used to create FlightGear have varied over time. The main one is SimGear, which is the underlying sim engine for FlightGear. TerraGear is not a dependency, but simply a name for the default terrain data program in FlightGear. OpenAL is used for sound/audio software, including support for SDL (since 0.9.5). PLIB is used for hardware support routines, formerly used for sound support also which was taken over by OpenAL. OpenGL is used for its integrated 3D graphics routines, and other hardware acceleration (namely DirectX) is not supported. OpenSceneGraph is also integrated into FlightGear. Finally, Simple DirectMedia Layer is a software library which is used for compiling. Some of the dependencies vary depending on which platform the code is being compiled for. FlightGear users must either compile the code themselves, or find a third party to release a binary, if it is not among the ones available from the project.

Hardware

Hardware needed for FlightGear is narrowed to machines that support OpenGL and 3D hardware acceleration, with NVIDIA hardware having better support. Early versions had support for 3dfx cards, though this dropped as hardware requirements increased.

Add-ons and customization

There are programs that are either integrated into FlightGear (dependencies) or perform a function with it. Some of these are included in the release of FlightGear for a specific platform but made by the project, while others are independently distributed but are hosted by the FlightGear project.

One major additional software is the actual interface for launching an executable of FlightGear. For most of its early life FlightGear was only run through command line interfaces. However, FlightGear Launch Control has been included since 0.9.3 in 2003. KFreeFlight is a launcher/front-end for KDE. FGTools is an alternative windows launcher front-end. FGKicker is a GTK+ based front-end.

Other significant programs include editors and projects for terrain data. Atlas is a chart/map support for FlightGear; Kelpie Flight Planner is a Java based flight planner for FlightGear. Finally, WorldEditor is an editor for airport runways and taxiways.

Aircraft

1rightarrow.png See Table of models for the main article about this subject.

FlightGear started out with an aircraft included in NASA's LaRCsim, a Navion, which was replaced by a Cessna 172 by 2000. UIUC as well as JSBsim development brought several more aircraft with them, as did the development of YASim which have since become the main FDM used in FG. Over 400 aircraft in more than 900 unique liveries, are available for version 2.12, although only a few are included in the base package.

Boeing 733 docked in the EHAM scenery

Scenery

1rightarrow.png See Scenery for the main article about this subject.

FlightGears world scenery project contains elevation and landclass data of the enitre world. Objects -like terminals, windmills and bridges- are collected in the Scenery Database.

Networking and multi-display

Several networking options allow FlightGear to communicate with other instances of FlightGear. A multiplayer protocol is available for using FlightGear on a local network in a multi aircraft environment. This could be used for formation flight or control tower simulation. Multiplayer was soon expanded to allow playing over the internet. Other features include a Google maps based moving up that allows users to observe where other players are.

Several instances of FlightGear can be synchronized to allow for a multi-monitor environment. If all instances are running at the same frame rate consistently, it is possible to get good and tight synchronization between displays.

FlightGear code vs. binaries

Unlike most commercial software, the project release dates only apply to a release of code, not an executable program. To create a runnable program the code must be compiled, which requires several specific libraries, including some general ones and, in some cases some platform specific ones. However, since this too difficult for most mainstream users, other contributors will work to make binaries available for a specific platform and operating system. These packages vary in their stability, performance, dependencies, and how up to date they are with the code base. For example, some older binaries work on Mac OS 9 but newer releases require specific Mac OS X versions.

For example, by late 2012 the latest code release was 2.10 (pre-release) and 2.8.0 (final). Binaries are generally available for the last final code release on all major platforms. Click here to proceed to the flightgear binaries download page

Binaries for other platforms such as IRIX are no longer supported, although pre-1.0 releases may work and can be found in the git source code repositories.

Applications and usages

1rightarrow.png See Professional and educational FlightGear users for the main article about this subject.

FlightGear has been used and is being used in a wide range of projects in academia, industry (including NASA) and home-built cockpits.

Reviews

1rightarrow.png See FlightGear Reviews for the main article about this subject.

External links

1rightarrow.png See Links for the main article about this subject.

References
  1. http://www.flightgear.org/download/main-program/. Retrieved February 15, 2015.