Difference between revisions of "Default head-up display"

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m (Johan G moved page Head-up display to Default head-up display: Less ambiguous title)
 
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{{Note|The HUD system will one day be replaced by a [[Canvas HUD]] system.}}
  
This is a short description of [[FlightGear]]s default '''Head-up display''' ('''HUD'''), it can be (de)activated with the <tt>[h]</tt>-key. To change the brightness, press <tt>[shift]</tt>+<tt>[h]</tt>.
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[[File:HUD_default_overview.png|thumb|420px|Huds/default.xml]]
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[[File:HUD_minimal_overview.png|thumb|420px|Huds/minimal.xml]]
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[[File:HUD_NTPS_overview.png|thumb|420px|Huds/NTPS.xml]]
  
There are also two so called 'minimal' HUDs available which are accessible with <tt>[shift]</tt>+<tt>[i]</tt>, to return to default HUD press <tt>[i]</tt>.  
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The '''default head-up display''' (HUD) of FlightGear is available for any craft which does not include its own. A {{Wikipedia|head-up display}} is an important instrument in modern, mostly military, cockpits.  
  
Some of the HUDs options can be altered in the menu: <tt>View --> Adjust HUD Properties</tt>
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Activate the HUD with {{key press|h}}. Pressing it repeatedly moves through the configured colours and turns it off again. To change the brightness, press {{key press|Shift|H}}. Press {{key press|Shift|I}} to go through the available HUDs. Press {{key press|i}} to switch back to the first one at any time. Have in mind that some aircraft do assign one or more of those keys differently and therefore some functions may be missing from them.
  
= Features =
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Some of the head-up options of the HUD can be altered in the menu: ''View'' &gt; ''Adjust HUD Properties''
  
=== Aileron ===
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In addition custom HUDs for aircraft such as the [[F-14B]] and [[F-16]] can relatively easily be created through an XML-based system FlightGear provides. Have a look at [[#Further Information|Further Information]] if you are planning to create a HUD.
[[Image:HUD_aileron.jpg|thumb|200px|Aileron]]
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Monitors the bearing of the control input on the ailerons axis.
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:[[Aileron]]
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=== Airspeed ===
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== Features ==
[[Image:HUD_speed.jpg|thumb|200px|Airspeed]]
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=== Control inputs ===
Current speed relating to the ambient air in knot/knots (kt/kts) (1 kt = 1.852 km/h).
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; Aileron
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: Displays the [[aileron]] control axis input. Attached along the upper side is the indicator for the trim input on that axis.
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: Properties: <code>/controls/flight/aileron</code> and <code>/controls/flight/aileron-trim</code>
  
=== Altitude ===
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; Elevator
[[Image:HUD_altitude.jpg|thumb|200px|Altitude]]
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: Displays the [[elevator]] control axis input. Attached to the left the trim on this axis.
Current altitude relating to sea-level in feet (ft) (1 ft = 30.48 cm).
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: Properties: <code>/controls/flight/elevator</code> and <code>/controls/flight/elevator-trim</code>
  
=== Autopilot ===
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; Rudder
If autopilot is activ the direction of the next waypoint is displayed as well as the next two and the last waypoint of the <tt>Autopilot --> Route manager</tt> list.
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: Displays the [[rudder]] control axis input. Attached to the bottom the trim input.
:[[Autopilot]]
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: Properties: <code>/controls/flight/rudder</code> and <code>/controls/flight/rudder-trim</code>
  
=== Elevation ===
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; Throttle
Current altitude above ground in feet. Relating to the location of the aircrafts radio altimeter, therefore it's not zero if the aircraft is on the ground.
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: Displays the [[throttle]] control axis input.
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: Property: <code>/controls/engines/engine/throttle</code>
  
=== Elevator ===
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=== Instruments ===
[[Image:HUD_elevator.jpg|thumb|200px|Elevator]]
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; AMSL (Altitude above Mean Sea Level)
Monitors the bearing of the control input on the elevators axis.
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: Current [[AMSL|altitude above mean seal level]] in feet (ft) (1 ft = 30.48 cm).
:[[Elevator]]
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: Property: <code>/position/altitude-ft</code>
  
=== G-load ===
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; g-load
Displays the g-force to the pilot in g - to avoid black-/redout.
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: The {{Wikipedia|G-force}} applied to the pilot - to avoid black-/redout.
:The value riding on top of the [[#Airspeed|Airspeed]] indicator.
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: Property: <code>/accelerations/pilot/z-accel-fps_sec</code> with factor <code>-0.03108095</code>
  
=== Heading ===
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; Gyrocompass
[[Image:HUD_heading.jpg|thumb|200px|Heading]]
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: This is an ideal version of a [[Avionics and Instruments#DirectionalGyro|gyrocompass]] without the drawbacks of a real one. It shows heading of the aircraft relative to the geographical north pole (true north) in degree (360 degree scale).
Direction of the aircraft relating to the geographical North pole in degree (360 degree scale).
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: Property: <code>/orientation/heading-deg</code>
:[[Avionics_and_Instruments#Compass|Compass]]
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=== Location ===
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; KIAS (Knots Indicated Airspeed)
[[Image:HUD_location.jpg|thumb|200px|Location]]
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: Current [[KIAS|speed relative to the ambient air in knots]] (kt) (1 kt = 1.151 mph = 1.852 km/h).
To change the coordinates-system, go to <tt>Autopilot --> Set Lat/Lon-format</tt>.
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: Property: <code>/velocities/airspeed-kt</code>
  
=== Pitch ===
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; Latitude / Longitude
Like set with <tt>[Home]</tt>/<tt>[End]</tt>.
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: Current location according to the {{Wikipedia|geographic coordinate system}}.
:It's the left marker of the [[#Elevator|Elevator]] indicator.
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: To change the format of the displayed coordinates, go to ''Autopilot'' &gt; ''Set Lat/Lon-format''.
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: Properties: <code>/position/latitude-string</code> and <code>/position/longitude-string</code>
  
=== Pitch ladder ===
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; Pitch ladder
Displays the aircrafts pitch relating to the grounds level/horizontal in degree. It's used as an artificial horizon.
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: Displays the pitch and roll of the aircraft relative to the horizontal plane in degrees. It is used as an artificial horizon ([[Avionics and Instruments#Attitude Indicator|Attitude indicator]]).
:The big ladder like looking indicator at the HUDs centre.
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: Properties: <code>/orientation/roll-deg</code> and <code>/orientation/pitch-deg</code>
:[[Avionics_and_Instruments#Attitude_Indicator|Attitude indicator]]
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=== Rudder ===
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; Radio altimeter
[[Image:HUD_rudder.jpg|thumb|200px|Rudder]]
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: Shows current altitude [[above ground level]] (AGL) in feet. Relating to the location of the radio altimeter of the aircraft, it is not zero if the aircraft is on the ground.
Monitors the bearing of the control input on the rudders axis.
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: Property: <code>/position/altitude-agl-ft</code>
:[[Rudder]]
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=== Thrust ===
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; Turn-bank-indicator
[[Image:HUD_thrust.jpg|thumb|200px|Thrust]]
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: [[Avionics and Instruments#Turn Coordinator|Turn Coordinator]]
Monitors the thrust on airplanes or the collective of helicopters.
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: Properties: <code>/orientation/roll-deg</code> and <code>/orientation/side-slip-deg</code>
  
=== Turn-bank-indicator ===
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=== Autopilot ===
:[[Avionics_and_Instruments#Turn_Coordinator|Turn Coordinator]]
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[[File:HUD_default_autopilot.jpg|thumb|420px|HUD autopilot]]
 
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If the [[autopilot]] is active the HUD displays its settings. For each active function (heading, altitude and speed) a box will appear below the gyrocompass containing information on its mode and, if existent, the associated value.
[[Image:HUD_default_autopilot.jpg|thumb|200px|HUD autopilot]]
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[[Image:HUD_default_overview.png|thumb|200px|HUD overview]]
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= Further Information =
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The basic setup of the above described default HUD is defined at
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:<tt>$FG_ROOT/Huds/Default/default.xml</tt>
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There is also a 'Runway projection' available which is, because of some issues, disabled by default.
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Documentation can be found at
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:<tt>$FG_ROOT/Docs/README.xmlhud</tt>
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Since FlightGear 0.9.10 there is ''also'' a newer and more flexibly HUD-system available. An example can be found at
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:<tt>$FG_ROOT/Huds/NTPS.xml</tt> and documentation at
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:<tt>$FG_ROOT/Docs/README.hud</tt>.
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Also have a look at <tt>$FG_ROOT/Huds/README</tt>.
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== preferences.xml ==
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While the instruments and their behaviour are set in the Huds-directory, the basic settings and the look regarding to any HUD are set in <tt>$FG_ROOT/preferences.xml</tt>. Search the file for <tt><hud></tt> and you will find a list of properties. For a short description of those have a look at [[#Property_tree|property tree]]. But I'll give some of them a closer look:
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=== Colour ===
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The prefered thing one would like to customize is, I guess, the HUDs colour.
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Discover your own settings is quite easy: Access the property tree via the Menu  <tt>File --> Browse Internal Properties</tt> (<tt>[/]</tt>-character) '''or''' via the [[Property_Tree#Property_server|Property server]] and your browser. Go to sim/hud/color, e.g. http://localhost:5500/sim/hud/color, edit a value and watch the result in FlightGears window instantly.
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Once the decision is made head back to preferences.xml, copy the <color n="0">-tag and paste it on top of the colours within the <palette>-tag. Rename the existing tags in numeric order and finally put your discovered values in the  new one. It should look like this, except your own values, of course:
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    <current-color type="int">0</current-color>
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    <palette>
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    <color n="0">
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      <transparent type="bool">true</transparent>
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      <antialiased type="bool">false</antialiased>
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      <brightness type="float">1</brightness>
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      <alpha type="float">0.67</alpha>
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      <red type="float">0.1</red>
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      <green type="float">1.0</green>
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      <blue type="float">0.3</blue>
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    </color>
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    <color n="1"><nowiki><!-- day --></nowiki>
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      ...
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    </color>
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    <color n="2"><nowiki><!-- night --></nowiki>
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      ...
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    </color>
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    </palette>
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=== Font ===
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; Heading control
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: Whether it is active or not and on which mode it operates is determined by the content of the  <code>/autopilot/locks/heading</code> property.
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: The values are taken from <code>/autopilot/settings/heading-bug-deg</code> and <code>/autopilot/settings/true-heading-deg</code>.
  
    <nowiki><font></nowiki>
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; Altitude control
    <name type="string">Helvetica.txf</name>
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: Active mode: <code>/autopilot/locks/altitude</code>
    <size type="float">8</size>
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: Their values: <code>/autopilot/settings/target-altitude-ft</code>, <code>/autopilot/settings/vertical-speed-fpm</code> and <code>/autopilot/settings/target-agl-ft</code>.
    <nowiki></font></nowiki>
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To change font just enter another name out of the ones in $FG_ROOT/Fonts (case sensitive!). For more information about those fonts and on .txf format peruse $FG_ROOT/Fonts/README.
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; Speed control
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: Active mode: <code>/autopilot/locks/speed</code>
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: Their values: <code>/autopilot/settings/target-speed-kt</code> and <code>/autopilot/settings/target-speed-mach</code>
  
Since the size is type 'float' values like '7.449' are allowed, too.
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=== GPS ===
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[[File:HUD_default_gps.jpg|thumb|420px|HUD GPS]]
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The upper left hand corner shows the most important information on the current state of the [[GPS]]. Namely these are (line by line):
  
=== Path ===
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{| class="wikitable"
/!\ Just a draft and maybe not correct.
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| GPS operating mode
 +
| Active waypoint
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|-
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| '''D''': Distance in nautical miles (NM) to active waypoint
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| '''TTW''': Calculated time to active waypoint
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|-
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| '''BRG''': Bearing to next waypoint
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| '''XTR''': Cross track deviation, deviation from the track between the previous and active waypoint in nautical miles (NM)
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|-
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| '''GS''': Ground speed, the speed relative to the ground
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|
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|}
  
  <path>Huds/Default/default.xml</path>
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=== Big fat arrow ===
  <path>Huds/NTPS.xml</path>          <nowiki> <!-- new HUD --></nowiki>
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Remains of a going to be useful instrument.
The first one is the default HUD mentioned above. It is for the old HUD only.
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The second is the first one of the 'minimal HUD's and it is for the new HUD only. The other 'minimal' one is called by the code (I guess), its path is Huds/Minimal/default.xml.
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For each <path> are some more HUDs available, a complete list (except aircraft specific):
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: To get rid of it, remove or comment <code>runway.xml</code> from <code>[[$FG_ROOT]]/Huds/{{fgdata source|path=Huds/default.xml|text=default.xml}}</code>.
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: To make it point to the airport selected by menu item "Tower Position", apply patches as shown [http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/message.php?msg_id=30422572 here].
  
old HUD:
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== Further Information ==
Huds/Custom/default.xml
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HUDs may be replaced or added by changing or adding their paths in <code>preferences.xml</code> or by setting the paths as command line options. To change the order of the existing ones the options would be: <code>--prop:/sim/hud/path[1]=Huds/minimal.xml</code> <code>--prop:/sim/hud/path[2]=Huds/default.xml</code>
Huds/Default/default.xml
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Huds/Engineering/default.xml
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Huds/Minimal/default.xml
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new HUD:
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If you consider to create your own HUD have a look at [[Canvas HUD]] first.
Huds/NTPS.xml
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Huds/default.xml
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 +
The basic settings regarding to any HUD are set in {{fgdata source|path=defaults.xml}}. Search the file for the <code><hud></code> tag and you will find a list of properties.
  
== Property tree ==
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The setup of the default HUD is defined at {{fgdata source|path=Huds/default.xml}} and documentation can be found at {{readme file|hud}}.
More information about FlightGears property tree and on how to access it can be found at its page: [[Property_Tree|Property Tree]].
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Paths starting with '$FG_ROOT/' apply to the file system, the others are intra-property tree.
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== Additional HUDs ==
/sim/hud
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; HeliHUD
  current-color  (0|1|2...)    int    One out of /sim/hud/palette
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: The [http://wiki.beggabaur.rocks/ya/HeliHUD HeliHUD] is designed for fly helicopters in Helicopter View it is also handy for any craft with a not yet finished cockpit. It also contains a minimalistic HUD only showing some navigational information such as compass and GPS. The [http://beggabaur.rocks/fgfs/helihud_0.3.tar.bz2 download] contains instructions and specs.
  enable3d        (false|true)  bool    hud n=0 3D off|on
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  enable3d[1]    (false|true)  bool    hud n=1 3D off|on
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  frame-stat-type (tris|???)            ???
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  path            (Huds/...)            Path to hud n=0
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  path[1]        (Huds/...)            Path to hud n=1
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  visibility      (false|true)  bool    hud n=0 hidden|visible
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  visibility[1]  (false|true)  bool    hud n=1 hidden|visible
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/sim/hud/color/          Contains settings of current-color
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    alpha        (0...1)      float  0=invisible, 1=nontransparent
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    alpha-clamp  (???)                ???
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    antialiased  (false|true)  bool    Antialiasing off|on
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    blue          (0...1)      float
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    brightness    (0...1)      float  0=dark/black
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    green        (0...1)      float
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    red          (0...1)      float
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    transparent  (false|true)  bool    Transparency off|on
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/sim/hud/font/
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    name          (*.txf)      string  One out of $FG_ROOT/Fonts
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    size          (8)          float  Size of font
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/sim/hud/palette/
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/sim/hud/palette/color/        Settings of predefined colours, nearly
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/sim/hud/palette/color[n]/      the same options as in /sim/hud/color.
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[[Category:FlightGear feature]]
 
[[Category:FlightGear feature]]
 
[[Category:Menubar]]
 
[[Category:Menubar]]

Latest revision as of 12:48, 2 May 2020

Note  The HUD system will one day be replaced by a Canvas HUD system.
Huds/default.xml
Huds/minimal.xml
Huds/NTPS.xml

The default head-up display (HUD) of FlightGear is available for any craft which does not include its own. A head-up display This is a link to a Wikipedia article is an important instrument in modern, mostly military, cockpits.

Activate the HUD with h. Pressing it repeatedly moves through the configured colours and turns it off again. To change the brightness, press Shift+H. Press Shift+I to go through the available HUDs. Press i to switch back to the first one at any time. Have in mind that some aircraft do assign one or more of those keys differently and therefore some functions may be missing from them.

Some of the head-up options of the HUD can be altered in the menu: View > Adjust HUD Properties

In addition custom HUDs for aircraft such as the F-14B and F-16 can relatively easily be created through an XML-based system FlightGear provides. Have a look at Further Information if you are planning to create a HUD.

Features

Control inputs

Aileron
Displays the aileron control axis input. Attached along the upper side is the indicator for the trim input on that axis.
Properties: /controls/flight/aileron and /controls/flight/aileron-trim
Elevator
Displays the elevator control axis input. Attached to the left the trim on this axis.
Properties: /controls/flight/elevator and /controls/flight/elevator-trim
Rudder
Displays the rudder control axis input. Attached to the bottom the trim input.
Properties: /controls/flight/rudder and /controls/flight/rudder-trim
Throttle
Displays the throttle control axis input.
Property: /controls/engines/engine/throttle

Instruments

AMSL (Altitude above Mean Sea Level)
Current altitude above mean seal level in feet (ft) (1 ft = 30.48 cm).
Property: /position/altitude-ft
g-load
The G-force This is a link to a Wikipedia article applied to the pilot - to avoid black-/redout.
Property: /accelerations/pilot/z-accel-fps_sec with factor -0.03108095
Gyrocompass
This is an ideal version of a gyrocompass without the drawbacks of a real one. It shows heading of the aircraft relative to the geographical north pole (true north) in degree (360 degree scale).
Property: /orientation/heading-deg
KIAS (Knots Indicated Airspeed)
Current speed relative to the ambient air in knots (kt) (1 kt = 1.151 mph = 1.852 km/h).
Property: /velocities/airspeed-kt
Latitude / Longitude
Current location according to the geographic coordinate system This is a link to a Wikipedia article.
To change the format of the displayed coordinates, go to Autopilot > Set Lat/Lon-format.
Properties: /position/latitude-string and /position/longitude-string
Pitch ladder
Displays the pitch and roll of the aircraft relative to the horizontal plane in degrees. It is used as an artificial horizon (Attitude indicator).
Properties: /orientation/roll-deg and /orientation/pitch-deg
Radio altimeter
Shows current altitude above ground level (AGL) in feet. Relating to the location of the radio altimeter of the aircraft, it is not zero if the aircraft is on the ground.
Property: /position/altitude-agl-ft
Turn-bank-indicator
Turn Coordinator
Properties: /orientation/roll-deg and /orientation/side-slip-deg

Autopilot

HUD autopilot

If the autopilot is active the HUD displays its settings. For each active function (heading, altitude and speed) a box will appear below the gyrocompass containing information on its mode and, if existent, the associated value.

Heading control
Whether it is active or not and on which mode it operates is determined by the content of the /autopilot/locks/heading property.
The values are taken from /autopilot/settings/heading-bug-deg and /autopilot/settings/true-heading-deg.
Altitude control
Active mode: /autopilot/locks/altitude
Their values: /autopilot/settings/target-altitude-ft, /autopilot/settings/vertical-speed-fpm and /autopilot/settings/target-agl-ft.
Speed control
Active mode: /autopilot/locks/speed
Their values: /autopilot/settings/target-speed-kt and /autopilot/settings/target-speed-mach

GPS

HUD GPS

The upper left hand corner shows the most important information on the current state of the GPS. Namely these are (line by line):

GPS operating mode Active waypoint
D: Distance in nautical miles (NM) to active waypoint TTW: Calculated time to active waypoint
BRG: Bearing to next waypoint XTR: Cross track deviation, deviation from the track between the previous and active waypoint in nautical miles (NM)
GS: Ground speed, the speed relative to the ground

Big fat arrow

Remains of a going to be useful instrument.

To get rid of it, remove or comment runway.xml from $FG_ROOT/Huds/default.xml.
To make it point to the airport selected by menu item "Tower Position", apply patches as shown here.

Further Information

HUDs may be replaced or added by changing or adding their paths in preferences.xml or by setting the paths as command line options. To change the order of the existing ones the options would be: --prop:/sim/hud/path[1]=Huds/minimal.xml --prop:/sim/hud/path[2]=Huds/default.xml

If you consider to create your own HUD have a look at Canvas HUD first.

The basic settings regarding to any HUD are set in flightgear/fgdata/next/defaults.xml. Search the file for the <hud> tag and you will find a list of properties.

The setup of the default HUD is defined at flightgear/fgdata/next/Huds/default.xml and documentation can be found at $FG_ROOT/Docs/README.hud.

Additional HUDs

HeliHUD
The HeliHUD is designed for fly helicopters in Helicopter View it is also handy for any craft with a not yet finished cockpit. It also contains a minimalistic HUD only showing some navigational information such as compass and GPS. The download contains instructions and specs.