Hi fellow wiki editors!

To help newly registered users get more familiar with the wiki (and maybe older users too) there is now a {{Welcome to the wiki}} template. Have a look at it and feel free to add it to new users discussion pages (and perhaps your own).

I have tried to keep the template short, but meaningful. /Johan G

Difference between revisions of "Cessna 182S"

From FlightGear wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
m (FAQ)
m (FAQ)
 
(7 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 157: Line 157:
 
'''''According to google, most pilots agree that the 182s is actually harder to fly than the 172p'''''  
 
'''''According to google, most pilots agree that the 182s is actually harder to fly than the 172p'''''  
  
Not because of its flight characteristics. Though many pilot bends their firewalls on touchdown, due the nose heaviness of that aircraft.  But a lot pilot likes it more because of more power, more speed, higher possible altitudes, constant speed propeller, cowl-flaps and the IFR-equipement. And that`s the reason - due to that all it is much more challenging than the Cessna 172. So FAA counts the Cessna 182 to the high perfomace aircraft. Imagine beeing in a crowded area like KLAX, approaching the airport while listening to Radio calls every few seconds, watching speed, altitude, manage the engine and prop speed, chasing VOR-needles and the traffic around at the same time in bad weather condition - challenging!
+
Not because of its flight characteristics. Though many pilot bends their firewalls on touchdown, due the nose heaviness of that aircraft.  But a lot pilot likes the C182 more because of more power, more speed, higher possible altitudes, constant speed propeller, cowl-flaps and the IFR-equipement. And that`s the reason - due to that all it is much more challenging to fly than the Cessna 172. So FAA counts the Cessna 182 to the high perfomace aircraft. Imagine beeing in a crowded area like KLAX, approaching the airport while listening to Radio calls every few seconds, watching speed, altitude, manage the engine and prop speed, chasing VOR-needles and watching the traffic around at the same time in bad weather condition - challenging!
 
You might wanna read this: [https://pilotbrian.blogspot.com/2009/05/stepping-up-to-c182.html Stepping Up to a C182 ]
 
You might wanna read this: [https://pilotbrian.blogspot.com/2009/05/stepping-up-to-c182.html Stepping Up to a C182 ]
  
Line 164: Line 164:
 
No. The authors uses real numbers, datas, coefficients and more where available, aiming to get everything realistic as it can be. As an example it matches all the numbers given in the POH, and uses real aerodynamic coeffcients for the fdm where available. If it doesn`t fly as you expect, you might be used to FSX? Just kidding...  
 
No. The authors uses real numbers, datas, coefficients and more where available, aiming to get everything realistic as it can be. As an example it matches all the numbers given in the POH, and uses real aerodynamic coeffcients for the fdm where available. If it doesn`t fly as you expect, you might be used to FSX? Just kidding...  
 
Anyway, if encounter something you think it isn`t right, file an Issue-report [https://github.com/HHS81/c182s/issues here], and we will find out.
 
Anyway, if encounter something you think it isn`t right, file an Issue-report [https://github.com/HHS81/c182s/issues here], and we will find out.
 +
 +
'''''Why has the C182S a smaller left push tendency than the c172p?'''''
 +
 +
You propably uses a older version of the C182S, released before 6. february 2019. There was a single wrong sign used in the fdm, which reduced the left push tendency. The version released after 6. february 2019 has been fixed in [[FGAddon]] and in the [https://github.com/HHS81/c182s Dev-repo on github.com].
  
 
'''''At 3,000 ft, I can't get over 110 knots. MP: 23 RPM: 2450 FF: 14. What am I missing?'''''
 
'''''At 3,000 ft, I can't get over 110 knots. MP: 23 RPM: 2450 FF: 14. What am I missing?'''''
  
The checklist! If it doesn`t get the speed as you expect, check: Mixture, prop rpm, cowls flaps, icing, engine damaged,... Probably you simply forget to close the cowl flaps.
+
The checklist! If it doesn`t get the speed as you expect, check: Mixture, prop rpm, cowl flaps, icing, engine damaged,... Probably you simply forget to close the cowl flaps.
 +
Another reason could be that you mistake KTAS (Knots True AirSpeed) with KIAS (Knots Indicated AirSpeed). The tables and many publications gives the speeds in KTAS. So you have to read the KTAS-values from your instruments, not the KIAS. How to?- just read below.
 +
 
 +
''''' Where I can see my True Airspeed (KTAS)?'''''
 +
 
 +
The Air Speed Indicator has a dial at the upper part of the instrument face. So you simply dial in the pressure altitude in ft via the knob, and align it with the temperature mark just below.
 +
Now you can read your true airspeed in the lower left window of your instrument.
  
 
'''''I flew in cold weather, but suddenly crashed because the aircraft slowed down. Where is the carb heat?'''''
 
'''''I flew in cold weather, but suddenly crashed because the aircraft slowed down. Where is the carb heat?'''''
  
The Cessna 182S uses an fuel-injected engine - like many modern cars. So there is no carburetor. But what you experienced is the icing of the prop and the aircraft body. Unfortunately there is indeed a bug: propeller icing of constant speed props can`t be simulated yet with JSBSim. The C182S-team tried to find a work-around, but might not have yet found the best solution....Not everything can be perfect!  
+
The Cessna 182S uses an fuel-injected engine - like many modern cars. So there is no carburetor. But what you experienced is the icing of the prop and the aircraft body. Unfortunately there is indeed a bug: propeller icing of constant speed props can`t be simulated yet with JSBSim. The C182S-team tried to find a work-around, but might not have yet found the best solution....Not everything can be perfect! Anyway: with this type of aircraft you are not allowed to fly in known icing-conditions!
  
 
'''''Cessna 182S refuses to start'''''
 
'''''Cessna 182S refuses to start'''''
Line 177: Line 187:
 
First: you probably didn`t follow the checklist.
 
First: you probably didn`t follow the checklist.
 
Second: you might have flooded the engine. Follow this procedure: Pull back mixture to cut off, advance throttle to about about little more than 50-60%, then operate the starter again for a while. If the engine fires, promptly advance the mixture to full rich and return throttle to Idle.
 
Second: you might have flooded the engine. Follow this procedure: Pull back mixture to cut off, advance throttle to about about little more than 50-60%, then operate the starter again for a while. If the engine fires, promptly advance the mixture to full rich and return throttle to Idle.
 +
 +
'''''Why I can`t see the wingtip and the cowl?'''''
 +
 +
The eye level position has been carefully set comapring informations from pictures showing the Cessna 182S or Cessna 182T and pilot reports. If you compare, you can see that the eye level of the pilot is sitting at the level of the upper edge of the side window frame. The wing root sits much higher, the wingtip even more. So it is impossible to see the wingtip.
 +
The glareshield is quite high on the newer Cessna, and from you usual position you are not able to see the engine cowling in front of you.
 +
And the eye level position is also set to the fact that a good landing is provided why you flare just before the touchdown. Your flare will be correct, when the upper edge of the glareshiels is virtually touching the horizon.
  
 
== Development status/Issues/TODO ==
 
== Development status/Issues/TODO ==

Latest revision as of 08:55, 10 March 2019

Cessna 182S Skylane
FGAddon
C182s.jpg
C182-cockpit-view.jpg
Type Civil aircraft, Civil utility aircraft
Configuration High wing aircraft, Fixed gear aircraft
Propulsion Propeller aircraft, Single-engine aircraft
Manufacturer Cessna
Author(s)
  • Heiko Schulz
  • Gilberto Agostinho
  • Benedikt Hallinger
  • Wayne Bragg (wlbragg)
  • onox
  • Ron Jensen (jentron)
  • Daniel Dubreuil (Dany93)
  • Stuart Buchanan
  • David Megginson
FDM JSBSim
--aircraft= c182s
Status Advanced production
 FDM Stars-5.png
 Systems Stars-4.png
 Cockpit Stars-5.png
 Model Stars-5.png
Supports Checklists
Development
 Website The website for the Cessna 182S Skylane developments.
 Repository The development repository of the Cessna 182S Skylane.
Download Download the Cessna 182S Skylane aircraft package for the current stable release (2018.3).
Forum 'Cessna 182S Skylane' topic on the FlightGear forum.
License GPLv2+

The Cessna 182S Skylane is an American four-seat, single-engine, light airplane, built by Cessna between 1996 and 2001. It uses a fuel-injected Textron Lycoming IO-540 AB1A5 with 230 HP at 2,400 RPM.

Features

The Cessna 182S is one of the high-quality aircraft models in FlightGear.

The new Cessna 182S has a very detailed 3D model and a cockpit with highly detailed textures. Most of the switches in the cockpit are already clickable and working. It has a very realistic FDM based on real aerodynamic coefficients and the pilot operating handbook; engine power, EGT and fuel performance are tuned according the pilot operating handbook, the weight and balance behaves like written in the POH. Fly by the book - a link to real POH is given at the end of this page.

C182-panel-detail.jpg

There are currently several liveries available: default Cessna livery, Blank, D-ELFP, HB-CZV, N182PJ, N321HW and a Custom Livery.

The aircraft has a simulation of the Bendix/King KAP140 Autopilot. The cockpit can be illuminated at night by using the glareshield lighting, pedestal lighting and instruments/ radio lighting, controlled by two knobs. Dome lights which illuminates the cabin in a realistic way are in work. The knobs have two modes each, which can be used by clicking and dragging horizontally or vertically.

Also, if the user has enabled ALS (Atmospheric light scattering) in the Rendering Options, some effects are activated such as cockpit shadows, visible landing lights from the cockpit and rain effect on the windshield.

The Cessna 182S comes with static objects which can be activated via the Ground Equipment dialog in the aircraft menu. These include a fuel tank trailer, ladders to access the fuel caps (and which the walker can climb(only in FG Versions before 2017.3.1 !!), ground power unit and a Dragon Engine Pre-Heater. Security cones are also available. Special Feature: The ground equipment will stay on ground where placed, independent from the movement of the aircraft! The aircraft can also go through a pre-flight check: wheel chocks, tie-downs and the pitot tube cover can now be added or removed.

Cessna 182S with static elements

Feature-List:

For details and usage hints, please also read the documentation.

  • accurate flight model based on real test aerodynamic coefficients and POH
  • accurate fuel flow numbers, engine power, airspeed and climbrate in nearly all pressure altitudes and temperatures with less than 5% difference from POH
  • realistic stall behavior
  • calculation of real KIAS based on KCAS, based on POH
  • accurate weight and balance behavior
  • New Start-up States: aircraft can be initialized in cruise, landing, takeoff and more states
  • fully simulated fuel system: fuel flow by gravity, engine pump and fuel pump simulated for each of the two tanks,; engine needs correct priming procedure according POH, fuel contamination simulated
  • realistic electrical system, battery charge state depending on temperature, working circuit breakers
  • fully simulated oil management (temperature, ....)
  • autostart for beginners
  • simulation of cabin heat and defrost
  • simulation of icing to wings, propellers and engines in icing conditions
  • High quality 3d-model, textures and animations
  • Realistic exterior reflection shaders with fresnel effect and normalmap
  • selectable chromed spinner and wheel fairings
  • Very detailed 3d-interior
  • moveable sun-visors
  • 99% of all switches are working (except alternate static air- WIP!)
  • fully working audio panel
  • fully simulated KAP140 autopilot
  • fully simulated Davtron 803
  • fully simulated Bendix King avionics stack
  • Realistic interior light effects in ALS-Renderer
  • Interior shadows in ALS-Renderer
  • interior glass frost and fog effects in ALS-Renderer
  • Exterior 3d-shadow in ALS-Renderer
  • selectable and fully simulated Winterization kit
  • External equipement like ladders, safety cones, tie ups, pitot cover, wheel chocks, external power source, simulated external engine pre-heater with sound - they keep their position on ground!
  • aircraft can be checked outside (free movement check of flight control surfaces; oil, fuel, pitot heat, ....)
  • Walker - can be used to follow the Checklist outside
  • Save states: aircraft remembers last switch, systems and configuration state
  • Many liveries

Handling The Aircraft (beginner version)

You can activate more realistic handling at any time in the aircraft dialog, like fuel contamination, engine oil management and priming needs.

The full checklists are available ingame in the checklists dialog.

Pre-Flight Inspection

Cessna 182S ready for take off

It's recommended to use any exterior view or activate the walker for these procedures.

  • Check fuel quantity on both tanks
  • Left wing: remove pitot tube cover
  • Left wing: remove tie-down
  • Left wing: check water contamination
  • Left main wheel: remove chocks
  • Tail: remove tie-down
  • Right wing: remove tie-down
  • Right wing: check water contamination
  • Right main wheel: remove chocks
  • Right nose: check water contamination of fuel selector and fuel strainer
  • Nose: remove wheel chocks
  • Nose: check oil level

Engine Start (manual and complex startup)

  • Mixture: Rich
  • Propeller: High RPM
  • Throttle: Open 1/4 inch
  • Parking Brake: Applied ( Shift+B)
  • Prop Area: Clear
  • Master switch: ON (both)
  • Auxiliary Fuel Pump Switch: ON
  • Advance mixture to full rich, keep it 3-5sec
  • Then Idle Cutoff
  • Auxiliary Fuel Pump Switch: Off
  • Magnetos: Both (Press } three times)
  • Ignition: Start (S)

If engine floods, then set mixture to idle cut off and throttle to 1/2 to full open and crank. When engine fires, set mixture to full rich and throttle to idle.

Takeoff

  • no flaps or flaps 10deg
  • cowl flaps open
  • full throttle
  • rotate at 50-60 KIAS


Climbout

  • no flaps
  • cowl flaps open
  • full throttle
  • 80 KIAS


Cruise

Cessna 182S in the air
  • 2000-2400 RPM
  • 18-23 mp
  • mixture rich of peak as recommended lean mixture setting for cruise or 125°F rich for best power
  • speed between 120-140 knots depending on the power settings
  • cowl flaps closed

Landing

  • flaps 20deg or full flaps
  • 60-70 KIAS

Airspeeds

See also Aircraft speed#V speeds
Airspeed IAS
Stall speed, landing configuration, VS0 36 kt
Stall speed, clean, VS1 43 kt
Rotation speed, VR 55 kt
Best angle of climb speed, VX 63 kt
Best rate of climb speed, VY 80 kt
Maximum flap extended speed, VFE 100 kt
Manoeuvring speed, VA 110 kt
Maximum structural cruising speed, VNO 140 kt
Never exceed speed, VNE 175 kt
Max. Crosswind 15 kt
Cessna 182S panel illumination

FAQ

I wonder why would the 182s be easier to fly than the c172p?

Is it? If you think the fdm is wrong: A fdm is only so good as the datas available. The c182s-fdm uses real coefficient data where available, but not all needed coeeficients could be found. Where not available, pilot reports had been used. And they are from a subjective view of the pilot.

According to google, most pilots agree that the 182s is actually harder to fly than the 172p

Not because of its flight characteristics. Though many pilot bends their firewalls on touchdown, due the nose heaviness of that aircraft. But a lot pilot likes the C182 more because of more power, more speed, higher possible altitudes, constant speed propeller, cowl-flaps and the IFR-equipement. And that`s the reason - due to that all it is much more challenging to fly than the Cessna 172. So FAA counts the Cessna 182 to the high perfomace aircraft. Imagine beeing in a crowded area like KLAX, approaching the airport while listening to Radio calls every few seconds, watching speed, altitude, manage the engine and prop speed, chasing VOR-needles and watching the traffic around at the same time in bad weather condition - challenging! You might wanna read this: Stepping Up to a C182

Is the C182S made easier to fly, instead of more realistic to fly?

No. The authors uses real numbers, datas, coefficients and more where available, aiming to get everything realistic as it can be. As an example it matches all the numbers given in the POH, and uses real aerodynamic coeffcients for the fdm where available. If it doesn`t fly as you expect, you might be used to FSX? Just kidding... Anyway, if encounter something you think it isn`t right, file an Issue-report here, and we will find out.

Why has the C182S a smaller left push tendency than the c172p?

You propably uses a older version of the C182S, released before 6. february 2019. There was a single wrong sign used in the fdm, which reduced the left push tendency. The version released after 6. february 2019 has been fixed in FGAddon and in the Dev-repo on github.com.

At 3,000 ft, I can't get over 110 knots. MP: 23 RPM: 2450 FF: 14. What am I missing?

The checklist! If it doesn`t get the speed as you expect, check: Mixture, prop rpm, cowl flaps, icing, engine damaged,... Probably you simply forget to close the cowl flaps. Another reason could be that you mistake KTAS (Knots True AirSpeed) with KIAS (Knots Indicated AirSpeed). The tables and many publications gives the speeds in KTAS. So you have to read the KTAS-values from your instruments, not the KIAS. How to?- just read below.

Where I can see my True Airspeed (KTAS)?

The Air Speed Indicator has a dial at the upper part of the instrument face. So you simply dial in the pressure altitude in ft via the knob, and align it with the temperature mark just below. Now you can read your true airspeed in the lower left window of your instrument.

I flew in cold weather, but suddenly crashed because the aircraft slowed down. Where is the carb heat?

The Cessna 182S uses an fuel-injected engine - like many modern cars. So there is no carburetor. But what you experienced is the icing of the prop and the aircraft body. Unfortunately there is indeed a bug: propeller icing of constant speed props can`t be simulated yet with JSBSim. The C182S-team tried to find a work-around, but might not have yet found the best solution....Not everything can be perfect! Anyway: with this type of aircraft you are not allowed to fly in known icing-conditions!

Cessna 182S refuses to start

First: you probably didn`t follow the checklist. Second: you might have flooded the engine. Follow this procedure: Pull back mixture to cut off, advance throttle to about about little more than 50-60%, then operate the starter again for a while. If the engine fires, promptly advance the mixture to full rich and return throttle to Idle.

Why I can`t see the wingtip and the cowl?

The eye level position has been carefully set comapring informations from pictures showing the Cessna 182S or Cessna 182T and pilot reports. If you compare, you can see that the eye level of the pilot is sitting at the level of the upper edge of the side window frame. The wing root sits much higher, the wingtip even more. So it is impossible to see the wingtip. The glareshield is quite high on the newer Cessna, and from you usual position you are not able to see the engine cowling in front of you. And the eye level position is also set to the fact that a good landing is provided why you flare just before the touchdown. Your flare will be correct, when the upper edge of the glareshiels is virtually touching the horizon.

Development status/Issues/TODO

This aircraft is undergoing a constant development, which can be followed on its repository, where a list of issues and future enhancements can also be found. Worth a visit!

Gallery

External links

References