Icaro Laminar 13 MRX
Soaring over Nordkette/Innsbruck (near LOWI)
Ready for take off at Seegrube/Innsbruck (near LOWI)
|Type||Hang glider, Glider aircraft|
This model represents a Laminar 13 MRX hang glider build by ICARO in the early 2000s.
It is an advanced kingpostless hang glider which still represents the characteristical properties of a state of the art hang glider.
One aim of the development of this glider is rather to have a very realstic generic hang glider model than an exact copy of the Laminar 13. This means that some features and properties of this model can deviate from the real glider. However, since performance and flight dynamics don't differ so much between different hang gliders, the flight behavior should be very close to the real thing.
One more purpose of this model is to provide a tool that allows real hang glider pilots to exercise flight conditions that are way too dangerous to exercise in real life.
- Weight-shift controlled
- VG (Variable Geometry)
- Semi flexible hang strap
- Realistic performance and stall behavior for all VG-settings
- Drag is dependent on pilot attitude (upright pilot and/or legs outside harness generates more drag)
- Ground effect
- Impact of rain on performance and stall behavior
- Wing failure caused by aerodynamic overloading
- Drogue parachute
- Emergency parachute
- Horizontal stabilizer (optional and customizable)
- Vertical stabilizer (optional and customizable)
- Winch (incl. 2-stage release and step towing)
- Smoke system
- View of instantaneous flow vector, aerodynamic force vector and center of gravity location
- Drop test
- Flight recorder (incl. vector, c.g. and winch animation)
- Highly customizable (via GUI)
- Wing flexibility is not taken into account in detail.
- No interaction between towrope and glider frame
Recommended flying sites
A very beautiful site is the real life hang gliding launch "Seegrube" which is located near LOWI (--lon=11.379070 --lat=47.306263 --heading=155 --on-ground). Choose 15kt wind from 180deg for all altitudes and soar up to the summits.
Some acro examples
If things go wrong or the special flight dynamics of hang gliders
- A classical tumble (youtube)
- Wing failure (youtube)
- Spin, looping, tumble (youtube)
- Looping, tumble, ... 2 rescue chutes are not enough (youtube)
- Things become violent (youtube)
- Bad wingover (youtube)
- Kroo, Ilan M., "Aerodynamics, Aeroelasticity, and Stability of Hang Gliders - Experimental Results" NASA-TM-81269, 1981 (PDF, 3.7MB)
- Cook, M. V., "A Summary Report on an Experimental Investigation into Methods for Quantifying Hang Glider Airworthiness Parameters" 1987 (PDF, 10.2MB)
- ( ) Schönherr, Michael, "Der Flattersturz" 1977-1979 (PDF, 60.1MB)
- ( ) Schönherr, Michael, "Das Phänomen des Vorwärtsüberschlags" 1987-1988 (PDF, 10.5MB)
- Jones, Nathan H, "Glider Ground Effect Investigation" Thesis, Department of The Air Force Air University, Wright-Patterson Air force Base Ohio, USA, 1989, Storming Media, Washington DC 20002 (PDF)
- ( Nickel Karl, Wohlfahrt Michael, "Schwanzlose Flugzeuge: Ihre Auslegung und ihre Eigenschaften", Basel, Boston, Berlin, Birkhaeuser, 1990, ) ISBN 3-7643-2502-X