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Difference between revisions of "ATC phraseology"

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(Clarified the usage of "line up and wait" and the scenario when a takeoff clearance is issued without asking the a/c to align first)
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{{ATC-navbar}}
 
{{ATC-navbar}}
This page lists some common phraseologies used in the communication between pilots and [[Air traffic control|ATC]].
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This page lists some common phraseologies used in the communication between pilots and [[Air traffic control|ATC]]. Items in ''italic'' need to be replaced by the relevant information; lists are dialogues between the pilot and the controllers.
  
 
For a detailed tutorial in ATCing, please take a look at the [[ATC Tutorial]].
 
For a detailed tutorial in ATCing, please take a look at the [[ATC Tutorial]].
  
=== Affirmative ===
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== General ==
* Abbreviation: aff
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{| class="wikitable"
Yes.
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! scope="col"| Phraseology
 +
! scope="col"| Meaning
 +
! scope="col"| Remarks
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|-
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| Affirmative ''(abbreviation: affirm)''
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| Yes
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|
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|-
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| Negative
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| No
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|
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|-
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|
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* ''callsign'', contact ''station'' on ''frequency''
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* Contact ''station'' on ''frequency'', ''callsign''
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| A controller asks the pilot to change radio frequency and contact another controller; the pilot acknowledges the instruction and then changes frequency.
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| If the new controller does not respond, change to the previous frequency and inform ATC.
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|-
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| Roger
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| I received your information
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| This sentence should ''not'' be used in case a readback (repetition of the message you heard, for safety reasons) is required.
 +
|-
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| Wilco
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| Will comply
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| This sentence should ''not'' be used in case a readback (repetition of the message you heard, for safety reasons) is required.
 +
|-
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| Say again
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| Please repeat your last message
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|
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|-
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| Standby
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| Please wait
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| Often said by a controller because (s)he's busy at the moment
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|-
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| Correction
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| Disregard what has been said immediately before (as it's erroneous) and replace it with the words that follow.
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| Example: ''Callsign, taxi to holding point runway 22 via N – correction, via A'' means: ''Callsign, taxi to holding point runway 22 via A''.
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|-
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| Unable, ''reason''
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| The pilot is not able to execute the instruction given by a controller for safety reasons.
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|
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|}
  
=== Call ===
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== Clearance ==
Contact me. Usually ATC asks you to make contact after you've done something or you are ready to do something.
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{| class="wikitable"
 +
! scope="col"| Phraseology
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! scope="col"| Meaning
 +
! scope="col"| Remarks
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|-
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|
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* ''Station'', ''callsign'', stand ''stand'', ''aircraft type'' with information ''code'', request IFR clearance to ''destination''
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* ''callsign'', ''station'', cleared to ''destination'', ''SID'' departure, squawk ''code''
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* Cleared to ''destination'' via ''SID'', squawk ''code'', ''callsign''
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| Used by a pilot to ask which SID he is going to use for departure.
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| ''This is not an authorization to take off.''
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|-
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|
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* ''callsign'', request pushback
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* ''callsign'', pushback approved facing ''direction''
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* Pushback approved facing ''direction'', ''callsign''
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| The pilot asks for permission to pushback (be pushed away from the stand by a tug). At the end of the maneuver, the aircraft should be headed ''direction''.
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|
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|-
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|
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* ''callsign'', request startup
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* ''callsign'', startup approved
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* Startup approved, ''callsign''
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| The pilot asks for permission to start up the engines.
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|}
  
=== Cleared for takeoff runway two-eight-left ===
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== Taxi ==
You are cleared for takeoff from runway 28L. Only this sentence (and really nothing else) gives you clearence for takeoff from the said runway.
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{| class="wikitable"
 +
! scope="col"| Phraseology
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! scope="col"| Meaning
 +
! scope="col"| Remarks
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|-
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|
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* ''station'', ''callsign'', stand ''stand'', request taxi
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* ''callsign'', ''station'', taxi to ''holding point'' via ''full list of taxiways''
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* Taxi to ''holding point'' via ''full list of taxiways'', ''callsign''
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| The pilot asks for authorization to taxi; the controller authorizes him to taxi to an holding point, reached which the pilot should stop and ask/wait for further instructions.
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| Refer to an updated [[Getting aeronautical charts|aeronautical chart]] to know taxiway names.
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|-
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|
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* ''station'', ''callsign'' holding short runway ''number'' at ''intersection''
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* ''callsign'', cross runway ''number'' at ''intersection''
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* Cross runway ''number'' at ''intersection'', ''callsign''
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| The pilot needs to cross a runway and asks the ground controller for permission; the ground controller obtains a clearance from Tower (not reported here) and authorizes the pilot to cross.
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|
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|-
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|
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* ''callsign'', hold short of ''position''
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* Will hold short of ''position'', ''callsign''
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| The ground controller asks the pilot to stop at ''position'' (a taxiway entrance, runway crossing...). As soon as the pilot reaches the designated point, (s)he must inform the controller that the aircraft is "holding short".
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|
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|-
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|
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* ''callsign'', hold position
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* Holding position, ''callsign''
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| The ground controller asks the pilot to stop immediately/maintain the current position.
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|
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|}
  
If the word immediate is added (eg. Cleared for immediate takeoff runway 28L), you are only cleared for takeoff if you are able to do so within a very short time. Usually traffic is coming in on the same runway, so do not enter the runway if you are not ready for takeoff in this case.
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'''Remark:''' the controller might ask you to follow an aircraft or to perform a maneuver after another aircraft has cleared the way (''conditional clearance''). In that case, (s)he will say ''"After the ''aircraft type''..."''.
  
Remarks:
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== Takeoff and departure ==
* ATCs may issue this clearance even if you're not still on the runway. In that case, you are authorized to enter the runway, align and then take off - there is no need to ask/wait for a clearance to "line up".
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{| class="wikitable"
 
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! scope="col"| Phraseology
=== Cleared to land runway two-eight-center ===
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! scope="col"| Meaning
You are cleared to land at runway 28C. Only this sentence (and really nothing else) gives you clearence to land at the said runway. Always make a visual check to see if the runway is really clear!
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! scope="col"| Remarks
 
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|-
=== Climb and maintain eight-thousand feet ===
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|
* Abbreviation: c/m.
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* ''Callsign'', line up and wait runway ''number''
Climb to 8000 ft and hold that altitude until further instructions are given.
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* Line up and wait runway ''number'', ''callsign''
 
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| The tower controller instructs the aircraft to enter the runway, position itself in the center and await further clearance.
=== Descend and maintain eight-thousand feet ===
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|
* Abbreviation: d/m.
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* ''This is not an authorization to take off.''
Descend to 8000 ft and hold that altitude until further instructions are given.
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* This sentence is used only when ATC can not issue a takeoff clearance immediately (e.g. because there is still traffic on the runway). Controllers must ''not'' use this command unless needed.
 
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=== Hold short ===
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* Abbreviation: h/s.
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You are cleared to taxi to a certain location, but you should wait at the designated point. This can be a runway entrance, or a taxiway crossing. As soon as you reached the designated point, you inform the ATC that you are "Holding short".
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=== Initiate missed approach ===
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For some reason ATC wants you to abort the landing; there might be traffic on the runway. Immediately abort your landing and follow the missed approach procedure appropriate to your aircraft. Usually the ATC will give some instructions like altitude and heading. As you have to redo your approach, you are requested to contact approach again.
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=== Line up and wait runway xx ===
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Enter the runway, position yourself in the center and await further clearance. This is ''not'' an authorization to take off.
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Remarks:
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* "Line up and wait runway xx" is used only when ATC can not issue a takeoff clearance immediately (e.g. because there is still traffic on the runway). Controllers must ''not'' use this command unless needed.
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* The phrase "(taxi into) position and hold" is no longer used.
 
* The phrase "(taxi into) position and hold" is no longer used.
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|-
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|
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* ''Callsign'', wind is ''heading'' at ''speed'' knots, runway ''number'', cleared for takeoff
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* Cleared for takeoff runway ''number'', ''callsign''
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| The controller authorizes the aircraft to take off.
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| This is the ''one and only'' clearance that gives a pilot permission to take off.
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|-
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|
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* ''Callsign'', hold position, cancel takeoff, I say again cancel takeoff due to ''reason''
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* Holding position, ''callsign''
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| The controller cancels the existing takeoff clearance.
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| This form is used when the aircraft has not started the takeoff roll yet.
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|-
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|
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* ''Callsign'', stop immediately!
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* Stopping, ''callsign''
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| The controller cancels the existing takeoff clearance.
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| This form is used when the aircraft has already started the takeoff roll.
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|}
  
=== Negative ===
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== Climb, cruise, descent ==
* Abbreviation: neg
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{| class="wikitable"
No.
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! scope="col"| Phraseology
 
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! scope="col"| Meaning
=== One orbit to the left ===
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! scope="col"| Remarks
Make a circle to the left and then continue on the original heading. ATC may tell you to do so if a little more spacing between you and the aircraft in front of you is required.
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|-
 
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| x
=== Report established ===
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| x
Tell the ATC once you are established.
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| x
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|}
  
=== Roger ===
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== Approach and landing ==
* Abbreviation: rgr
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{| class="wikitable"
I received your information.
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! scope="col"| Phraseology
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! scope="col"| Meaning
 +
! scope="col"| Remarks
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|-
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| x
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| x
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| x
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|}
  
=== Say again ===
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== Emergency communications ==
Repeat your last message.
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{| class="wikitable"
 +
! scope="col"| Phraseology
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! scope="col"| Meaning
 +
! scope="col"| Remarks
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|-
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| x
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| x
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| x
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|}
  
=== Will Comply ===
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== External links ==
* Abbreviation: wilco
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* [http://www.skybrary.aero/index.php/Toolkit:ALLCLEAR All Clear? Toolkit], Eurocontrol
__NOTOC__
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__NOEDITSECTION__
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[[Category:Air Traffic Control]]
 
[[Category:Air Traffic Control]]

Revision as of 09:14, 16 May 2014

This page lists some common phraseologies used in the communication between pilots and ATC. Items in italic need to be replaced by the relevant information; lists are dialogues between the pilot and the controllers.

For a detailed tutorial in ATCing, please take a look at the ATC Tutorial.

General

Phraseology Meaning Remarks
Affirmative (abbreviation: affirm) Yes
Negative No
  • callsign, contact station on frequency
  • Contact station on frequency, callsign
A controller asks the pilot to change radio frequency and contact another controller; the pilot acknowledges the instruction and then changes frequency. If the new controller does not respond, change to the previous frequency and inform ATC.
Roger I received your information This sentence should not be used in case a readback (repetition of the message you heard, for safety reasons) is required.
Wilco Will comply This sentence should not be used in case a readback (repetition of the message you heard, for safety reasons) is required.
Say again Please repeat your last message
Standby Please wait Often said by a controller because (s)he's busy at the moment
Correction Disregard what has been said immediately before (as it's erroneous) and replace it with the words that follow. Example: Callsign, taxi to holding point runway 22 via N – correction, via A means: Callsign, taxi to holding point runway 22 via A.
Unable, reason The pilot is not able to execute the instruction given by a controller for safety reasons.

Clearance

Phraseology Meaning Remarks
  • Station, callsign, stand stand, aircraft type with information code, request IFR clearance to destination
  • callsign, station, cleared to destination, SID departure, squawk code
  • Cleared to destination via SID, squawk code, callsign
Used by a pilot to ask which SID he is going to use for departure. This is not an authorization to take off.
  • callsign, request pushback
  • callsign, pushback approved facing direction
  • Pushback approved facing direction, callsign
The pilot asks for permission to pushback (be pushed away from the stand by a tug). At the end of the maneuver, the aircraft should be headed direction.
  • callsign, request startup
  • callsign, startup approved
  • Startup approved, callsign
The pilot asks for permission to start up the engines.

Taxi

Phraseology Meaning Remarks
  • station, callsign, stand stand, request taxi
  • callsign, station, taxi to holding point via full list of taxiways
  • Taxi to holding point via full list of taxiways, callsign
The pilot asks for authorization to taxi; the controller authorizes him to taxi to an holding point, reached which the pilot should stop and ask/wait for further instructions. Refer to an updated aeronautical chart to know taxiway names.
  • station, callsign holding short runway number at intersection
  • callsign, cross runway number at intersection
  • Cross runway number at intersection, callsign
The pilot needs to cross a runway and asks the ground controller for permission; the ground controller obtains a clearance from Tower (not reported here) and authorizes the pilot to cross.
  • callsign, hold short of position
  • Will hold short of position, callsign
The ground controller asks the pilot to stop at position (a taxiway entrance, runway crossing...). As soon as the pilot reaches the designated point, (s)he must inform the controller that the aircraft is "holding short".
  • callsign, hold position
  • Holding position, callsign
The ground controller asks the pilot to stop immediately/maintain the current position.

Remark: the controller might ask you to follow an aircraft or to perform a maneuver after another aircraft has cleared the way (conditional clearance). In that case, (s)he will say "After the aircraft type...".

Takeoff and departure

Phraseology Meaning Remarks
  • Callsign, line up and wait runway number
  • Line up and wait runway number, callsign
The tower controller instructs the aircraft to enter the runway, position itself in the center and await further clearance.
  • This is not an authorization to take off.
  • This sentence is used only when ATC can not issue a takeoff clearance immediately (e.g. because there is still traffic on the runway). Controllers must not use this command unless needed.
  • The phrase "(taxi into) position and hold" is no longer used.
  • Callsign, wind is heading at speed knots, runway number, cleared for takeoff
  • Cleared for takeoff runway number, callsign
The controller authorizes the aircraft to take off. This is the one and only clearance that gives a pilot permission to take off.
  • Callsign, hold position, cancel takeoff, I say again cancel takeoff due to reason
  • Holding position, callsign
The controller cancels the existing takeoff clearance. This form is used when the aircraft has not started the takeoff roll yet.
  • Callsign, stop immediately!
  • Stopping, callsign
The controller cancels the existing takeoff clearance. This form is used when the aircraft has already started the takeoff roll.

Climb, cruise, descent

Phraseology Meaning Remarks
x x x

Approach and landing

Phraseology Meaning Remarks
x x x

Emergency communications

Phraseology Meaning Remarks
x x x

External links