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ATC Tutorial

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Approaching the destination airport: correct info
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{{WIP|Complete rewrite in progress by [[User:elgaton|elgaton]]}}{{Main article|Air Traffic Controltraffic control}}
[[Air traffic control|Air Traffic Control]] is an agreed procedure and process which keeps the [[aircraft]] separated to ensure that they don't crash into each other or are affected by turbulence when passing through the same air space. This article, written probably more directly useful for controllers and pilots alike, will teach you that procedure and will hopefully help you to enjoy controlled areas and airports on the FlightGear multiplayer servers. == How do I know if an airport is controlled? ==Check the Pilot List in FlightGear or the [[MPMap|Multiplayer map]]. Usually, controllers:* have a callsign ''XXXX_DE'', ''XXXX_GN'', ''XXXX_TW'' or ''XXXX_AP'' (where ''XXXX'' is the ICAO code of the airport they are manning); each callsign has a specific meaning (see "Controller roles" below);* use the ''[[OpenRadar]]'', ''ATC-TOWER'', ''[[ATC-aircraft|ATC]]'' (or similarly named) aircraft.
== Controller roles ==
| xxxx_TW
| Tower
| Controls the ''active'' runways and the airspace up to 10 NM (nautical miles) from the airport; chooses the runways to use; clears planes for takeoff and landing, making sure that they are at least 10 NM or three minutes apart.
|-
| xxxx_AP
|}
* The "xxxx" in the table replace a code used to identify the area that controller is using; these are known as ''ICAO codes'' and can be found on the [http://www.airport-technology.com/icao-codes/ Airport Codes list]. For example, London Gatwick is "EGKK" so a Gatwick Tower Controller would log-in as ''EGKK_TW''. At large airports, multiple controllers may man the same positions. * Center controllers also have ICAO identifiers, but they are not for one airport, but for a larger area. For example, ''LFFF_CT'' is France Center, and ''LFFF_FS'' is the France Flight Service Station.* At large airports, multiple controllers may man the same positions.
=== Controller roles in FlightGear ===
{{Main article|Flight rules}}
A distinction you should know for flying in controlled areas is the one between IFR and VFR flights, as flight planning and some phraseology are different.
* VFR (Visual Flight Rules) can apply when a pilot is able to orientate and recognize other aircraft and obstacles visually (that means he must maintain a low altitude, where at most just a few clouds are presentfor example, the sky should be clear of clouds at low altitudes near the airport when taking off and landing, light must be sufficient, and there must be little or no fog at all); they are used mainly in general aviation;* IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) apply in all the other cases.
== Getting and reading charts ==
==== Getting the departure clearance ====
We start on the airport apron at terminal T1, stand 220221.
The first thing we need to do is to check the current air pressure and which runway is being used; as a general rule, planes should be heading into the wind for takeoff and landing. To accomplish this, we need to listen to the ''ATIS'' (Automatic Terminal Information Service), a prerecorded message describing weather information, the runways in use and other important information for pilots and ; it's transmitted continuously on a dedicated radio channel. The frequency to use is written in the Airport information chart and can also be found by clicking on ''AI -> ATC Services in Range -> LEBL'': in our case, it's 121.970 MHz.
We open the Radio panel, set the COM1 frequency to 121.97 and listen to the ATIS message:
# We're going to depart from runway 25L.
# We need to set the altimeter to 1018 hPa<ref>European airports generally use hPa (hectopascals) for the QNH while American ones use inHg (inches of mercury). Some airplanes allow you to enter QNH values using both units; if that is not the case, you will need to use a converter.</ref> and set it back to standard pressure (STD) at the transition level (FL050, or 5000 feet).
# Every ATIS broadcast is identified by a progressive letter of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NATO_phonetic_alphabet NATO phonetic alphabet]; we'll need to tell the delivery controller that we have information "Alpha" so that (s)he can checkwhether check whether we have the latest information or not.
Note also that numbers are spelled out for clarity - this will be done in all further communication.
# The controller corrects any mistakes we've made and then hands us off to the Ground controller.
* '''BAW1542:''' El Prat Delivery, this is Speedbird one five fourtwo, requesting delivery to Frankfurt, flight level two five zero, we have information Alpha.
* '''El Prat Delivery:''' Speedbird one five four two, Alpha is current, cleared to Frankfurt via OKABI three Whiskey, initial altitude five hundred feet, expect flight level two five zero after ten minutes, squawk four zero zero zero.
* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared to Frankfurt via OKABI three Whiskey, initial altitude five hundred feet, expect flight level two five zero after ten minutes, squawk four zero zero zero, Speedbird one five four two.
Before pushing back (being pushed away from the stand with a tug) and starting up, we need to get appropriate clearances from the Ground controller. This ensures we won't block taxiways unnecessarily.
* '''BAW1542:''' El Prat Ground, Speedbird one five four two at stand two two zeroone, request pushback.* '''El Prat Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, El Prat Ground, pushback approved, facing eastsouth.* '''BAW1542:''' Pushback approved, facing eastsouth, Speedbird one five four two.
We then push back, making sure the aircraft is turned towards ("facing") east south at the end of the maneuver, and ask for permission to start our engines.
[[File:LEBL-stand220-pushback.png|thumb|center|thumb|800px|Our aircraft's position after pushback (noon and night view). Note that the taxiway centerlines are not lit in proximity of stands.]]
* '''BAW1542:''' Speedbird one five four two, request startup.
* '''BAW1542:''' Speedbird one five four two, we're holding short Echo two.
* '''El Prat Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, cleared to cross runway zero two, taxi to holding point Golf one via Echo one and Kilo.
* '''BAW1542:''' Taxi Cleared to cross runway zero two and taxi to holding point Golf one via Echo one and Kilo, Speedbird one five four two.
We then cross the runway without delay and turn left on K. Near K2 you can notice a ''CAT II/III holding point'' (marked by an empty yellow rectangle with vertical lines, equipped with ''fixed'' lights) - that's where we would stop if visibility was reduced or if another aircraft was landing using ILS; since that's not the case and we were cleared to G1, just proceed.
We stop at G1 while the ground controller instructs us to contact the tower:
* '''El Prat Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, contact El Prat Tower on one one eight decimal three two zero, goodbye!* '''BAW1542:''' Contact El Prat Tower on one one eight decimal three two zero, Speedbird one five four two, bye!
==== Lining up and taking off ====
* '''BAW1542:''' Resuming our own navigation, frequency change approved, Speedbird one five four two, bye!
We're now free to follow our flightplan - it's a good practice to keep an eye on the multiplayer map to check for trafficand to announce altitude changes/turns on text chat if other pilots are nearby.<ref>In real world flying, we would be handed off to center controllers and we would report our position over special points, marked as black triangles in the charts. Since center controllers are not common in FlightGear, thoughthis is not usually done.</ref>
==== Approaching the destination airport ====
==== Landing ====We start descending on our own so as to reach FL150 approximately 100 NM from the destination airport. When we're about 80 NM from EDDF we check the ATIS for the destination airport, just like we did at LEBL - in this case the frequency is 118.02. We tune in the COM1 radio to that frequency and listen:==== Taxiing * '''EDDF ATIS:''' ''This is Frankfurt information Echo. Landing runway zero seven right. Departure runway zero seven center. Transition level five zero. Wind zero two zero degrees, four knots. Visibility one zero km or more, few four thousand eight hundred feet. Temperature one niner<ref>"Niner" is used instead of "nine" to avoid confusion between the stand similarly sounding "nine" and shutting down ===="nein", the German word for "no".</ref>, dewpoint zero seven. QNH one zero one eight. No significant change. On initial contact advise controller you have information Echo.''
=== A sample VFR We then contact the approach controller (in this case Langen Radar, 118.45 MHz):* '''BAW1542:''' Langen Radar, Speedbird one five four two at flight ===level one five zero, we have information Echo.<!-- Refer to http* '''Langen Radar://forum''' Speedbird one five four two, radar contact, Echo is current, descend and maintain five thousand feet, proceed direct UNOKO.flightgear.org/viewtopic* '''BAW1542:''' Descend and maintain five thousand feet, proceed direct UNOKO, Speedbird one five four two.php?f=72&t=19600 -->
<!--== Tips ==ListenPractice at low density airportsTell controller first experience-->----== Lesson 4 ==''(In this section We proceed to the approach controller is presumed UNOKO waypoint and descend to be handling departures5000 ft, as there are very, very rarely departure controllersinstructed. If there were a departure controller, At 5000 ft we set the altimeter to the local QNH (s1018 hPa)he would deal with a departing plane, and the approach controller would deal with any planes arriving)''.
So When we're near UNOKO the approach now has controller will contact us and assign us a plane that wants to get on with its flight. The first thing to notice was the clearanceSTAR (standard arrival route):* ''climb and maintain 6'Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two,000..cleared UNOKO one Mike arrival.* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared UNOKO one Mike arrival, Speedbird one five four two.Now we follow the altitudes and route in the STAR &ndash; in this case, we fly over UNOKO, IBVIL, MANUV, RAMOB and proceed to TAU.
It wasn't explained last page, but We hold (circle) over TAU until the reason for this low height is controller instructs us to ensure that planes arriving at continue the airport - also at low heights - that are arriving from the takeoff end of the airfield are kept above the departing planes. If arriving planes are only cleared down to 8approach:* '''Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two,000 ft. then - even if they have to fly over the airport and turn around - they cannot conflict with departing planes. For this reasonright heading one four zero, descend and maintain three thousand feet, departing planes are usually cleared reduce speed to 6two five zero knots.* '''BAW1542:''' Turn right heading one four zero,000 descend and arriving planes maintain three thousand feet, reducing speed to 8two five zero knots,000 until they are on the 'safe' (non-departure) side of the runwaySpeedbird one five four two.
LetWe now engage the autopilot's look at how heading select mode, fly the hand-off occurs this timegiven heading, reduce our speed and continue our descent as cleared. After a couple of minutes, the controller calls us and instructs us to use the [[Instrument Landing System]] to get towards the runway:* '''EGLL_TWRLangen Radar: B-ELIO, contact EGLL_APP on 119.72, good-day.'''<br />Speedbird one five four two, cleared ILS approach runway zero seven right.* '''B-ELIO (to you)BAW1542: Heathrow Approach, good-day, this is B-ELIO out of 1,700 for 6,000 on runway heading'''Cleared ILS approach runway zero seven right, Speedbird one five four two.
This time, because As soon as the plane localizer is in alive we engage the airautopilot's localizer mode and, you want as soon as the glideslope is alive, we switch to acknowledge you can see him approach mode and descend on the radarglide. The controller will call us one last time to hand us over to Frankfurt Tower:* '''YouLangen Radar: B-ELIO, Radar Contact''' Speedbird one five four two, continue to 6,000contact Frankfurt Tower on one one niner decimal niner zero... (and right to 120)* '''BAW1542:''' Contact Frankfurt Tower on one one niner decimal niner zero, Speedbird one five four two.
The aim now is ==== Landing ====We switch to 119.90 MHz and/or join the Frankfurt Tower channel on Mumble, then contact the tower controller to get the plane heading in landing clearance. It will include:# the right wind direction and speed;# wind gusts, if any;# warnings (that islike wake turbulence, towards the first VOR or NDB - remember how they're shown on the display - listed in the Flight Striprain...), or just in if any;# the general direction of runway number;# the country hewords ''s heading cleared to. When the planes far enough away from the airport, or thereland''s no other traffic, climb him up to 12,000 - 18,000ft and hand him off to center. Now, a few words about giving the plane vectors (headings), remember:
* Don't expect the plane to respond instantly... think ahead. By the time he's got your message and started to turn he might be 1 NM further on that you expected'BAW1542:''' Frankfurt Tower, Speedbird one five four two, ILS approach runway zero niner right.* If he's heading directly to a 'fix' (any VOR, NDB or Intersection) give them a Frankfurt Tower:'direct <place>' order like 'B-ELIOSpeedbird one five four two, turn left direct BIG' - don't bother trying Frankfurt Tower, wind zero one zero degrees, five knots, runway zero seven right, cleared to figure out headings when you've been given an easy wayland. * Consider your heading -- are you sure you mean 90 and not 270? If the aircraft is heading '''BAW1542:''' Cleared to the left of the screenland, he's flying a heading of 270 and not 90!! This may seem obviousrunway zero seven right, but is Speedbird one of the biggest problems for new controllersfive four two.
Now the plane's in the sky, a big, bold few words about separation:<gallery widths=400px mode=packed>'''Keep your planes at least 3NM from each other, or at least 1,000 ft vertically between them. If you think the planes will eventually come too close, don't wait File:EDDF-- turn or descend one immediately! In order finalapproach.png|Short final to make collisions between planes traveling in opposite directions less likely, use this rulerunway 07R.File:'''EDDF-landing-07R.png|Landing on 07R.</gallery>
{| class="prettytable"! align="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" | ! align="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" ||- |Plane flying headings 0-179 |Fly We land on 07R and ''vacate'' (exit) the runway at ODD FLIGHT LEVELS the earliest opportunity, making sure not to block other aircraft and not to enter a taxiway marked with a ''NO ENTRY'' sign; in this case, we vacate on the left, since the terminal is on the left. (On occasion, the controller will ask us to vacate on a specific side or to use a specific exit). We are now asked to switch to Ground:|-|Plane flying headings 180 - 359 |Fly at EVEN FLIGHT LEVELS * '''Frankfurt Tower:''' Speedbird one five four two, contact Frankfurt Ground on one two one decimal eight zero.|}* '''BAW1542:''' Contact Frankfurt Ground on one two one decimal eight zero, Speedbird one five four two.
What are Flight Levels? Flight Levels are used ==== Taxiing to shorten heights -- you should recognize them from the plane's blip -- you simply remove stand and shutting down ====We switch the two last digits from transponder to ground mode and check the height, for example 32,000ft --> FL320. Also, when you talk about Flight Levels, ground chart to get the pilot uses a standard altimeter setting (instead name of the local altimeter setting found after the Q taxiway we are on; in our case, we have vacated the METAR weather report in runway on taxiway M15. We then contact the bottom ground controller:* '''BAW1542:''' Frankfurt Ground, Speedbird one five four two on Mike one five, runway zero seven right vacated.* '''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, Frankfurt Ground, taxi to holding point Mike one four via Mike, hold short of your screen); while at low altitudes the plane will use the local barometric pressureMike one four. This means that all planes cruising will think 32* '''BAW1542:''' Taxi to holding point Mike one four via Mike,000 ft is at the same placehold short of Mike one four, and not vary slightly depending on the local pressureSpeedbird one five four two.
Your aim is We taxi to get the planes in the right direction at a height ready for hand-off holding point M14, stop and report our position to an ARTCC the controller, so that (_CTRs) he can coordinate with Tower and away from clear us to cross the airportactive runway 07C. Once you* 've done it pass your plane onto the centre controller''BAW1542:''' Speedbird one five four two, holding short Mike one four. It is a good idea to use the * '''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, standby.chat <callsign of ''(The controller> function will ask Tower for crossing clearance &ndash; it might take a bit.)''* '''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, cleared to ensure that you and your cross zero seven center agree on what places and heights you, taxi to Lima via Lima niner.* 'll hand off at''BAW1542:''' Cleared to cross zero seven center, taxi to Lima via Lima niner, Speedbird one five four two.At this point, we resume taxiing, making sure to cross the runway expeditiously.
Now Since the planes with Centre. The same taxiways and the apron are managed by two different controllers, the ground controller will hand-us off procedure as above applies... wait for to the first apron controller:* '''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, contactApron East on one two one decimal niner five. When you* 've got it''BAW1542:''' Contact Apron East on one two one decimal niner five, identify Speedbird one five four two.We switch to the plane, new frequency and report :* 'radar contact'. If a plane is in your airspace and won't contact you try asking BAW1542:''' Apron East, Speedbird one five four two on your frequencyLima nine, then try a quick switch request taxi to 121the stand.50 to send a * 'Contact EGTT_CTR on 132.600' to get the plane's attention. Using 121.50 (the Guard Frequency) is used when you canApron South:'t contact a plane -- all planes within a few hundred miles will hear your broadcast'' Speedbird one five four two, irrespective of who it was intended for! Remember Apron East, taxi to switch back to your frequency -- you donstand Delta five via Lima and November one.* 't want everyone to hear your broadcasts for the rest of eternity (or perhaps you do; I certainly don't)'BAW1542:''' Taxi to stand Delta five via Lima and November one, Speedbird one five four two.
Centers job is pretty easy until its busy<gallery widths=400px mode=packed>File:EDDF-M15. Read the planes intended route and just get the plane to fly itpng|Taxiing on M15. If there are other planes, make sure they don't collideFile:EDDF-crossing-07C. Since opposite traveling planes will have a 1,000 ft separation (using the table above) you shouldn't need png|Approaching holding point M14 and preparing to worry that muchcross runway 07C. Other than Note thatthe stop bar is not lit, listen to only the pilot's requests and help him where you can. When ground sign tells you get to your ARTCC boundary hand-off to hold short of the next centre, or runway &ndash; so be careful.File:EDDF- if there isn't one - give the order:L.png|Taxiing on L.</gallery>
We taxi to the stand and shut down, also switching the transponder off &ndash; there'''You: B-ELIO, s no control available need to ask a clearance for that. Our flight is now finished.==== This tutorial in video format ====The departure and arrival presented in Francethis tutorial have also been recorded. Some interactions were simplified, resume own navigation the result should however be more close to Belgium, radar service terminated'''what you usually experience on the multiplayer network. Closed captions are available.
This statement removes all your requirements to control the plane, as it now knows that your not watching on radar, and you're not going to help him navigate. When you are navigating as centre {{#ev:youtube|dA- if the flight plan doesn't include a route - find the start and end points, and plan a quick route (either direct - give one heading - or by 'hopping' from VOR to VOR). UXATCHuI|400}}{{#ev:youtube|E3yfeWjlyic|400}}
These terms are used often while controlling to confirm or deny requests and answer any questions: {| class="prettytable"! align="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" | ! alignA sample VFR flight =="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" ||- |Affirmative (sometimes affirm or aff)|Yes or correct|-|Negative (sometimes neg)|No or incorrect|-|Confirm...|Is it correct that...|-|Unable...|Sorry, I cannot accept your request for...|-|Roger (almost always rgr)|I've heard and understood your last transmission|-|Wilco |I will comply with your orders (implies Roger)|-|Standby (sometimes stby)|Please wait, I will call you back when I am free.|} '''Some examples of these[http:'''* '''You: Confirm current altitude is FL310//forum. '''** '''B-ELIO: Negative, FL290'''* '''B-ELIO: Request descent to FL290 '''** '''You: Unable FL290 (there is already traffic at FL290?)''' When the plane is nearing its final destination, make sure it has descended to between 18,000 and 22,000 ftflightgear. This means that the approach controller can take the plane and descend it quickly -- it's no good trying to descend a plane 35,000 ft in 20 NM and still get it to land. Notice that the plane should remain above 18,000 ft (in your airspace) until you've handed off. Approach might decide not to take the plane and have you make it fly circles in the sky for 20 minutes until he has some room; otherwise arrivals and departures might crash while they're being handed over! So: '''You: B-ELIO, dorg/m (descend and maintain) 18,000 on QNH 1221, right to 270 and expect hand-off to approach in five minutesmemberlist.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: down to 18,000 on 1221, will expect approach in five, B-ELIO.''' What is the QNHphp? This is an altimeter setting. As the plane will shortly be moving back to local pressure, and not the flight level standard pressure, the pilot must know the local pressure. This ensures that his diagrams which give him the height of the airfield above sea level are correct -- if everyone used a standard altimeter setting at low altitudes the airport's height would seem to fluctuate over a period of hours by a few hundred feet! And finally: '''You: B-ELIO, contact EGLL_APP on 192.72''' I'm not sure how we ended up at Heathrow, but that's another story! mode=viewprofile&u= Lesson 5 ==Our plane, B-ELIO, is now about 40NM east-south-east of Heathrow ready to start the approach to runway 9L - as tower has chosen runway 9R for departures, with the winds of 87@22 - the plane is at 18,000 ft and is heading at 270 (towards the left of our screen...). Did you remember that the landing direction would be towards the right of the screen? I hope so... Anyway, planes need to be at 2,500 ft about 8NM away from the airport heading in the correct direction to intercept the magical [[Instrument Landing System|ILS12953 de profundis]] device that will guide them perfectly onto the runway. We know we need to keep the plane at 8,000 ft until its past OCK, and then get it down to 2,500 and onto the grey dotted line leading to the left runway (9L) for the ILS and tower to take the passengers safely to the ground. Formulate a plan: accept the hand-off, descend the plane to 8,000 and send it directly towards OCK VOR, at OCK descend it to 2,500 and fly it past OCK on 270, then turn it to 360 (north, easier to read than '0') up the grey dotted line pointing north, then turn it to 45 so that is cuts the grey-dotted line at 90 to runway 9L... when the plane is on a course taking it through extended center-line (an imaginary line representing a line extending from the runway) it is said to be intercepting the localizer. The plane can then be told to get itself onto this extended center-line as the ILS will warn the plane when it needs to turn to establish itself on the line. Since the airplane is on the wrong side of the airport, we fly three sides of a rectangle, the first is known as the down-wind (since you land heading up-wind), then the next 'leg' is known as the base, and the red-line shows the final. If the plane was coming from the west, he could just fly a 'straight-in' approach, also known as an extended final - as the plane only flies a very long final. The orange line shows the 'intercepting the localizer' as the plane will continue to fly this heading until the ILS tells it to turn right onto the center-line of the runway. As soon as the plane reports it's established on the localizer (it has direction signals), it can be cleared for the approach and told to descend with the glideslope which gives the plane height signals. The glideslope and localizer give precision approach information and are known - together - as the ILS (Instrument Landing System). Then get the plane to the tower, because - remember - you may well be dealing with planes taking off which you need to get out of your air-space, and other planes trying to get established on the ILS, as the tower wants written a steady stream of well-separated planes on the ILS. You hopefully now know what you're supposed to be doing, but how do we do it. We'll look at each stage in turn. '''B-ELIO: B-ELIO with you at 18,000 for Heathrow. Information Alpha. (Your ATIS - might contain weather, voice IP?)'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, Radar Contact, alpha is current. d/m 8,000 and direct OCK please.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: rgr, down to 8,000 to OCK.''' Great... B-ELIO will now get to OCK and be at 8,000. Just before he gets to OCK, you need to issue the next instructions so VFR tutorial that he can be ready for them: '''You: B-ELIO, d/m 2,500 continue present heading and expect ILS approach to runway 9L at Heathrow.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: rgr, 2,500 on my heading for 9L, B-ELIO.''' OK so far? Now let's head him towards the airport. This is the base leg: '''You: B-ELIO, turn right heading 360 (for base) the for base is for information and is usually left out.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: t/r (turn right) 360, B-ELIO''' This is where judgment and cunning use of the feature for monitoring heading and distance come into play. It is also your duty to give the plane the frequency for the ILS (in the form xxx.xx) which can be found at www.ivao.aero/db/ss (or from database, sector system) using the search facility. The plane just hit the extended center-line at least 8NM away from the airport, so make sure takes you issue the turn to 45 at the correct time, otherwise B-ELIO will miss the ILS. Right place, so... '''You: Turn right heading 45 to intercept the localizer on 119.21 to 9L and report established.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: right to 45 for LLZ to 9L, will report established''' B-ELIO will now get himself onto the localizer and call: '''B-ELIO: established''' This is your cue to clear him for the approach and allow him to descend (otherwise he'll fly perfectly over the runway at 2,500ft). This is done with the following command: '''You: B-ELIO, rgr (I heard the 'established') cleared the ILS approach to 9L, descend with the g/s.<br />B-ELIO: Cleared ILS approach.'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, contact the tower on 118.52 (if there is a tower, else you'll have to do the job... and look up the tower frequency in who's on-line)'''<br />'''B-ELIO: Over to the tower, thanks for your help.''' That's your job done! As the approach controller you have the most work, so don't be afraid to give planes holds. A hold is a request for a plane to circle around a given fix (e.g.: a VOR) at a given height until you can do something with them. In fact, if you have lots of planes all circling a VOR, it's known as a 'stack' because the plane's are stacked there. So, we could get three planes holding at the OCK VOR (while we waited for traffic to decrease) at 6,000 ft, 8,000 ft and 10,000 ft and add new planes to the top and take planes ready for the approach sample flight from the bottom. To give a hold, the basic command is: ''Hold at <vor name> VOR at <current altitude/10,000 etc. / FL120 etc.>, expect further clearance in <time> minutes.'' Which requests the pilot flies around the <vor name> VOR at the assigned altitude until you give him a new clearance. The expect further clearance KRNO (e.g.: expect further clearance in 10 minutesReno Tahoe) just gives the pilot some idea of the delay and does not give the pilot the right to start flying away after that time is over! The full clearance for holding is as follows, but usually you can just use the one above unless you specifically need to avoid a plane coming to a certain side of the VOR: '''Hold <north/east/south/west> of the <vor name> VOR on the <approach heading> radial, expect further clearance in <time> minutes.''' The approach heading is the heading at which you want the plane to approach the VOR. So, hold north of the OCK VOR on the 270 radial would ask the pilot to fly to OCK on a hdg of 270 and then to hold so he's always north of the fix. A hold is a racing track shaped rectangle. The key to remember as the approach controller is to, wherever the planes coming from, remember its height is just as important as its direction when it comes to landing - 2,500 ft KBIH (above ground levelEastern Sierra Regional) for the ILS.  Disaster! You've got a propeller aircraft doing an approach and you've started a 747 on the same approach behind it. There's nothing to hold it at, and there getting very close -- what do you do? You could take the plane away and start the approach again, but using an orbit -- a circle to the left or right and then on the original heading -- will increase your time, just give: '''You: B-ELIO, one orbit to the left please for spacing.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: wilco''' Also, sometimes as approach you will want to slow a plane down to ensure that it isn't conflicting with a plane already on approach in front... if they are too close, the second plane will end up missing his approach because the plane in front will still be on the runway. '''You: B-ELIO, slow to 210kts'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, slow to minimum feasible speed please'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, maintain minimum 190kts ''etc.''''' Anyway, back to our imaginary covers VFR flight in which B-ELIO is flying the approach and is back with the tower... == Lesson 6 ==Tower now has B-ELIO who is now cleared for the ILS approachplanning, so can descend to the decision height. The decision minimum height is the height above the airport to which the plane can descend before being cleared to land. The plane cannot pass the decision height until he has visual contact (that is, he can see) the runway he wants to land on. If he cannot see the runway he will execute a missed approach phraseology and go around for another approach. The pilot will report to the tower: '''B-ELIO: B-ELIO with you to land 9L.'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, Rgr. (you do not need to give radar contact, as the pilot no longer needs a radar service. He is using ILS)''' You can then give the landing clearance, or - more likely - you can delay the clearance until he is 8NM from the airport and so are more certain that he will be able to land. The 8NM point of the approach is marked by a special device that causes a tone and light tips in the plane's cockpit. This device is known as the outer marker (O/M or OM)great detail. You can ask the pilot to tell you at this point for get his clearance: ''Cross Country Tutorial'You: B-ELIO, report the O/M for landing clearance'''<br />'''B-ELIO: rgr<br />'''B-ELIO: at O/M''' '''You: B-ELIO, winds 109@17, runway 9L, cleared to land.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: 9L, cleared to land, B-ELIO.''' Your aim as the tower is to clear the plane to land to avoid it having to miss its approach, and get other planes taking off between the landing planes, whilst maintaining separation between the planes. You must remember to account for the fact that a plane trying to land may miss its approach, and have to fly past the airport -- so make sure you turn slower planes away from the airport quickly in case a jet needs to continue past the runway.  After B-ELIO has landed, while he's still on the runway, you still control him. You want him off your runway as soon as possible, so you can land the next plane (otherwise, if he's still anywhere on the runway, you'd have to give a landing plane a missed approach), so[http'''You: B-ELIO take first taxi-way to <left/right> then contact ground on 121.65 (look up frequency in who's on-line)'''<br />'''B-ELIO: Thanks for your help, switching to groundforum.''' And your job is doneflightgear... let's look at a worse scenario. You landed a plane before B-ELIO and for some reason it hasn't been able to get off the runway yet. You must not let B-ELIO land whilst any other plane is on the runway, so you order B-ELIO to miss his approach: '''You: B-ELIO initiate missed approach immediately, corg/m 6000 on runway heading, and contact approach on 192viewtopic.72 (again, use who's on-line)<br />B-ELIO: Missed approach, and will contact approach.''' Approach will then climb the plane back to 6,000 ft (as it is almost a departure now) and complete the down-wind and base legs again (possibly on the other side of the airfield, depending on traffic). The plane can then be vectored back onto approach by the approach controller, and then given back to tower to try again. Of course a plane can initiate their own missed approach. '''B-ELIO:''' No visual on runway, going around (same as missed approach), B-ELIO.<br />You: Rgr, c/m 6000 left to 60 (perhaps there's traffic straight aheadphp?) and contact approach on 192.f=72.''' Once, B-ELIO is back with the ground controller, having taxied just off the runway, he will be given instructions to taxi to the terminal building. If there is no ground, the tower controller can just give a 'taxi to parking' order without specialized instructions&t=19600 dedicated forum thread].
That concludes the average flight in ProController== Tips ==* This tutorial, but for the next (and last) page sake of this lesson contains some information that simplicity and brevity, assumed no other aircraft was present. On multiplayer servers you may want might be instructed to knowhold your position, give way to other aircraft or hold (make circles) over a point to remain separate from other aircraft; check the [[ATC phraseology]] page for example: the words specific phraseology used to represent single letter (ein those situations.g.: alpha for A * Follow the guidelines detailed in ATIS[[ATC best practices]] to make the experience enjoyable for everyone.* When practicing controlled flying, make sure you know your aircraft well (you should be able to maintain an assigned speed, altitude and lima for L as in heading), go to a less trafficked airport and tell the controller it'taxi-way limas your first time interacting via ATC.* ' as opposed to 'taxi-way L'Remember to read back (repeat)the clearances; it is the only way for the controller to know whether you received them correctly or not.'''* Execute the clearances while reading them back.
== Notes ==
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