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ATC Tutorial

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Approaching the destination airport: correct info
''See also [[{{ATC]]''-navbar}}{{Main article|Air traffic control}}
== Introduction ==[[Air traffic control|Air Traffic Control]] is an agreed procedure and process which keeps the [[aircraft]] separated to ensure that they don't crash into each other or are affected by turbulence when passing through the same air space. This article, probably more directly useful for pilots, will teach you that procedure and will hopefully help you to enjoy controlled areas and airports on the FlightGear multiplayer servers.
Air Traffic control is an agreed procedure and process which keeps the aircraft separated to ensure that they don't crash into each other or are affected by turbulence when passing through the same air space. The separation of planes taking off or landing at airports is three minutes. This allows the air to settle again. Pilots have used an analogy of calling the atmosphere soup as air and liquid has similar properties. In order to be able to effectively and reliably communicate, ATC and pilots agree on a set of keywords and jargon. This may vary between regions and the like. English is the agreed language for internaltional flights. (Could someone check if this it eh case?)  ==Lesson 1Controller roles ==The roles a controller can assume mirror the ones that a pilot can encounter in "real life" aviation:{| class="prettytablewikitable"! alignscope="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEFcol" | Position Suffixsuffix! alignscope="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEFcol" | Name! align="center" bgcolorscope="#EFEFEFcol" | Description|-| xxxx_DL| Clearance Delivery| Checks flight plans submitted by pilots (or creates them) to make sure no aircraft intersects the route of another one at the same time and that visibility conditions and cruise altitude are adequate. Revokes or amends the flight plans as necessary. Assigns squawk (transponder) codes. Gives aircraft clearances (authorizations to fly to a destination airport via a certain route).
|xxxx_GND xxxx_GN|Ground Controller|Controls the movement of aircraft on the ground at an airport(stands, apron, however only the taxiways and bays.).Issues taxi clearances, assisting pilots if needed. Controls the ''inactive'' runways, but does not control the ''active runways. Whenever '' ones; thus, a plane pilot generally needs to contact Tower to enter or cross an active runwaythem (at some fields, it has to call the tower.|-|xxxx_TWR|Ground coordinates with Tower Controller|'Owns' the runways and the airspace until 10 NM (nautical miles) from the airport. Clears planes for takeoff and landing.|-|xxxx_APP|Approach Controller|Controls the airspace up is able to 30NM away from the airport, up to 18,000 ft (usuallyissue runway crossing clearances). Handles all aircraft leaving or arriving at an airport, until they are established on the ILS (then gives the plane to TWR) or are leaving their airspace to continue flight (then hands off to CTR)
|xxxx_DEPxxxx_TW|Departure Controller Tower|An position rarely used except at busy airports in Controls the real world which relieves ''active'' runways and the work-load of airspace up to 10 NM (nautical miles) from the approach controller by handling all airport; chooses the departures, runways to use; clears planes for takeoff and getting them away from arrivals as quickly as possiblelanding, leaving the approach controller free to handle arrivals (the hard bit)making sure that they are at least 10 NM or three minutes apart.
|xxxx_CTRxxxx_AP|(ARTCC) Center ControllerApproach|Centers own all Controls the airspace not controlled by APP or TWR. They control up to 30 NM away from the plane while en routeairport, and get it from X up to Y safely18,000 ft (usually). Handles all aircraft leaving or arriving at an airport, until it can be descended and given to they are established on the approach controllerILS/have the runway in sight (then gives the plane to TWR) or are leaving their airspace to continue their flight (then hands them off to CTR). Ensures that aircraft is adequately separated.
|xxxx_FSSxxxx_DE|Flight Service StationDeparture|Flight Service Stations cover large areas (e.g.: France) This position is rarely used, except at busy airports; it handles all the departures and provide support hands them off to pilots and controllersCTR, leaving the approach controller free to handle only arrivals. They can advise pilots of weather and frequencies for other controllers. They do not provide Air Traffic ControlCoordinates closely with the approach controller to prevent collisions.
|xxxx_DELxxxx_CT|Clearance DeliveryCenter|Clearance Delivery is rarely used in FlightSimsCenter (sector) controllers own all airspace not controlled by APP/DEP or TWR. In They control the real worldplane while en route, a and get it from X to Y safely, until it can be instructed to descend and given to the approach controller would give a clearance .<ref>In some areas (which explains where the plane is allowed to flye.g. France) Center controllers are supplemented by Flight Service Stations (FSS) to all planes, but the ease of giving a clearance in the virtual worldwhich provide useful information (weather, means the Tower can normally give the clearancefrequencies...) to pilots and do ''not'' offer air traffic control.</ref>
* The '"xxxx' " in the table replace a code used to identify the area that controller is using. These ; these are known as [[''ICAO]] codes, '' and can be found on the [http://www.airport-technology.com/icao-codes/ ICAO web-siteAirport Codes list]. For example, Heathrow London Gatwick is 'EGLL' "EGKK" so a Heathrow Gatwick Tower Controller would log-in as EGLL_TWR''EGKK_TW''.* Center controllers also have ICAO identifiers, but they are not for one airport, but for a larger area. For example, ''LFFF_CT'' is France Center, and ''LFFF_FS'' is the France Flight Service Station.* At large airports, multiple controllers may man the same positions.
Centers and flight service stations also have ICAO identifiers, but they === Controller roles in FlightGear ===Since there are not for one airportmany ATCs in FlightGear, but for often a larger areasingle controller fills more than one position. For Generally speaking:* a controller filling a particular position also fills the positions below him/her (the one listed before in the table above) if no one else is covering it; for example, LFFF_CTR if ''EGKK_TW'' (a Gatwick Tower Controller) is France Centeronline, and LFFF_FSS but there is no ''EGKK_GN'', the Tower controller acts also as Ground controller;* as an exception to the rule above, Tower controllers often act also as Approach controllers for the France Flight Service Stationrespective airports.
You may also see === Handoffs ===If more than one controller is manning an area, the callsigns xxxx_SUP and xxxx_OBSfirst controller should tell the pilot to contact the second controller when the airplane is about to enter the airspace of the latter. These are used only in This is usually done with the virtual world and representphrase: "callsign, respectively, a supervisor and an observer (someone who isn't controlling)'contact'' station ''on'' frequency".
So now == IFR vs VFR flights =={{Main article|Flight rules}}A distinction you should know for flying in controlled areas is the one between IFR and VFR flights, as flight planning and some phraseology are different.* VFR (Visual Flight Rules) can choose your positionapply when a pilot is able to orientate and recognize other aircraft and obstacles visually (that means, for example, but beware: if you are the approach controller sky should be clear of clouds at an low altitudes near the airport which doesn't have a ground / tower controllerwhen taking off and landing, planes will expect you to offer them light must be sufficient, and there must be little or no fog at all those facilities, but if you ); they are a London Center controller, you are not expected to offer center facilities to airplanes used mainly in an adjacent sector, but could be expected to offer very basic facilities of GND / TWR / APP to airports general aviation;* IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) apply in your sector..all other cases.
==Lesson 2Getting and reading charts =={{Main article|Getting aeronautical charts}}You should [[Getting aeronautical charts|get aeronautical charts]] for the airports you intend to fly from/to, specifically:{| class="wikitable"! scope="col"| Chart type! scope="col"| Description|-| Airport information| Describes the characteristics of the airport and provides a list of radio frequencies.|-| Ground (aerodrome chart/airport diagram)| Depicts the taxiways and runways of a specific airport; used while taxiing from and to the terminal.|-| SID/STAR| Used for instrument departures and arrivals.|-| VFR| Those charts are used for VFR flights and usually depict minimum safe altitudes for each area, as well as reporting points (you must report your position to ATC when flying over them).|}
Now== Phraseology ===== A sample IFR flight ===We will teach the phraseology through an IFR sample flight from LEBL (Barcelona) to EDDF (Frankfurt am Main). For simplicity, weassume that all controller positions (delivery, ground, tower, approach/departure and center) are manned; also, we assume our callsign is 'll have a look at each of 'BAW1542'' (to be read as ''Speedbird one five four two'').==== Planning the positions in detailsflight ===={{Main article|Flight planning}}It's a good practice to file a flight plan on [http://flightgear-atc.alwaysdata.net/ Lenny's website] so that the controllers will be able to know your departure/destination airports, cruising altitude and route without asking you about that every time.
===_GND (Ground)===Ground is possibly Follow the easiest (but most boring) position available instructions on the [[Flight planning]] article to controllers. The basic responsibility is to get planes to and file a flightplan from the runway and terminal buildings as quickly as possible (LEBL to save fuel and time) and to avoid planes colliding EDDF with each other. For this, you'll need a GROUND SECTOR FILE. These are very detailed maps cruising altitude of a particular airport (can be downloaded from the Sector System on IVAO) which hold all the taxiways as geographic data (press F5 to view)FL250.
Depending ==== Getting the departure clearance ====We start on the airportapron at terminal T1, the taxiways may have letters, or descriptions (e.g.: Inner Taxiway) or each section of the airport may have a number (called blocks). At Heathrow, the last two are used, so a statement like 'taxi to block 76 via the outer taxi-way' would be validstand 221.
===_TWR (Tower)===Tower has responsibility for all planes coming into or out of The first thing we need to do is to check the airport, current air pressure and the which runway is being used; as a general rule, planes wishing to enter or cross should be heading into the active runwayswind for takeoff and landing. For Tower you can use any sector file with the airport shownTo accomplish this, and center on your airport and zoom in we need to give your short listen to the ''ATIS'' (10NMAutomatic Terminal Information Service) range. The first responsibility is to choose which , a prerecorded message describing weather information, the runways to in use (thereand other important information for pilots; it's always at least 2 - one runway being used either direction) according transmitted continuously on a dedicated radio channel. The frequency to use is written in the weather (more later). You will Airport information chart and can also be expected to give IFR clearancesfound by clicking on ''AI -> ATC Services in Range -> LEBL'': in our case, but this is very simpleit's 121.970 MHz.
The biggest responsibility We open the tower has is Radio panel, set the COM1 frequency to ensure that planes can take-off 121.97 and land as quickly as possiblelisten to the ATIS message:* '''LEBL ATIS:''' ''This is El Prat information Alpha. Landing runway two five right. Departure runway two five left. Transition level five zero. Wind two zero zero degrees, without any one zero knots. Visibility one zero km or more, few two collidingthousand five hundred feet. Your approach Temperature two two, dewpoint one zero. QNH one zero one eight. No significant change. On initial contact advise controller should make sure you have information Alpha.''This tells us that all planes arriving are well spaced and already heading directly for the :# We're going to depart from runway25L. When a plane you've given permission # We need to take-off to has left set the ground, they are given straight altimeter to APP 1018 hPa<ref>European airports generally use hPa (Approachhectopascals) for the QNH while American ones use inHg (inches of mercury). Normally, there will Some airplanes allow you to enter QNH values using both units; if that is not be a ground controllerthe case, so you may have will need to also give basic ground instructions (just ask use a plane converter.</ref> and set it back to get standard pressure (STD) at the transition level (FL050, or 5000 feet).# Every ATIS broadcast is identified by a progressive letter of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NATO_phonetic_alphabet NATO phonetic alphabet]; we'll need to tell the runway - delivery controller that we have information "Alpha" so that (s)he can check whether we have the latest information or not giving them directions .Note also that numbers are spelled out for clarity - but warn them of any other traffic)this will be done in all further communication.
===_APP We now get the clearance (Approachauthorization to fly to a destination airport)===from the delivery controller. The process is as follows.# We get the Delivery frequency from the Airport information chart or the ATC Services in Range window (in this case, the frequency is 121.800 MHz) and tune COM1 to it (or connect on Mumble and join the delivery channel, or just talk on the Multiplayer chat).<ref>Each controller is free to use FGCom, Mumble or just the text chat as (s)he wishes; generally speaking, everyone accepts ATC via chat and, if voice communication is offered, that is announced on initial contact. Prefer voice communication if possible as it enhances realism and because speaking is quicker than typing.</ref># We contact the controller and ask for the clearance. (It is the pilot who needs to initiate contact with ATC, not the opposite). ''Tip: note down the clearance on a piece of paper as it's difficult (and risky) to memorize it.''# The Delivery controller gives us the clearance including:#* our callsign;#* whether we've got the latest ("current") ATIS information or not;#* our destination airport;#* the departure SID/waypoints;#* the route we'll need to follow (if it is not mentioned, we'll follow the route we wrote in our flight plan);#* the initial and cruising altitude;#* the squawk ([[transponder]]) code we'll need to set.# We read back (repeat) the clearance to confirm we understood it correctly.# The controller corrects any mistakes we've made and then hands us off to the Ground controller.
Approach is the most complicated position. Approach controllers deal with all traffic arriving and leaving (unless there is a departures controller - unusual). The main aim, as always* '''BAW1542:''' El Prat Delivery, this is Speedbird one five four two, requesting delivery to keep the aircraft arriving and leaving separatedFrankfurt, flight level two five zero, we have information Alpha. For departing traffic* '''El Prat Delivery:''' Speedbird one five four two, the aim Alpha is current, cleared to get them going in the right direction and give them to center as soon as possible; for arriving trafficFrankfurt via OKABI three Whiskey, the aim is initial altitude five hundred feet, expect flight level two five zero after ten minutes, squawk four zero zero zero.* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared to get them onto the approach (the Frankfurt via OKABI three Whiskey, initial altitude five hundred feet, expect flight level two five zero after ten minutes, squawk four zero zero zero, Speedbird one five four two.* '''El Prat Delivery:''' Speedbird one five four two, readback correct height and heading) so that they can follow an electronic system (the ILS) which gives them exact guidance onto the runway, and then you can hand them off to the towercontact El Prat Ground on one two one decimal six five zero.* '''BAW1542:''' Contact El Prat Ground on one two one decimal six five zero, who will clear them to land and try and get planes taking off in between the landingsSpeedbird one five four two.
The difficulty is, of coursecontroller asked us to follow the OKABI3W SID after departure - get the SID charts, dealing with find it and look at the high volumes of traffic around an airportchart or read the text route descriptions. In Lesson 3this case, SIDs the SID prescribes pilots to climb to 500 ft, turn left to intercept radial 199 PRA and STARs are introduced which are standard ways of leaving be at least at 2500 ft at 8 NM from or arriving PRA; intercept radial 287 VNV and pass VNV at an airport which ensure that planes maintain separation5000 ft; turn right to KARDO, pass KARDO at FL120 and proceed direct OKABI. If you've got the Level-D files from [http://www.navigraph.com/ Navigraph], select the SID in the [[Route Manager]] dialog for the route to be automatically entered; otherwise, use the Route Manager to input the VORs and waypoints manually.
===_DEP (Departures)===An unusual position in We also set the virtual world, transponder code and switch the departure controller controls all planes leaving an airport; normally _APP will handle these but sometimes traffic means that there is just too much for a single controller transponder to do. It is Ground mode (if the aim of the departures controller to get the departing aircraft away from the airport as soon as possible without interfering with approach's planes. Later, you will see that departures are kept below a certain altitude until theywe're a distance away so that any arrivals can fly over them without any mid-air collisionsusing supports this functionality).
In this position you absolutely must co-ordinate very closely ==== Pushing back and starting up ====Before pushing back (being pushed away from the stand with a tug) and starting up, we need to get appropriate clearances from the approach Ground controller. This ensures we won't block taxiways unnecessarily.
===_CTR (ARTCC - Center)===* '''BAW1542:''' El Prat Ground, Speedbird one five four two at stand two two one, request pushback.Center handles all airplanes in a specific area which are en route and not getting ready to land or having just departed* '''El Prat Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, El Prat Ground, pushback approved, facing south. They navigate the plane from place to place as quickly as possible whilst ensuring that planes stay separated from each other. A plane may deal with many centers as it passes over many countries in a flight* '''BAW1542:''' Pushback approved, facing south, Speedbird one five four two.
Notice how I've mentioned separation in every description? SEPARATION We then push back, making sure the aircraft is turned towards ("facing") south at the first key to controlling. It does not matter how far out its way a plane has to go if you keep everybody on board alive. A pilot may well want to have landed five minutes earlier, but it's your job as end of the controller to keep them separated. Of coursemaneuver, having said that, the second key to controlling is expedite flow - that is keep traffic moving quickly and get it where it wants ask for permission to go by the most direct routestart our engines.
==Lesson 3==Let[[File:LEBL-stand220-pushback.png|center|thumb|800px|Our aircraft's look at a plane taxiing to the runway and taking off now. So, to do this, we'll consider two controllers: ''ground control position after pushback (_GND) noon and the tower (_TWRnight view).''Note that the taxiway centerlines are not lit in proximity of stands.]]
First, we have to know which runway is being used so that ground can get the plane to the right place. The rule is * 'planes always like to be heading into the wind for takeoff or landing'. The winds are given in the METAR like 'xxxyyBAW1542:'. The direction of the wind is given first in 3 digits'' Speedbird one five four two, and the speed after that in 2 digits; so 11007 indicates winds of 7kts with a direction of 110 (magnetic heading)request startup. Winds under 5 kts can be considered * 'calm' and can be ignored. Thus, the basic idea is to match the heading of the wind, and the runway heading (add a '0El Prat Ground:' to the runway number - 17L is 170) as closely as possible. Runways are numbered by knocking the '0' off the headingSpeedbird one five four two, and appending startup approved.* 'L' for left or 'RBAW1542:' for right if there are parallel runways'' Startup approved, Speedbird one five four two.
At HeathrowAfter that, there are runways 9L we start our engines and 9R, and the same runways (used in opposite directions) 27R and 27L. If the wind is 110º @ 15 kts then runways 9L and 9R are most suitable, complete our checklists as 90 and 110 are only 20 degrees away, but 270 and 110 are 160º away! At Heathrow, where there are parallel runways, one runway can be used for landing and the other for taking off - so a plane can be leaving on 9L while another is almost landing on 9R. Where there is only one runway, the same runway can be used to landing and taking off. It is important to notice that if an aircraft is taking off on runway 7, and another lands shortly after on runway 7, they are travelling in the same direction, so they are not approaching each other, and a collision is impossiblequickly as possible.
Knowing about your ATIS which can be read by all planes ==== Taxiing to avoid you repeating information, you would want to put the active runways in your ATIS so that other controllers know which runways you have chosen, and so planes have an idea of what they will be expected runway ====We ask for clearance to dotaxi to the departure runway. Always keep your ATIS short (as it * '''BAW1542:''' Speedbird one five four two is hard for the pilots ready to read a long ATIS)taxi.* '''El Prat Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, taxi to holding point Echo two via Lima and delete any blank lines at the end. The other component of your ATIS should be the current weatherEcho, so a good ATIS for a tower or ground controller would beQNH one zero one eight.* '''BAW1542:''' Taxi to holding point Echo two via Lima and Echo, QNH one zero one eight, Speedbird one five four two.
''London Heathrow Ground/Tower Information <alpha/bravo/charlie/delta/echoThe current QNH may be repeated by the ground controller, even if we have just heard it on the ATIS, as a reminder to set it to the correct value - so check it.After that, open the ground chart and check your taxi route before starting, as in some cases taxi signs will not be present at all intersections..>. Active runways are 9R for departuresYou will notice that the controller cleared us only to holding point E2, so, once there, we'll need to report our position and 9L for arrivalsawait further instructions. Weather The holding point ismarked by a '' 'stop bar''(copy from METAR)''' ''110@15 FEW030 OVC090 Q1015 NOSIG. On initial contact report you have <alphaa dotted/bravo/charlie/delta/echo...>'' ; continuous yellow line: the only detail to note here is dotted one faces the use of alpha/bravorunway while the continuous line faces the taxiway, etc. Each time to remind you update your ATIS change that you need a clearance to cross the identifier up by onerunway, so start with alpha, then use bravo, then charlie. This and it is used so that when a plane calls you and says 'information alpha' you know if he has current information or an old versionlit at night by means of pulsing yellow lights).
Now that the active runway has been established Taxi to E2 as instructed at a maximum speed of 30 knots and ''hold short'' (stop) just before the ATIS set-up, you can go about controllingstop bar. First, thoughRemember that, while the controller may instruct you need to know some basic guidelines about contact. Usually, expect a ''hold position'' (stop) and ''give way'' to another plane , it's still your responsibility not to call you first. They collide with buildings, vehicles or other aircraft; also, should give their current locationyou at any point become unsure of your position, callsign (used to identify each plane) stop at once and which ATIS they have, so:ask the ground controller.
'''B-ELIO<gallery widths=400px mode=packed>File: Ground, this is BLEBL-ELIO at the terminal, Information AlphaE3. Request clearance png|Taxiing to Paris Orlyintersection E3 - no ground signs are present, so you should use the ground chart as a reference.File:LEBL-E2.png|Approaching holding point E2.File:LEBL-E2-stopbar.png|Close up of the E2 stop bar.'''</gallery>
B-ELIOWe contact the ground controller to tell him/her we're at E2.* '''BAW1542:''' Speedbird one five four two, a planewe're holding short Echo two.* '''El Prat Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, has called you telling you where he is, what information he hascleared to cross runway zero two, taxi to holding point Golf one via Echo one and what he wantsKilo. To reply, you need to tell him whether the information is current (* 'Alpha is current') or new information ('New active runway is 23BAW1542:') '' Cleared to cross runway zero two and reply taxi to his requestholding point Golf one via Echo one and Kilo, Speedbird one five four two.
First, we earlier mentioned IFR clearance. This allows We then cross the controller to know where the plane is going, runway without delay and to plan ahead for the aircraftturn left on K. If Near K2 you remember looking at can notice a Flight Strip in lesson 1''CAT II/III holding point'' (marked by an empty yellow rectangle with vertical lines, you will recall it allows a controller to see the destination of the aircraft, the route the aircraft will follow and the requested altitude. The aim of the clearance is just to confirm these details equipped with the pilot, especially in the real''fixed'' lights) -world that's where they may be altered due to traffic levels, to make sure there arenwe would stop if visibility was reduced or if another aircraft was landing using ILS; since that't any mistakes s not the case and everyone knows what's going we were cleared to happenG1, just proceed. The clearance is as follows:
'''<Callsigngallery widths=400px mode=packed> is cleared to <destination> as filed''' (give any changes to File:LEBL-K2.png|The CAT II/III K2 stop bar.File:LEBL-G1.png|Approaching the flight plan here)G1 stop bar. '''After takeoff c/m''' (climb and maintain) '''<altitude> on runway heading / and turn <left/rightgallery> to <heading>, expect <requested flight level> after 10 minutes. Squawk <transponder code>.'''
HereWe stop at G1 while the ground controller instructs us to contact the tower:* 's an example clearance''El Prat Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, contact El Prat Tower on one one eight decimal three two zero, goodbye!* '''BAW1542:''' Contact El Prat Tower on one one eight decimal three two zero, Speedbird one five four two, bye!
'''You: B-ELIO ==== Lining up and taking off ====We contact Tower on text chat, FGCom or Mumble (depending on the tools the controller is cleared using) to Paris Orly as filed. After get our takeoff c/m 6clearance. It will include,000 in that order:# the wind direction and turn left to heading 180 speed;# wind gusts, if any;# warnings (south) expect FL310 after 10 minuteslike wake turbulence, rain. Squawk 5201..), if any;# the runway number;# the words ''cleared for takeoff''.
The clearance can be given whilst on the ground* '''BAW1542:''' El Prat Tower, and is given by Clearance Delivery (_DEL) if Speedbird one is onlinefive four two, else the GROUND (_GND), or TOWER (_TWR) controllerholding short Golf one. The pilot must read-back the whole clearance, to which you confirm by saying * 'readback correct'. The Squawk code 'El Prat Tower:''' Speedbird one five four two, wind is a number used to identify the plane. It can be seen on the flight plan (will default to 1200) and means - in the real world - a controller can tell the dots apart as each two one has a number. Just assign an available number in the 5000 or 6000 range (eg: 6001zero at five, 6002runway two five left, 6003, etccleared for takeoff.)* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared for takeoff two five left, Speedbird one five four two.
'''B-ELIO: B-ELIO {{note|If a tower controller clears an aircraft for takeoff while it is still on a taxiway, the pilot is also cleared to Orly as filed. c/m 6000 left 180 - expect FL310 after 10, and squawk 5201.You: B-ELIO, readback correct, call when ready enter the runway &ndash; there is no need to push-back and start-up.B-ELIO: B-ELIO requests start-issue a separate ''line up and push-back.'wait''instruction.}}
Here a push-back We set the transponder to ''On'' so that the controllers and start-up means he wants a vehicle other aircraft will be able to pull see us on radar screens and the plane away from [[Traffic alert and collision avoidance system|TCAS]], line up, take off and follow the buildings so he can start his enginesSID... this is a real-world callAfter the takeoff, and is not used in the virtual worldtower controller will hand us off to the departure controller:* '''El Prat Tower:''' Speedbird one five four two, so just approve it. He might skip this entirely and just ask if he can taxicontact Departure on one two six decimal five zero zero, otherwise saygoodbye!* '''BAW1542:''' Contact Departure on one two six decimal five zero zero, Speedbird one five four two.
We switch to the departure frequency and contact the controller:* '''YouBAW1542: Cleared to push-back ''' El Prat Departure, Speedbird one five four two passing ''current altitude'', OKABI three Whiskey departure.* '''El Prat Departure:''' Speedbird one five four two, radar contact, climb and start enginesmaintain flight level two five zero. Call when ready to taxi* '''BAW1542:''' Climb and maintain flight level two five zero, Speedbird one five four two.
B-ELIO will then call you when he's ready We climb to taxiFL250 and continue following the SID waypoints. Note you donWhen we't have to type B-ELIO, just click on his icon on re approaching the screen and ProController automatically inserts it for you. You can often just respond with final fix (OKABI) the controller will tell us to follow our flightplan:* 'roger' or 'rgrEl Prat Departure:' which means you've heard what the other person has said' Speedbird one five four two, resume your own navigation, frequency change approved, or goodbye!* 'wilco' which means you have heard and will obey. When he calls to taxi'BAW1542:''' Resuming our own navigation, frequency change approved, Speedbird one five four two, bye!
We're now free to follow our flightplan - it''B-ELIO: rgr (s a good practice to keep an eye on the push-back multiplayer map to check for traffic and start-up clearance). Ready to taxi to the active runwayannounce altitude changes/turns on text chat if other pilots are nearby.You: B-ELIO<ref>In real world flying, Taxi we would be handed off to runway 9 (or whatever Tower has chosen) center controllers and hold shortwe would report our position over special points, altimeter 1009marked as black triangles in the charts.B-ELIO: to runway 9 and h/sSince center controllers are not common in FlightGear, alt 1009, B-ELIO (hthis is not usually done.</s is short for hold short)'''ref>
Hold short asks ==== Approaching the plane to get close to the point given (here, the runway) without actually getting destination airport ====We start descending on our own so as to reach FL150 approximately 100 NM from the pointdestination airport. Each runway has a line painted on When we're about 80 NM from EDDF we check the ground (ATIS for the holding line) destination airport, just like we did at which a plane waiting to takeLEBL -off will wait until he is cleared onto in this case the runway (tower's duty)frequency is 118. If you put 02. We tune in the plane on the runway, tower might be landing a plane and this plane might well land on top of it! The altimeter is given now so COM1 radio to that you are sure that the plane has the correct altimeter setting, frequency and listen:* '''EDDF ATIS:''' ''This is just good practiceFrankfurt information Echo. Even with it in your ATISLanding runway zero seven right. Departure runway zero seven center. Transition level five zero. Wind zero two zero degrees, and their take-off checksfour knots. Visibility one zero km or more, it never hurts to be safefew four thousand eight hundred feet. Your aim as ground Temperature one niner<ref>"Niner" is just used instead of "nine" to get a queue ready avoid confusion between the similarly sounding "nine" and "nein", the German word for takeoff so that tower has aircraft ready to takeoff when there's a gap in arrivals"no". </ref>, dewpoint zero seven. QNH one zero one eight. No significant change. On initial contact advise controller you have information Echo.''
If We then contact the pilot needs to cross a runwayapproach controller (in this case Langen Radar, he'll stop before the runway and ask for clearance118. You just direct him to ask the tower for this 45 MHz):* '''BAW1542:''' Langen Radar, Speedbird one five four two at flight level one five zero, we have informationEcho. Imagine for a second that there* 's another plane taxiing to the runway as well''Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two, radar contact, Echo is current, descend and maintain five thousand feet, proceed direct UNOKO... tell the plane to give way* '''BAW1542:''' Descend and maintain five thousand feet, proceed direct UNOKO, Speedbird one five four two.
'''You: B-ELIO, Taxi We proceed to runway 9 the UNOKO waypoint and hold short. Give way descend to 5000 ft, as instructed. At 5000 ft we set the American Airlines 747 taxiing from left altimeter to rightthe local QNH (1018 hPa).'''
Now When we're near UNOKO the pilot approach controller will have to give way to the 747 moving in front of him from his left to his right. If B-ELIO was also an American Airlines, you can use the word contact us and assign us a STAR (standard arrival route):* 'Company' to mean 'of the same companyLangen Radar:' so 'Give way to company 747..' Speedbird one five four two, cleared UNOKO one Mike arrival.* ''' would be legalBAW1542:''' Cleared UNOKO one Mike arrival, Speedbird one five four two. As a ground controllerNow we follow the altitudes and route in the STAR &ndash; in this case, with a detailed mapwe fly over UNOKO, you might like IBVIL, MANUV, RAMOB and proceed to give full details of the way you want him to go, but normally the controller can just give a simple statement like the ones above:TAU.
We hold (circle) over TAU until the controller instructs us to continue the approach:* '''YouLangen Radar: B-ELIO''' Speedbird one five four two, taxi via Inner Taxiway to block 53, then left onto taxi-way B to runway 9turn right heading one four zero, descend and hold shortmaintain three thousand feet, reduce speed to two five zero knots.* '''BAW1542:''' Turn right heading one four zero, descend and maintain three thousand feet, reducing speed to two five zero knots, Speedbird one five four two.
Now We now engage the plane is ready to get onto autopilot's heading select mode, fly the runway given heading, reduce our speed and takeoffcontinue our descent as cleared. After a couple of minutes, you hand him off the controller calls us and instructs us to TWR, using use the method you learnt in Lesson 1 by right-clicking on [[Instrument Landing System]] to get towards the plane, selecting runway:* 'aircraft >' and then 'request handoffLangen Radar:'' and select the appropriate controller. This will ask the controller for a hand-off and' Speedbird one five four two, when they accept, the circles around the plane will change colour, you can now go through the same menu and choose hand-off which will give B-ELIO the following messagecleared ILS approach runway zero seven right. In the real world, you* 'd actually say it''BAW1542:''' Cleared ILS approach runway zero seven right, and in IVAO, you can just type it without using the automated system: Speedbird one five four two.
As soon as the localizer is alive we engage the autopilot's localizer mode and, as soon as the glideslope is alive, we switch to approach mode and descend on the glide. The controller will call us one last time to hand us over to Frankfurt Tower:* ''You'Langen Radar: B-ELIO''' Speedbird one five four two, contact the tower frequency 119Frankfurt Tower on one one niner decimal niner zero.7 (you* 'd have to look up the frequency in who is on-line)''BAW1542:''' Contact Frankfurt Tower on one one niner decimal niner zero, Speedbird one five four two.
So now, it's ==== Landing ====We switch to 119.90 MHz and/or join the Frankfurt Tower's turn channel on Mumble, then contact the tower controller to get this plane off into the skylanding clearance.It will include:# the wind direction and speed;# wind gusts, if any;# warnings (like wake turbulence, rain...), if any;# the runway number;# the words ''cleared to land''.
If you were awaiting a plane to land* '''BAW1542:''' Frankfurt Tower, you could just leave the plane queuingSpeedbird one five four two, but if you are ready to have him on the runway tell him to get into position on the ILS approach runwayzero niner right. Remember* '''Frankfurt Tower:''' Speedbird one five four two, it is your job to get aircraft onto and off the runways as quickly as possibleFrankfurt Tower, so that planes can wind zero one zero degrees, five knots, runway zero seven right, cleared to land and take-off quickly.* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared to land, runway zero seven right, Speedbird one five four two.
'''You<gallery widths=400px mode=packed>File: BEDDF-ELIO, taxi into position and holdfinalapproach.png|Short final to runway 07R.B-ELIOFile: Position and hold, BEDDF-ELIOlanding-07R.'''png|Landing on 07R.</gallery>
One thing to note, Europeans may use the terminology 'line up We land on 07R and wait' in stead of 'position vacate'' (exit) the runway at the earliest opportunity, making sure not to block other aircraft and holdnot to enter a taxiway marked with a ' - it means exactly 'NO ENTRY'' sign; in this case, we vacate on the sameleft, since the terminal is on the left. You may also (On occasion, the controller will ask us to vacate on a specific side or to use a conditional clearance, specific exit). We are now asked to make your job easierswitch to Ground:* '''Frankfurt Tower:''' Speedbird one five four two, contact Frankfurt Ground on one two one decimal eight zero.* '''BAW1542:''' Contact Frankfurt Ground on one two one decimal eight zero, Speedbird one five four two.
==== Taxiing to the stand and shutting down ====We switch the transponder to ground mode and check the ground chart to get the name of the taxiway we are on; in our case, we have vacated the runway on taxiway M15. We then contact the ground controller:* '''YouBAW1542: B-ELIO''' Frankfurt Ground, Speedbird one five four two on Mike one five, runway zero seven right vacated.* '''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, Frankfurt Ground, taxi into position and to holding point Mike one four via Mike, hold [after the arriving B747 / following the departing B757]short of Mike one four.* '''BAW1542:''' Taxi to holding point Mike one four via Mike, hold short of Mike one four, Speedbird one five four two.
We taxi to holding point M14, stop and report our position to the controller, so that (s)he can coordinate with Tower and clear us to cross the active runway 07C.* '''BAW1542:''' Speedbird one five four two, holding short Mike one four.* '''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, standby. ''(The plane may give controller will ask Tower for crossing clearance &ndash; it might take a call back when hebit.)'s ready like 'ready * '''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, cleared to gocross zero seven center, taxi to Lima via Lima niner.* ' or 'on the numbers' or BAW1542:'in position'' Cleared to cross zero seven center, taxi to Lima via Lima niner, Speedbird one five four two. If notAt this point, just wait until his icon stops moving and give him his takeoff clearance:we resume taxiing, making sure to cross the runway expeditiously.
'''You: B-ELIO, winds calm/110@15, runway 9, cleared to takeoffB-ELIO: Cleared to takeoff.''' The plane will commence his take-off roll, and - as soon as he is airborne - you want to get rid of him and get onto your next plane. You initiate Since the hand-off to approach, taxiways and handoff as soon as (s)he accepts. So now, onto approaches dealings... ==Lesson 4==''(In this section the approach controller is presumed to be handling departures, as there apron are very, very rarely departure managed by two different controllers. If there were a departure controller, (s)he would deal with a departing plane, and the approach ground controller would deal with any planes arriving)'' So approach now has a plane that wants will hand us off to get on with its flight. The first thing to notice was the clearanceapron controller:* ''climb and maintain 6,000...'' It wasn't explained last page, but the reason for this low height is to ensure that planes arriving at the airport - also at low heights - that are arriving from the takeoff end of the airfield are kept above the departing planes. If arriving planes are only cleared down to 8,000 ft. then - even if they have to fly over the airport and turn around - they cannot conflict with departing planes. For this reason, departing planes are usually cleared to 6,000 and arriving planes to 8,000 until they are on the 'safe' (non-departure) side of the runway.  Let's look at how the hand-off occurs this timeFrankfurt Ground:'''EGLL_TWR: B-ELIOSpeedbird one five four two, contact EGLL_APP Apron East on 119.72, good-dayone two one decimal niner five.B-ELIO (to you): Heathrow Approach, good-day, this is B-ELIO out of 1,700 for 6,000 on runway heading* ''' This time, because the plane is in the air, you want to acknowledge you can see him on the radarBAW1542:'''You: B-ELIO, Radar ContactApron East on one two one decimal niner five, continue to 6,000Speedbird one five four two... (and right to 120)''' The aim now is We switch to get the plane heading in the right direction (that is, towards the first VOR or NDB - remember how they're shown on the display - listed in the Flight Strip, or just in the general direction of the country he's heading to. When the planes far enough away from the airport, or there's no other traffic, climb him up to 12,000 - 18,000ft new frequency and hand him off to center. Now, a few words about giving the plane vectors (headings), rememberreport:  * Don't expect the plane to respond instantly... think ahead. By the time he's got your message and started to turn he might be 1 NM further on that you expected.* If he's heading directly to a 'fix' (any VOR, NDB or Intersection) give them a 'direct <place>' order like 'B-ELIO, turn left direct BIG' - don't bother trying to figure out headings when you've been given an easy way. * Consider your heading -- are you sure you mean 90 and not 270? If the aircraft is heading to the left of the screen, he's flying a heading of 270 and not 90!! This may seem obvious, but is one of the biggest problems for new controllers. Now the plane's in the sky, a big, bold few words about separationBAW1542:'''Keep your planes at least 3NM from each otherApron East, or at least 1,000 ft vertically between them. If you think the planes will eventually come too close, don't wait -- turn or descend Speedbird one immediately! In order to make collisions between planes traveling in opposite directions less likely, use this rule:''' {| class="prettytable"! align="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" | ! align="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" ||- |Plane flying headings 0-179 |Fly at ODD FLIGHT LEVELS |-|Plane flying headings 180 - 359 |Fly at EVEN FLIGHT LEVELS |} What are Flight Levels? Flight Levels are used to shorten heights -- you should recognize them from the plane's blip -- you simply remove the five four two last digits from the heighton Lima nine, for example 32,000ft --> FL320. Also, when you talk about Flight Levels, the pilot uses a standard altimeter setting (instead of the local altimeter setting found after the Q in the METAR weather report in the bottom right of your screen); while at low altitudes the plane will use the local barometric pressure. This means that all planes cruising will think 32,000 ft is at the same place, and not vary slightly depending on the local pressure.  Your aim is request taxi to get the planes in the right direction at a height ready for hand-off to an ARTCC (_CTR) and away from the airport. Once you've done it pass your plane onto the centre controller. It is a good idea to use the .chat <callsign of controller> function to ensure that you and your center agree on what places and heights you'll hand off atstandNow the planes with Centre. The same hand-off procedure as above applies... wait for the first contact. When you* 've got it, identify the plane, and report 'radar contact'. If a plane is in your airspace and wonApron South:'t contact you try asking on your frequency, then try a quick switch to 121.50 to send a 'Contact EGTT_CTR on 132.600' to get the plane's attention. Using 121.50 (the Guard Frequency) is used when you can't contact a plane -- all planes within a few hundred miles will hear your broadcastSpeedbird one five four two, irrespective of who it was intended for! Remember to switch back to your frequency -- you don't want everyone to hear your broadcasts for the rest of eternity (or perhaps you do; I certainly don't). Centers job is pretty easy until its busy. Read the planes intended route and just get the plane to fly it. If there are other planesApron East, make sure they don't collide. Since opposite traveling planes will have a 1,000 ft separation (using the table above) you shouldn't need taxi to worry that much. Other than that, listen to the pilot's requests stand Delta five via Lima and help him where you canNovember one. When you get to your ARTCC boundary hand-off to the next centre, or - if there isn't one - give the order: * '''YouBAW1542: B-ELIO, no control available in France, resume own navigation to Belgium, radar service terminated''' This statement removes all your requirements Taxi to control the plane, as it now knows that your not watching on radar, stand Delta five via Lima and you're not going to help him navigate. When you are navigating as centre - if the flight plan doesn't include a route - find the start and end pointsNovember one, and plan a quick route (either direct - give Speedbird one heading - or by 'hopping' from VOR to VOR)five four two.  These terms are used often while controlling to confirm or deny requests and answer any questions: {| class="prettytable"! align="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" | ! align="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" ||- |Affirmative (sometimes affirm or aff)|Yes or correct|-|Negative (sometimes neg)|No or incorrect|-|Confirm...|Is it correct that...|-|Unable...|Sorry, I cannot accept your request for...|-|Roger (almost always rgr)|I've heard and understood your last transmission|-|Wilco |I will comply with your orders (implies Roger)|-|Standby (sometimes stby)|Please wait, I will call you back when I am free.|}
'''Some examples of these:'''<gallery widths=400px mode=packed>* '''YouFile:''' Confirm current altitude is FL310EDDF-M15.png|Taxiing on M15. **'''B-ELIOFile:''' Negative, FL290* '''BEDDF-ELIO:''' Request descent crossing-07C.png|Approaching holding point M14 and preparing to FL290 cross runway 07C. Note that the stop bar is not lit, only the ground sign tells you to hold short of the runway &ndash; so be careful.**'''YouFile:''' Unable FL290 (there is already traffic at FL290?)EDDF-L.png|Taxiing on L.</gallery>
When We taxi to the plane is nearing its final destination, make sure it has descended to between 18,000 stand and 22shut down,000 ft. This means that also switching the approach controller can take the plane and descend it quickly -- ittransponder off &ndash; there's no good trying need to descend ask a plane 35,000 ft clearance for that. Our flight is now finished.==== This tutorial in 20 NM video format ====The departure and still get it to landarrival presented in this tutorial have also been recorded. Notice that Some interactions were simplified, the plane result should remain above 18,000 ft (in your airspace) until you've handed off. Approach might decide not however be more close to take the plane and have what you make it fly circles in usually experience on the sky for 20 minutes until he has some room; otherwise arrivals and departures might crash while they're being handed over!multiplayer network. Closed captions are available.
'''You=== A sample VFR flight ===[http:''' B-ELIO, d/m /forum.flightgear.org/memberlist.php?mode=viewprofile&u=12953 de profundis] has written a VFR tutorial that takes you for a sample flight from KRNO (descend and maintainReno Tahoe) 18,000 on QNH 1221, right to 270 KBIH (Eastern Sierra Regional) and expect hand-off to approach covers VFR flight planning, phraseology and tips in five minutesgreat detail. You can get his ''Cross Country Tutorial'B-ELIO' from the [http:''' down to 18,000 on 1221, will expect approach in five, B-ELIO//forum.flightgear.org/viewtopic.php?f=72&t=19600 dedicated forum thread].
What is the QNH? == Tips ==* This is an altimeter setting. As tutorial, for the plane will shortly sake of simplicity and brevity, assumed no other aircraft was present. On multiplayer servers you might be moving back instructed to local pressurehold your position, and not give way to other aircraft or hold (make circles) over a point to remain separate from other aircraft; check the flight level standard pressure, the pilot must know [[ATC phraseology]] page for the local pressurespecific phraseology used in those situations. This ensures that his diagrams which give him * Follow the height of guidelines detailed in [[ATC best practices]] to make the airfield above sea level are correct -- if experience enjoyable for everyone used .* When practicing controlled flying, make sure you know your aircraft well (you should be able to maintain an assigned speed, altitude and heading), go to a standard altimeter setting at low altitudes the less trafficked airportand tell the controller it's height would seem your first time interacting via ATC.* '''Remember to fluctuate over a period of hours by a few hundred feet! And finally:read back (repeat) the clearances; it is the only way for the controller to know whether you received them correctly or not.'''* Execute the clearances while reading them back.
'''You:''' B-ELIO, contact EGLL_APP on 192.72== Notes ==<references />
I'm not sure how we ended up at Heathrow, but that's another story![[Category:Air Traffic Control]]

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