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ATC Tutorial

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Approaching the destination airport: correct info
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{{Main article|Air Traffic Controltraffic control}}
[[Air traffic control|Air Traffic Control]] is an agreed procedure and process which keeps the [[aircraft]] separated to ensure that they don't crash into each other or are affected by turbulence when passing through the same air space. The separation of planes taking off or landing at airports is three minutes. This allows the air article, probably more directly useful for pilots, will teach you that procedure and will hopefully help you to settle again. Pilots have used an analogy of calling enjoy controlled areas and airports on the atmosphere soup as air and liquid has similar propertiesFlightGear multiplayer servers.
In order to be able to effectively and reliably communicate, ATC and pilots agree on a set of keywords and jargon. This may vary between regions and the like. English is the agreed language for internaltional flights. <!-- <ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.icao.int/icao/en/trivia/peltrgFAQ.htm#23 |title=IDAO FAQ |accessdateController roles =2009-03-03 |dateformat=lmdy}}</ref> --> ==Lesson 1==The roles a controller can assume mirror the ones that a pilot can encounter in "real life" aviation:{| class="prettytablewikitable"! alignscope="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEFcol" | Position Suffixsuffix! alignscope="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEFcol" | Name! alignscope="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEFcol" | Description|-| xxxx_DL| Clearance Delivery| Checks flight plans submitted by pilots (or creates them) to make sure no aircraft intersects the route of another one at the same time and that visibility conditions and cruise altitude are adequate. Revokes or amends the flight plans as necessary. Assigns squawk (transponder) codes. Gives aircraft clearances (authorizations to fly to a destination airport via a certain route).
|-
| xxxx_GND xxxx_GN|Ground Controller|Controls the movement of aircraft on the ground at an airport(stands, apron, however only the taxiways and bays.).Issues taxi clearances, assisting pilots if needed. Controls the ''inactive'' runways, but does not control the ''active runways. Whenever '' ones; thus, a plane pilot generally needs to contact Tower to enter or cross an active runwaythem (at some fields, it has Ground coordinates with Tower and is able to call the towerissue runway crossing clearances).
|-
! bgcolor="#EFEFEF" align="left" |xxxx_TWRxxxx_TW! bgcolor="#EFEFEF" align="left" |Tower Controller! bgcolor="#EFEFEF" align="left" |Controls the ''active'Owns' the runways and the airspace up to 10 NM (nautical miles) from the airport. Clears ; chooses the runways to use; clears planes for takeoff and landing, making sure that they are at least 10 NM or three minutes apart.
|-
|xxxx_APPxxxx_AP|Approach Controller|Controls the airspace up to 30NM 30 NM away from the airport, up to 18,000 ft (usually). Handles all aircraft leaving or arriving at an airport, until they are established on the ILS /have the runway in sight (then gives the plane to TWR) or are leaving their airspace to continue their flight (then hands them off to CTR). Ensures that aircraft is adequately separated.
|-
! bgcolor="#EFEFEF" align="left" |xxxx_DEPxxxx_DE! bgcolor="#EFEFEF" align="left" |Departure Controller ! bgcolor="#EFEFEF" align="left" |An This position is rarely used , except at busy airports in the real world which relieves the work-load of the approach controller by handling ; it handles all the departures, and getting hands them away from arrivals as quickly as possibleoff to CTR, leaving the approach controller free to handle only arrivals (. Coordinates closely with the hard bit)approach controller to prevent collisions.
|-
|xxxx_CTRxxxx_CT|(ARTCC) Center Controller|Centers Center (sector) controllers own all airspace not controlled by APP /DEP or TWR. They control the plane while en route, and get it from X to Y safely, until it can be descended instructed to descend and given to the approach controller.|-! bgcolor="#EFEFEF" align="left" |xxxx_FSS! bgcolor="#EFEFEF" align="left" |Flight Service Station! bgcolor="#EFEFEF" align="left" |Flight Service Stations cover large <ref>In some areas (e.g.: France) and Center controllers are supplemented by Flight Service Stations (FSS), which provide support to pilots and controllers. They can advise pilots of useful information (weather and , frequencies for other controllers. They do not provide Air Traffic Control.|-|xxxx_DEL|Clearance Delivery|Clearance Delivery is rarely used in FlightSims. In the real world, a controller would give a clearance (which explains where the plane is allowed to fly) to all planes, but the ease of giving a clearance in the virtual world, means the Tower can normally give the clearancepilots and do ''not'' offer air traffic control.</ref>
|}
* The '"xxxx' " in the table replace a code used to identify the area that controller is using. These ; these are known as [[''ICAO]] codes, '' and can be found on the [http://www.airport-technology.com/icao-codes/ ICAO web-siteAirport Codes list]. For example, Heathrow London Gatwick is 'EGLL' "EGKK" so a Heathrow Gatwick Tower Controller would log-in as EGLL_TWR''EGKK_TW''.* Center controllers also have ICAO identifiers, but they are not for one airport, but for a larger area. For example, ''LFFF_CT'' is France Center, and ''LFFF_FS'' is the France Flight Service Station.* At large airports, multiple controllers may man the same positions.
Centers and flight service stations also have ICAO identifiers, but they === Controller roles in FlightGear ===Since there are not for one airportmany ATCs in FlightGear, but for often a larger areasingle controller fills more than one position. For Generally speaking:* a controller filling a particular position also fills the positions below him/her (the one listed before in the table above) if no one else is covering it; for example, LFFF_CTR if ''EGKK_TW'' (a Gatwick Tower Controller) is France Centeronline, and LFFF_FSS but there is no ''EGKK_GN'', the Tower controller acts also as Ground controller;* as an exception to the rule above, Tower controllers often act also as Approach controllers for the France Flight Service Stationrespective airports.
You may also see === Handoffs ===If more than one controller is manning an area, the callsigns xxxx_SUP and xxxx_OBSfirst controller should tell the pilot to contact the second controller when the airplane is about to enter the airspace of the latter. These are used only in This is usually done with the virtual world and representphrase: "callsign, respectively, a supervisor and an observer (someone who isn't controlling)'contact'' station ''on'' frequency".
So now == IFR vs VFR flights =={{Main article|Flight rules}}A distinction you should know for flying in controlled areas is the one between IFR and VFR flights, as flight planning and some phraseology are different.* VFR (Visual Flight Rules) can choose your positionapply when a pilot is able to orientate and recognize other aircraft and obstacles visually (that means, for example, but beware: if you are the approach controller sky should be clear of clouds at an low altitudes near the airport which doesn't have a ground / tower controllerwhen taking off and landing, planes will expect you to offer them light must be sufficient, and there must be little or no fog at all those facilities, but if you ); they are a London Center controller, you are not expected to offer center facilities to airplanes used mainly in an adjacent sector, but could be expected to offer very basic facilities of GND / TWR / APP to airports general aviation;* IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) apply in your sector..all other cases.
==Lesson 2Getting and reading charts ==Now, we'll have a look at each of the positions in details:{{Main article|Getting aeronautical charts}} ===_GND (Ground)===Ground is possibly the easiest position available to controllers. The basic responsibility is to get planes to and from the runway and terminal buildings as quickly as possible (to save fuel and time) and to avoid planes colliding with each other. For this, you might need a GROUND SECTOR FILE. This is optional as a very detailed map of a particular airport (can be downloaded from the Sector System on IVAO) which hold all the taxiways as geographic data (press F5 to view). Depending on the airport, the taxiways may have letters, or descriptions (e.g.: Inner Taxiway) or each section of the airport may have a number (called blocks). At Heathrow, the last two are used, so a statement like 'taxi to block 76 via the outer taxi-way' would be valid. ===_TWR (Tower)===Tower has responsibility for all planes coming into or out of the airport, and the planes wishing to enter or cross the active runways. For Tower you can use any sector file with the airport shown, and center on your airport and zoom in to give your short (10NM) range. The first responsibility is to choose which runways to use (there's always at least 2 - one runway being used either direction) according to the weather (more later). You will also be expected to give IFR clearances, but this is very simple. The biggest responsibility the tower has is to ensure that planes can take-off and land as quickly as possible, without any two colliding. Your approach controller should make sure that all planes arriving are well spaced and already heading directly for the runway. When a plane you've given permission to take-off to has left the ground, they are given straight to APP (Approach). Normally, there will not be a ground controller, so you may have to also give basic ground instructions (just ask a plane to [[Getting aeronautical charts|get to the runway - not giving them directions - but warn them of any other traffic). ===_APP (Approach)===Approach is the most complicated position. Approach controllers deal with all traffic arriving and leaving (unless there is a departures controller - unusual). The main aim, as always, is to keep the aircraft arriving and leaving separated. For departing traffic, the aim is to get them going in the right direction and give them to center as soon as possible; aeronautical charts]] for arriving traffic, the aim is to get them onto the approach (the correct height and heading) so that they can follow an electronic system (the ILS) which gives them exact guidance onto the runway, and then airports you can hand them off intend to the tower, who will clear them to land and try and get planes taking off in between the landings. The difficulty is, of course, dealing with the high volumes of traffic around an airport. In Lesson 3, SIDs and STARs are introduced which are standard ways of leaving from or arriving at an airport which ensure that planes maintain separation. ===_DEP (Departures)===An unusual position in the virtual world, the departure controller controls all planes leaving an airport; normally _APP will handle these but sometimes traffic means that there is just too much for a single controller to do. It is the aim of the departures controller to get the departing aircraft away from the airport as soon as possible without interfering with approach's planes. Later, you will see that departures are kept below a certain altitude until they're a distance away so that any arrivals can fly over them without any mid-air collisions. In this position you absolutely must co-ordinate very closely with the approach controller. ===_CTR (ARTCC - Center)===Center handles all airplanes in a specific area which are en route and not getting ready to land or having just departed. They navigate the plane from place to place as quickly as possible whilst ensuring that planes stay separated from each other. A plane may deal with many centers as it passes over many countries in a flight.  Notice how I've mentioned separation in every description? SEPARATION is the first key to controlling. It does not matter how far out its way a plane has to go if you keep everybody on board alive. A pilot may well want to have landed five minutes earlier, but it's your job as the controller to keep them separated. Of course, having said that, the second key to controlling is expedite flow - that is keep traffic moving quickly and get it where it wants to go by the most direct route. ==Lesson 3==Let's look at a plane taxiing to the runway and taking off now. So, to do this, we'll consider two controllers: ''ground control (_GND) and the tower (_TWR).'' First, we have to know which runway is being used so that ground can get the plane to the right place. The rule is 'planes always like to be heading into the wind for takeoff or landing'. The winds are given in the METAR like 'xxxyy'. The direction of the wind is given first in 3 digits, and the speed after that in 2 digits; so 11007 indicates winds of 7kts with a direction of 110 (magnetic heading). Winds under 5 kts can be considered 'calm' and can be ignored. Thus, the basic idea is to match the heading of the wind, and the runway heading (add a '0' to the runway number - 17L is 170) as closely as possible. Runways are numbered by knocking the '0' off the heading, and appending 'L' for left or 'R' for right if there are parallel runways. At Heathrow, there are runways 9L and 9R, and the same runways (used in opposite directions) 27R and 27L. If the wind is 110º @ 15 kts then runways 9L and 9R are most suitable, as 90 and 110 are only 20 degrees away, but 270 and 110 are 160º away! At Heathrow, where there are parallel runways, one runway can be used for landing and the other for taking off - so a plane can be leaving on 9L while another is almost landing on 9R. Where there is only one runway, the same runway can be used to landing and taking off. It is important to notice that if an aircraft is taking off on runway 7, and another lands shortly after on runway 7, they are travelling in the same direction, so they are not approaching each other, and a collision is impossible. Knowing about your ATIS which can be read by all planes to avoid you repeating information, you would want to put the active runways in your ATIS so that other controllers know which runways you have chosen, and so planes have an idea of what they will be expected to do. Always keep your ATIS short (as it is hard for the pilots to read a long ATIS), and delete any blank lines at the end. The other component of your ATIS should be the current weather, so a good ATIS for a tower or ground controller would be: ''London Heathrow Ground/Tower Information <alpha/bravo/charlie/delta/echo...>. Active runways are 9R for departures, and 9L for arrivals. Weather is'' '''(copy from METAR)''' ''110@15 FEW030 OVC090 Q1015 NOSIG. On initial contact report you have <alpha/bravo/charlie/delta/echo...>'' ; the only detail to note here is the use of alpha/bravo, etc. Each time you update your ATIS change the identifier up by one, so start with alpha, then use bravo, then charlie. This is used so that when a plane calls you and says 'information alpha' you know if he has current information or an old version. Now that the active runway has been established and the ATIS set-up, you can go about controlling. First, though, you need to know some basic guidelines about contact. Usually, expect a plane to call you first. They should give their current location, callsign (used to identify each plane) and which ATIS they have, sospecifically'''B-ELIO: Ground, this is B-ELIO at the terminal, Information Alpha. Request clearance to Paris Orly.''' B-ELIO, a plane, has called you telling you where he is, what information he has, and what he wants. To reply, you need to tell him whether the information is current ('Alpha is current') or new information ('New active runway is 23') and reply to his request.  First, we earlier mentioned IFR clearance. This allows the controller to know where the plane is going, and to plan ahead for the aircraft. If you remember looking at a Flight Strip in lesson 1, you will recall it allows a controller to see the destination of the aircraft, the route the aircraft will follow and the requested altitude. The aim of the clearance is just to confirm these details with the pilot, especially in the real-world where they may be altered due to traffic levels, to make sure there aren't any mistakes and everyone knows what's going to happen. The clearance is as follows: '''<Callsign> is cleared to <destination> as filed''' (give any changes to the flight plan here). '''After takeoff c/m''' (climb and maintain) '''<altitude> on runway heading / and turn <left/right> to <heading>, expect <requested flight level> after 10 minutes. Squawk <transponder code>.''' Here's an example clearance: '''You: B-ELIO is cleared to Paris Orly as filed. After takeoff c/m 6,000 and turn left to heading 180 (south) expect FL310 after 10 minutes. Squawk 5201.''' The clearance can be given whilst on the ground, and is given by Clearance Delivery (_DEL) if one is online, else the GROUND (_GND), or TOWER (_TWR) controller. The pilot must read-back the whole clearance, to which you confirm by saying 'readback correct'. The Squawk code is a number used to identify the plane. It can be seen on the flight plan (will default to 1200) and means - in the real world - a controller can tell the dots apart as each one has a number. Just assign an available number in the 5000 or 6000 range (eg: 6001, 6002, 6003, etc.). '''B-ELIO: B-ELIO cleared to Orly as filed. c/m 6000 left 180 - expect FL310 after 10, and squawk 5201.'''<br>'''You: B-ELIO, readback correct, call when ready to push-back and start-up.'''<br>'''B-ELIO: B-ELIO requests start-up and push-back.''' Here a push-back and start-up means he wants a vehicle to pull the plane away from the buildings so he can start his engines... this is a real-world call, and is not used in the virtual world, so just approve it. He might skip this entirely and just ask if he can taxi, otherwise say: '''You: Cleared to push-back and start engines. Call when ready to taxi''' B-ELIO will then call you when he's ready to taxi. Note you don't have to type B-ELIO, just click on his icon on the screen and ProController automatically inserts it for you. You can often just respond with 'roger' or 'rgr' which means you've heard what the other person has said, or 'wilco' which means you have heard and will obey. When he calls to taxi: '''B-ELIO: rgr (to the push-back and start-up clearance). Ready to taxi to the active runway.'''<br>'''You: B-ELIO, Taxi to runway 9 (or whatever Tower has chosen) and hold short, altimeter 1009.'''<br>'''B-ELIO: to runway 9 and h/s, alt 1009, B-ELIO (h/s is short for hold short)''' Hold short asks the plane to get close to the point given (here, the runway) without actually getting on to the point. Each runway has a line painted on the ground (the holding line) at which a plane waiting to take-off will wait until he is cleared onto the runway (tower's duty). If you put the plane on the runway, tower might be landing a plane and this plane might well land on top of it! The altimeter is given now so that you are sure that the plane has the correct altimeter setting, and is just good practice. Even with it in your ATIS, and their take-off checks, it never hurts to be safe. Your aim as ground is just to get a queue ready for takeoff so that tower has aircraft ready to takeoff when there's a gap in arrivals.  If the pilot needs to cross a runway, he'll stop before the runway and ask for clearance. You just direct him to ask the tower for this information. Imagine for a second that there's another plane taxiing to the runway as well... tell the plane to give way: '''You: B-ELIO, Taxi to runway 9 and hold short. Give way to the American Airlines 747 taxiing from left to right.''' Now the pilot will have to give way to the 747 moving in front of him from his left to his right. If B-ELIO was also an American Airlines, you can use the word 'Company' to mean 'of the same company' so 'Give way to company 747...' would be legal. As a ground controller, with a detailed map, you might like to give full details of the way you want him to go, but normally the controller can just give a simple statement like the ones above: '''You: B-ELIO, taxi via Inner Taxiway to block 53, then left onto taxi-way B to runway 9, and hold short.''' Now the plane is ready to get onto the runway and takeoff, you hand him off to TWR, using the method you learnt in Lesson 1 by right-clicking on the plane, selecting 'aircraft >' and then 'request handoff' and select the appropriate controller. This will ask the controller for a hand-off and, when they accept, the circles around the plane will change colour, you can now go through the same menu and choose hand-off which will give B-ELIO the following message. In the real world, you'd actually say it, and in IVAO, you can just type it without using the automated system:  '''You: B-ELIO, contact the tower frequency 119.7 (you'd have to look up the frequency in who is on-line)''' So now, it's Tower's turn to get this plane off into the sky...  If you were awaiting a plane to land, you could just leave the plane queuing, but if you are ready to have him on the runway tell him to get into position on the runway. Remember, it is your job to get aircraft onto and off the runways as quickly as possible, so that planes can land and take-off quickly: '''You: B-ELIO, runway 9, line up and wait.'''<br>'''B-ELIO: Runway 9, line up and wait, B-ELIO.''' One thing to note, the phrase 'position and hold' is no longer used, since the FAA adopted the ICAO standard "line up and wait" (since September 30, 2010). You may also use a conditional clearance, to make your job easier: '''You: B-ELIO, runway 9, line up and wait [after the arriving B747 / following the departing B757]''' The plane may give a call back when he's ready like 'ready for departure' or 'on the numbers'. If not, just wait until his icon stops moving and give him his takeoff clearance: '''You: B-ELIO, winds calm/110@15, runway 9, cleared for takeoff'''<br>'''B-ELIO: Cleared for takeoff.''' The plane will commence his take-off roll, and - as soon as he is airborne - you want to get rid of him and get onto your next plane. You initiate the hand-off to approach, and handoff as soon as (s)he accepts. So now, onto approaches dealings... ==Lesson 4==''(In this section the approach controller is presumed to be handling departures, as there are very, very rarely departure controllers. If there were a departure controller, (s)he would deal with a departing plane, and the approach controller would deal with any planes arriving)'' So approach now has a plane that wants to get on with its flight. The first thing to notice was the clearance:''climb and maintain 6,000...'' It wasn't explained last page, but the reason for this low height is to ensure that planes arriving at the airport - also at low heights - that are arriving from the takeoff end of the airfield are kept above the departing planes. If arriving planes are only cleared down to 8,000 ft. then - even if they have to fly over the airport and turn around - they cannot conflict with departing planes. For this reason, departing planes are usually cleared to 6,000 and arriving planes to 8,000 until they are on the 'safe' (non-departure) side of the runway.  Let's look at how the hand-off occurs this time:'''EGLL_TWR: B-ELIO, contact EGLL_APP on 119.72, good-day.'''<br>'''B-ELIO (to you): Heathrow Approach, good-day, this is B-ELIO out of 1,700 for 6,000 on runway heading''' This time, because the plane is in the air, you want to acknowledge you can see him on the radar:'''You: B-ELIO, Radar Contact, continue to 6,000... (and right to 120)''' The aim now is to get the plane heading in the right direction (that is, towards the first VOR or NDB - remember how they're shown on the display - listed in the Flight Strip, or just in the general direction of the country he's heading to. When the planes far enough away from the airport, or there's no other traffic, climb him up to 12,000 - 18,000ft and hand him off to center. Now, a few words about giving the plane vectors (headings), remember:  * Don't expect the plane to respond instantly... think ahead. By the time he's got your message and started to turn he might be 1 NM further on that you expected.* If he's heading directly to a 'fix' (any VOR, NDB or Intersection) give them a 'direct <place>' order like 'B-ELIO, turn left direct BIG' - don't bother trying to figure out headings when you've been given an easy way. * Consider your heading -- are you sure you mean 90 and not 270? If the aircraft is heading to the left of the screen, he's flying a heading of 270 and not 90!! This may seem obvious, but is one of the biggest problems for new controllers. Now the plane's in the sky, a big, bold few words about separation:'''Keep your planes at least 3NM from each other, or at least 1,000 ft vertically between them. If you think the planes will eventually come too close, don't wait -- turn or descend one immediately! In order to make collisions between planes traveling in opposite directions less likely, use this rule:''' {| class="prettytablewikitable"! alignscope="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEFcol" | Chart type! alignscope="centercol" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" ||- |Plane flying headings 0-179 |Fly at ODD FLIGHT LEVELS Description
|-
|Plane flying headings 180 Airport information| Describes the characteristics of the airport and provides a list of radio frequencies.|- 359 |Fly at EVEN FLIGHT LEVELS Ground (aerodrome chart/airport diagram)| Depicts the taxiways and runways of a specific airport; used while taxiing from and to the terminal.|-| SID/STAR| Used for instrument departures and arrivals.|-| VFR| Those charts are used for VFR flights and usually depict minimum safe altitudes for each area, as well as reporting points (you must report your position to ATC when flying over them).
|}
What are Flight Levels? Flight Levels are used to shorten heights -- you should recognize them from == Phraseology ===== A sample IFR flight ===We will teach the plane's blip -- you simply remove the two last digits phraseology through an IFR sample flight from the heightLEBL (Barcelona) to EDDF (Frankfurt am Main). For simplicity, for example 32we assume that all controller positions (delivery,000ft --> FL320. Alsoground, when you talk about Flight Levelstower, the pilot uses a standard altimeter setting (instead of the local altimeter setting found after the Q in the METAR weather report in the bottom right of your screenapproach/departure and center)are manned; while at low altitudes also, we assume our callsign is ''BAW1542'' (to be read as ''Speedbird one five four two'').==== Planning the plane will use the local barometric pressureflight ===={{Main article|Flight planning}}It's a good practice to file a flight plan on [http://flightgear-atc. This means alwaysdata.net/ Lenny's website] so that all planes cruising the controllers will think 32,000 ft is at the same placebe able to know your departure/destination airports, cruising altitude and not vary slightly depending on the local pressureroute without asking you about that every time.
Your aim is to get Follow the planes in instructions on the right direction at [[Flight planning]] article to file a height ready for hand-off flightplan from LEBL to an ARTCC (_CTR) and away from the airport. Once you've done it pass your plane onto the centre controller. It is EDDF with a good idea to use the .chat <callsign cruising altitude of controller> function to ensure that you and your center agree on what places and heights you'll hand off atFL250.
Now ==== Getting the planes with Centre. The same hand-off procedure as above applies... wait for the first contact. When you've got it, identify the plane, and report 'radar contact'. If a plane is in your airspace and won't contact you try asking on your frequency, then try a quick switch to 121.50 to send a 'Contact EGTT_CTR on 132.600' to get the plane's attention. Using 121.50 (the Guard Frequency) is used when you can't contact a plane -- all planes within a few hundred miles will hear your broadcast, irrespective of who it was intended for! Remember to switch back to your frequency -- you don't want everyone to hear your broadcasts for the rest of eternity (or perhaps you do; I certainly don't). Centers job is pretty easy until its busy. Read the planes intended route and just get the plane to fly it. If there are other planes, make sure they don't collide. Since opposite traveling planes will have a 1,000 ft separation (using the table above) you shouldn't need to worry that much. Other than that, listen to the pilot's requests and help him where you can. When you get to your ARTCC boundary hand-off to the next centre, or - if there isn't one - give the order: '''You: B-ELIO, no control available in France, resume own navigation to Belgium, radar service terminated''' This statement removes all your requirements to control the plane, as it now knows that your not watching on radar, and you're not going to help him navigate. When you are navigating as centre - if the flight plan doesn't include a route - find the start and end points, and plan a quick route (either direct - give one heading - or by 'hopping' from VOR to VOR).  These terms are used often while controlling to confirm or deny requests and answer any questions: {| classdeparture clearance ="prettytable"! align="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" | ! align="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" ||- |Affirmative (sometimes affirm or aff)|Yes or correct|-|Negative (sometimes neg)|No or incorrect|-|Confirm...|Is it correct that...|-|Unable...|SorryWe start on the airport apron at terminal T1, I cannot accept your request forstand 221...|-|Roger (almost always rgr)|I've heard and understood your last transmission|-|Wilco |I will comply with your orders (implies Roger)|-|Standby (sometimes stby)|Please wait, I will call you back when I am free.|}
'''Some examples of these:'''* '''You: Confirm The first thing we need to do is to check the current altitude air pressure and which runway is FL310being used; as a general rule, planes should be heading into the wind for takeoff and landing. To accomplish this, we need to listen to the ''ATIS'**'''B-ELIO: Negative(Automatic Terminal Information Service), FL290'''* a prerecorded message describing weather information, the runways in use and other important information for pilots; it's transmitted continuously on a dedicated radio channel. The frequency to use is written in the Airport information chart and can also be found by clicking on ''BAI -ELIO: Request descent to FL290 '''**'> ATC Services in Range -> LEBL''You: Unable FL290 (there is already traffic at FL290?)''in our case, it's 121.970 MHz.
When We open the plane is nearing its final destinationRadio panel, make sure it has descended set the COM1 frequency to between 18,000 121.97 and 22listen to the ATIS message:* '''LEBL ATIS:''' ''This is El Prat information Alpha. Landing runway two five right. Departure runway two five left. Transition level five zero. Wind two zero zero degrees,000 ftone zero knots. Visibility one zero km or more, few two thousand five hundred feet. Temperature two two, dewpoint one zero. QNH one zero one eight. No significant change. On initial contact advise controller you have information Alpha.''This means tells us that :# We're going to depart from runway 25L.# We need to set the approach controller can take altimeter to 1018 hPa<ref>European airports generally use hPa (hectopascals) for the plane and descend it quickly -- it's no good trying QNH while American ones use inHg (inches of mercury). Some airplanes allow you to descend a plane 35enter QNH values using both units; if that is not the case,000 ft in 20 NM you will need to use a converter.</ref> and still get set it back to land. Notice that standard pressure (STD) at the plane should remain above 18transition level (FL050,000 ft (in your airspaceor 5000 feet) until you've handed off. Approach might decide not # Every ATIS broadcast is identified by a progressive letter of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NATO_phonetic_alphabet NATO phonetic alphabet]; we'll need to take tell the plane and delivery controller that we have information "Alpha" so that (s)he can check whether we have you make it fly circles in the sky latest information or not.Note also that numbers are spelled out for 20 minutes until he has some room; otherwise arrivals and departures might crash while they're being handed over! So:clarity - this will be done in all further communication.
'''You: B-ELIO, d/m We now get the clearance (descend and maintainauthorization to fly to a destination airport) 18from the delivery controller. The process is as follows.# We get the Delivery frequency from the Airport information chart or the ATC Services in Range window (in this case,000 the frequency is 121.800 MHz) and tune COM1 to it (or connect on QNH 1221Mumble and join the delivery channel, right or just talk on the Multiplayer chat).<ref>Each controller is free to 270 use FGCom, Mumble or just the text chat as (s)he wishes; generally speaking, everyone accepts ATC via chat and expect hand-off to approach in five minutes, if voice communication is offered, that is announced on initial contact. Prefer voice communication if possible as it enhances realism and because speaking is quicker than typing.'''<br/ref># We contact the controller and ask for the clearance. (It is the pilot who needs to initiate contact with ATC, not the opposite). '''B-ELIOTip: note down to 18,000 the clearance on 1221, will expect approach in five, B-ELIOa piece of paper as it's difficult (and risky) to memorize it.''# The Delivery controller gives us the clearance including:#* our callsign;#* whether we've got the latest ("current") ATIS information or not;#* our destination airport;#* the departure SID/waypoints;#* the route we'll need to follow (if it is not mentioned, we'll follow the route we wrote in our flight plan);#* the initial and cruising altitude;#* the squawk ([[transponder]]) code we'll need to set.# We read back (repeat) the clearance to confirm we understood it correctly.# The controller corrects any mistakes we've made and then hands us off to the Ground controller.
What is the QNH? This * '''BAW1542:''' El Prat Delivery, this is an altimeter setting. As the plane will shortly be moving back Speedbird one five four two, requesting delivery to local pressureFrankfurt, and not the flight level standard pressuretwo five zero, the pilot must know the local pressurewe have information Alpha. This ensures that his diagrams which give him the height of the airfield above sea * '''El Prat Delivery:''' Speedbird one five four two, Alpha is current, cleared to Frankfurt via OKABI three Whiskey, initial altitude five hundred feet, expect flight level are correct -- if everyone used a standard altimeter setting at low altitudes the airporttwo five zero after ten minutes, squawk four zero zero zero.* 's height would seem ''BAW1542:''' Cleared to fluctuate over a period of hours by a few Frankfurt via OKABI three Whiskey, initial altitude five hundred feet! And finally, expect flight level two five zero after ten minutes, squawk four zero zero zero, Speedbird one five four two.* '''El Prat Delivery:''' Speedbird one five four two, readback correct, contact El Prat Ground on one two one decimal six five zero.* '''BAW1542:''' Contact El Prat Ground on one two one decimal six five zero, Speedbird one five four two.
'''You: BThe controller asked us to follow the OKABI3W SID after departure -ELIOget the SID charts, contact EGLL_APP on 192find it and look at the chart or read the text route descriptions.72''In this case, the SID prescribes pilots to climb to 500 ft, turn left to intercept radial 199 PRA and be at least at 2500 ft at 8 NM from PRA; intercept radial 287 VNV and pass VNV at 5000 ft; turn right to KARDO, pass KARDO at FL120 and proceed direct OKABI. If you've got the Level-D files from [http://www.navigraph.com/ Navigraph], select the SID in the [[Route Manager]] dialog for the route to be automatically entered; otherwise, use the Route Manager to input the VORs and waypoints manually.
I'm not sure how We also set the transponder code and switch the transponder to Ground mode (if the aircraft we ended up at Heathrow, but that's another story!re using supports this functionality).
==Lesson 5== Pushing back and starting up ====Our plane, B-ELIO, is now about 40NM east-south-east of Heathrow ready to start Before pushing back (being pushed away from the approach to runway 9L - as tower has chosen runway 9R for departures, stand with the winds of 87@22 - the plane is at 18a tug) and starting up,000 ft and is heading at 270 (towards we need to get appropriate clearances from the left of our screenGround controller...)This ensures we won't block taxiways unnecessarily.
Did you remember that the landing direction would be towards the right of the screen? I hope so... Anyway* '''BAW1542:''' El Prat Ground, planes need to be Speedbird one five four two at 2stand two two one,500 ft about 8NM away from the airport heading in the correct direction to intercept the magical [[ILS]] device that will guide them perfectly onto the runwayrequest pushback. We know we need to keep the plane at 8* '''El Prat Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two,000 ft until its past OCKEl Prat Ground, and then get it down to 2pushback approved,500 and onto the grey dotted line leading to the left runway (9L) for the ILS and tower to take the passengers safely to the groundfacing south. Formulate a plan* '''BAW1542: accept the hand-off, descend the plane to 8,000 and send it directly towards OCK VOR, at OCK descend it to 2,500 and fly it past OCK on 270, then turn it to 360 (north, easier to read than '0') up the grey dotted line pointing north' Pushback approved, then turn it to 45 so that is cuts the grey-dotted line at 90 to runway 9L... when the plane is on a course taking it through extended center-line (an imaginary line representing a line extending from the runway) it is said to be intercepting the localizer. The plane can then be told to get itself onto this extended center-line as the ILS will warn the plane when it needs to turn to establish itself on the linefacing south, Speedbird one five four two.
Since the airplane is on the wrong side of the airport, we fly three sides of a rectangleWe then push back, making sure the first aircraft is known as the down-wind turned towards (since you land heading up-wind"facing"), then south at the next 'leg' is known as end of the basemaneuver, and the red-line shows the final. If the plane was coming from the west, he could just fly a 'straight-in' approach, also known as an extended final - as the plane only flies a very long finalask for permission to start our engines.
The orange line shows the 'intercepting the localizer' as the plane will continue to fly this heading until the ILS tells it to turn right onto the center[[File:LEBL-stand220-line of the runwaypushback. As soon as the plane reports itpng|center|thumb|800px|Our aircraft's established on the localizer position after pushback (it has direction signals), it can be cleared for the approach noon and told to descend with the glideslope which gives the plane height signals. The glideslope and localizer give precision approach information and are known - together - as the ILS (Instrument Landing Systemnight view). Then get Note that the plane to the tower, because - remember - you may well be dealing with planes taking off which you need to get out taxiway centerlines are not lit in proximity of your air-space, and other planes trying to get established on the ILS, as the tower wants a steady stream of well-separated planes on the ILS. You hopefully now know what you're supposed to be doing, but how do we do it. We'll look at each stage in turnstands.]]
* '''B-ELIOBAW1542: B-ELIO with you at 18,000 for Heathrow. Information Alpha. (Your ATIS - might contain weather, voice IP?)'''<br>Speedbird one five four two, request startup.* '''YouEl Prat Ground: B-ELIO, Radar Contact, alpha is current. d/m 8,000 and direct OCK please.'''<br>Speedbird one five four two, startup approved.* '''B-ELIOBAW1542: rgr, down to 8,000 to OCK.'''Startup approved, Speedbird one five four two.
Great... B-ELIO will now get to OCK After that, we start our engines and be at 8,000complete our checklists as quickly as possible. Just before he gets to OCK, you need to issue the next instructions so that he can be ready for them:
==== Taxiing to the runway ====We ask for clearance to taxi to the departure runway.* '''YouBAW1542: B-ELIO, d/m 2,500 continue present heading and expect ILS approach to runway 9L at Heathrow.'''<br>Speedbird one five four two is ready to taxi.* '''B-ELIOEl Prat Ground: rgr''' Speedbird one five four two, 2taxi to holding point Echo two via Lima and Echo,500 on my heading for 9L, B-ELIOQNH one zero one eight.* '''BAW1542:''' Taxi to holding point Echo two via Lima and Echo, QNH one zero one eight, Speedbird one five four two.
OK The current QNH may be repeated by the ground controller, even if we have just heard it on the ATIS, as a reminder to set it to the correct value - so far? Now let's head him towards check it. After that, open the airportground chart and check your taxi route before starting, as in some cases taxi signs will not be present at all intersections. This is You will notice that the base legcontroller cleared us only to holding point E2, so, once there, we'll need to report our position and await further instructions. The holding point is marked by a ''stop bar'' (a dotted/continuous yellow line:the dotted one faces the runway while the continuous line faces the taxiway, to remind you that you need a clearance to cross the runway, and it is lit at night by means of pulsing yellow lights).
Taxi to E2 as instructed at a maximum speed of 30 knots and ''hold short''You: B-ELIO, turn right heading 360 (for basestop) just before the for base is for information and is usually left outstop bar.Remember that, while the controller may instruct you to ''hold position'<br>'''B-ELIO: t/r (turn rightstop) 360, B-ELIOand ''give way'' to another plane, it's still your responsibility not to collide with buildings, vehicles or other aircraft; also, should you at any point become unsure of your position, stop at once and ask the ground controller.
This is where judgment and cunning use of the feature for monitoring heading and distance come into play<gallery widths=400px mode=packed>File:LEBL-E3. It is also your duty png|Taxiing to give the plane the frequency for the ILS (in the form xxx.xx) which can be found at www.ivao.aero/db/ss (or from database, sector system) using the search facility. The plane just hit the extended centerintersection E3 -line at least 8NM away from the airportno ground signs are present, so make sure you issue should use the turn to 45 at the correct time, otherwise Bground chart as a reference.File:LEBL-ELIO will miss the ILSE2. Right place, sopng|Approaching holding point E2.File:LEBL-E2-stopbar.png|Close up of the E2 stop bar.</gallery>
We contact the ground controller to tell him/her we're at E2.* ''You'BAW1542: Turn right heading 45 to intercept the localizer on 119.21 to 9L and report established.'''<br>Speedbird one five four two, we're holding short Echo two.* '''B-ELIOEl Prat Ground: right to 45 for LLZ ''' Speedbird one five four two, cleared to 9Lcross runway zero two, will report establishedtaxi to holding point Golf one via Echo one and Kilo.* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared to cross runway zero two and taxi to holding point Golf one via Echo one and Kilo, Speedbird one five four two.
BWe then cross the runway without delay and turn left on K. Near K2 you can notice a ''CAT II/III holding point'' (marked by an empty yellow rectangle with vertical lines, equipped with ''fixed'' lights) -ELIO will now get himself onto that's where we would stop if visibility was reduced or if another aircraft was landing using ILS; since that's not the localizer case and call:we were cleared to G1, just proceed.
'''B<gallery widths=400px mode=packed>File:LEBL-ELIOK2.png|The CAT II/III K2 stop bar.File: established'''LEBL-G1.png|Approaching the G1 stop bar.</gallery>
This is your cue to clear him for We stop at G1 while the approach and allow him ground controller instructs us to descend (otherwise he'll fly perfectly over contact the runway at 2tower:* '''El Prat Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two,500ft). This is done with the following commandcontact El Prat Tower on one one eight decimal three two zero, goodbye!* '''BAW1542:''' Contact El Prat Tower on one one eight decimal three two zero, Speedbird one five four two, bye!
'''You: B-ELIO==== Lining up and taking off ====We contact Tower on text chat, rgr FGCom or Mumble (I heard depending on the 'established'tools the controller is using) cleared the ILS approach to 9Lget our takeoff clearance. It will include, descend with in that order:# the g/s.<br>wind direction and speed;B-ELIO: Cleared ILS approach.'''<br># wind gusts, if any;'''You: B-ELIO, contact the tower on 118.52 # warnings (if there is a towerlike wake turbulence, else you'll have to do the jobrain... and look up the tower frequency in who's on-line)'''<br>, if any;# the runway number;# the words '''B-ELIO: Over to the tower, thanks cleared for your help.'takeoff''.
That* 's your job done! As the approach controller you have the most work, so don't be afraid to give planes holds. A hold is a request for a plane to circle around a given fix (e.g.'BAW1542: a VOR) at a given height until you can do something with them. In fact''' El Prat Tower, if you have lots of planes all circling a VORSpeedbird one five four two, itholding short Golf one.* 's known as a 'stack' because the planeEl Prat Tower:'s are stacked there. So'' Speedbird one five four two, we could get three planes holding wind is two one zero at the OCK VOR (while we waited for traffic to decrease) at 6five,000 ftrunway two five left, 8,000 ft and 10,000 ft and add new planes to the top and take planes ready cleared for the approach from the bottomtakeoff. To give a hold, the basic command is* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared for takeoff two five left, Speedbird one five four two.
{{note|If a tower controller clears an aircraft for takeoff while it is still on a taxiway, the pilot is also cleared to enter the runway &ndash; there is no need to issue a separate ''Hold at <vor name> VOR at <current altitude/10,000 etc. / FL120 etc.>, expect further clearance in <time> minutes.line up and wait''instruction.}}
Which requests We set the pilot flies around transponder to ''On'' so that the <vor name> VOR at controllers and other aircraft will be able to see us on radar screens and the assigned altitude until you give him a new clearance. The expect further clearance (e.g.: expect further clearance in 10 minutes) just gives the pilot some idea of the delay [[Traffic alert and does not give collision avoidance system|TCAS]], line up, take off and follow the pilot SID. After the right to start flying away after that time is over! The full clearance for holding is as followstakeoff, but usually you can just use the one above unless you specifically need to avoid a plane coming tower controller will hand us off to a certain side of the VORdeparture controller:* '''El Prat Tower:''' Speedbird one five four two, contact Departure on one two six decimal five zero zero, goodbye!* '''BAW1542:''' Contact Departure on one two six decimal five zero zero, Speedbird one five four two.
We switch to the departure frequency and contact the controller:* '''Hold <north/east/south/west> of the <vor name> VOR on the <approach heading> radialBAW1542:''' El Prat Departure, Speedbird one five four two passing ''current altitude'', expect further clearance in <time> minutesOKABI three Whiskey departure.* '''El Prat Departure:''' Speedbird one five four two, radar contact, climb and maintain flight level two five zero.* '''BAW1542:''' Climb and maintain flight level two five zero, Speedbird one five four two.
The approach heading is the heading at which you want the plane We climb to approach FL250 and continue following the VORSID waypoints. So, hold north of When we're approaching the OCK VOR on the 270 radial would ask final fix (OKABI) the pilot controller will tell us to fly to OCK on a hdg of 270 and then to hold so hefollow our flightplan:* 's always north of the fix. A hold is a racing track shaped rectangle.''El Prat Departure:''' Speedbird one five four two, resume your own navigation, frequency change approved, goodbye!* '''BAW1542:''' Resuming our own navigation, frequency change approved, Speedbird one five four two, bye!
The key We're now free to remember as follow our flightplan - it's a good practice to keep an eye on the approach controller is multiplayer map tocheck for traffic and to announce altitude changes/turns on text chat if other pilots are nearby.<ref>In real world flying, wherever the planes coming from, remember its height is just as important as its direction when it comes we would be handed off to landing - 2center controllers and we would report our position over special points,500 ft (above ground level) for marked as black triangles in the ILScharts. Since center controllers are not common in FlightGear, this is not usually done. </ref>
Disaster! You've got a propeller aircraft doing an approach and you've started a 747 ==== Approaching the destination airport ====We start descending on our own so as to reach FL150 approximately 100 NM from the same approach behind itdestination airport. ThereWhen we's nothing to hold it atre about 80 NM from EDDF we check the ATIS for the destination airport, and there getting very close just like we did at LEBL -- what do you do? You could take in this case the plane away and start frequency is 118.02. We tune in the approach againCOM1 radio to that frequency and listen:* '''EDDF ATIS:''' ''This is Frankfurt information Echo. Landing runway zero seven right. Departure runway zero seven center. Transition level five zero. Wind zero two zero degrees, but using an orbit -- a circle four knots. Visibility one zero km or more, few four thousand eight hundred feet. Temperature one niner<ref>"Niner" is used instead of "nine" to avoid confusion between the left or right similarly sounding "nine" and then on "nein", the original heading -- will increase your timeGerman word for "no".</ref>, just give:dewpoint zero seven. QNH one zero one eight. No significant change. On initial contact advise controller you have information Echo.''
We then contact the approach controller (in this case Langen Radar, 118.45 MHz):* '''YouBAW1542: B-ELIO''' Langen Radar, Speedbird one orbit to the left please for spacingfive four two at flight level one five zero, we have information Echo.* '''<br>Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two, radar contact, Echo is current, descend and maintain five thousand feet, proceed direct UNOKO.* '''B-ELIOBAW1542: wilco'''Descend and maintain five thousand feet, proceed direct UNOKO, Speedbird one five four two.
AlsoWe proceed to the UNOKO waypoint and descend to 5000 ft, sometimes as approach you will want to slow a plane down to ensure that it isn't conflicting with a plane already on approach in frontinstructed... if they are too close, At 5000 ft we set the second plane will end up missing his approach because the plane in front will still be on altimeter to the runwaylocal QNH (1018 hPa).
When we'''Youre near UNOKO the approach controller will contact us and assign us a STAR (standard arrival route): B-ELIO, slow to 210kts'''<br>* '''YouLangen Radar: B-ELIO, slow to minimum feasible speed please'''<br>Speedbird one five four two, cleared UNOKO one Mike arrival.* '''YouBAW1542: B-ELIO, maintain minimum 190kts ''etc' Cleared UNOKO one Mike arrival, Speedbird one five four two.Now we follow the altitudes and route in the STAR &ndash; in this case, we fly over UNOKO, IBVIL, MANUV, RAMOB and proceed to TAU.'''''
Anyway, back We hold (circle) over TAU until the controller instructs us to our imaginary flight in which B-ELIO is flying continue the approach :* '''Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two, turn right heading one four zero, descend and is back with the tower.maintain three thousand feet, reduce speed to two five zero knots.* '''BAW1542:''' Turn right heading one four zero, descend and maintain three thousand feet, reducing speed to two five zero knots, Speedbird one five four two.
==Lesson 6==Tower We now has B-ELIO who is now cleared for engage the ILS approachautopilot's heading select mode, so can descend to fly the decision heightgiven heading, reduce our speed and continue our descent as cleared. The decision minimum height is After a couple of minutes, the height above the airport controller calls us and instructs us to which use the plane can descend before being cleared [[Instrument Landing System]] to land. The plane cannot pass get towards the decision height until he has visual contact (that isrunway:* '''Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two, he can see) the cleared ILS approach runway he wants to land onzero seven right. If he cannot see the * '''BAW1542:''' Cleared ILS approach runway he will execute a missed approach and go around for another approachzero seven right, Speedbird one five four two.
As soon as the localizer is alive we engage the autopilot's localizer mode and, as soon as the glideslope is alive, we switch to approach mode and descend on the glide. The pilot controller will report call us one last time to the towerhand us over to Frankfurt Tower:* '''Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two, contact Frankfurt Tower on one one niner decimal niner zero.* '''BAW1542:''' Contact Frankfurt Tower on one one niner decimal niner zero, Speedbird one five four two.
'''B-ELIO: B-ELIO with you ==== Landing ====We switch to land 9L119.'''<br>'''You: B-ELIO90 MHz and/or join the Frankfurt Tower channel on Mumble, Rgrthen contact the tower controller to get the landing clearance. It will include:# the wind direction and speed;# wind gusts, if any;# warnings (you do not need to give radar contactlike wake turbulence, as the pilot no longer needs a radar servicerain... He is using ILS), if any;# the runway number;# the words ''cleared to land''.
You can then give the landing clearance* '''BAW1542:''' Frankfurt Tower, Speedbird one five four two, ILS approach runway zero niner right.* '''Frankfurt Tower:''' Speedbird one five four two, Frankfurt Tower, wind zero one zero degrees, five knots, runway zero seven right, or - more likely - you can delay the clearance until he is 8NM from the airport and so are more certain that he will be able cleared to land. The 8NM point of the approach is marked by a special device that causes a tone and light in the plane* 's cockpit. This device is known as the outer marker (O/M or OM). You can ask the pilot to tell you at this point for his clearance''BAW1542:''' Cleared to land, runway zero seven right, Speedbird one five four two.
'''You: B-ELIO, report the O/M for landing clearance'''<brgallery widths=400px mode=packed>'''BFile:EDDF-ELIOfinalapproach.png|Short final to runway 07R.File: rgrEDDF-landing-07R.png|Landing on 07R.<br/gallery>'''B-ELIO: at O/M'''
We land on 07R and ''vacate'You: B-ELIO, winds 109@17, ' (exit) the runway 9Lat the earliest opportunity, cleared making sure not to land.block other aircraft and not to enter a taxiway marked with a ''NO ENTRY'<br>' sign; in this case, we vacate on the left, since the terminal is on the left. (On occasion, the controller will ask us to vacate on a specific side or to use a specific exit). We are now asked to switch to Ground:* '''B-ELIOFrankfurt Tower: 9L''' Speedbird one five four two, cleared to land, B-ELIOcontact Frankfurt Ground on one two one decimal eight zero.* '''BAW1542:''' Contact Frankfurt Ground on one two one decimal eight zero, Speedbird one five four two.
Your aim as the tower is ==== Taxiing to clear the plane to land to avoid it having to miss its approach, stand and get other planes taking off between shutting down ====We switch the landing planes, whilst maintaining separation between the planes. You must remember transponder to account for ground mode and check the fact that a plane trying ground chart to land may miss its approach, and have to fly past get the airport -- so make sure you turn slower planes away from name of the airport quickly taxiway we are on; in our case a jet needs to continue past , we have vacated the runwayon taxiway M15. We then contact the ground controller:* '''BAW1542:''' Frankfurt Ground, Speedbird one five four two on Mike one five, runway zero seven right vacated.* '''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, Frankfurt Ground, taxi to holding point Mike one four via Mike, hold short of Mike one four.* '''BAW1542:''' Taxi to holding point Mike one four via Mike, hold short of Mike one four, Speedbird one five four two.
After B-ELIO has landedWe taxi to holding point M14, while he's still on stop and report our position to the runway, you still control him. You want him off your runway as soon as possiblecontroller, so you can land the next plane that (otherwise, if he's still anywhere on )he can coordinate with Tower and clear us to cross the active runway07C.* '''BAW1542:''' Speedbird one five four two, youholding short Mike one four.* 'd have to give ''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, standby. ''(The controller will ask Tower for crossing clearance &ndash; it might take a landing plane a missed approachbit.)''* '''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, socleared to cross zero seven center, taxi to Lima via Lima niner.* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared to cross zero seven center, taxi to Lima via Lima niner, Speedbird one five four two.At this point, we resume taxiing, making sure to cross the runway expeditiously.
Since the taxiways and the apron are managed by two different controllers, the ground controller will hand us off to the apron controller:* '''YouFrankfurt Ground: B-ELIO take first taxi-way to <left/right> then ''' Speedbird one five four two, contact ground Apron East on 121one two one decimal niner five.65 (look up frequency in who* 's ''BAW1542:''' Contact Apron East on-line)one two one decimal niner five, Speedbird one five four two.We switch to the new frequency and report:* '''<br>BAW1542:''' Apron East, Speedbird one five four two on Lima nine, request taxi to the stand.* '''B-ELIOApron South: Thanks for your help''' Speedbird one five four two, switching Apron East, taxi to groundstand Delta five via Lima and November one.* '''BAW1542:''' Taxi to stand Delta five via Lima and November one, Speedbird one five four two.
And your job is done<gallery widths=400px mode=packed>File:EDDF-M15.png|Taxiing on M15.. let's look at a worse scenario. You landed a plane before BFile:EDDF-ELIO crossing-07C.png|Approaching holding point M14 and for some reason it hasn't been able preparing to get off the cross runway yet07C. You must not let B-ELIO land whilst any other plane is on Note that the runwaystop bar is not lit, so only the ground sign tells you order B-ELIO to miss his approachhold short of the runway &ndash; so be careful.File:EDDF-L.png|Taxiing on L.</gallery>
'''You: B-ELIO initiate missed approach immediately, c/m 6000 on runway heading, We taxi to the stand and contact approach on 192.72 (againshut down, use whoalso switching the transponder off &ndash; there's on-line)<br>no need to ask a clearance for that. Our flight is now finished.B-ELIO: Missed approach, ==== This tutorial in video format ====The departure and will contact approacharrival presented in this tutorial have also been recorded. Some interactions were simplified, the result should however be more close to what you usually experience on the multiplayer network. Closed captions are available.'''
Approach will then climb the plane back to 6,000 ft (as it is almost a departure now) and complete the down{{#ev:youtube|dA-wind and base legs again (possibly on the other side of the airfield, depending on traffic). The plane can then be vectored back onto approach by the approach controller, and then given back to tower to try again. Of course a plane can initiate their own missed approach.UXATCHuI|400}}{{#ev:youtube|E3yfeWjlyic|400}}
'''B-ELIO:''' No visual on runway, going around (same as missed approach), B-ELIO.<br>=== A sample VFR flight ===You[http: Rgr, c/m 6000 left /forum.flightgear.org/memberlist.php?mode=viewprofile&u=12953 de profundis] has written a VFR tutorial that takes you for a sample flight from KRNO (Reno Tahoe) to 60 KBIH (perhaps there's traffic straight ahead?Eastern Sierra Regional) and contact approach on 192.72covers VFR flight planning, phraseology and tips in great detail.You can get his ''Cross Country Tutorial'' from the [http://forum.flightgear.org/viewtopic.php?f=72&t=19600 dedicated forum thread].
Once== Tips ==* This tutorial, B-ELIO is back with for the ground controllersake of simplicity and brevity, having taxied just off assumed no other aircraft was present. On multiplayer servers you might be instructed to hold your position, give way to other aircraft or hold (make circles) over a point to remain separate from other aircraft; check the runway[[ATC phraseology]] page for the specific phraseology used in those situations.* Follow the guidelines detailed in [[ATC best practices]] to make the experience enjoyable for everyone.* When practicing controlled flying, he will make sure you know your aircraft well (you should be given instructions able to taxi maintain an assigned speed, altitude and heading), go to a less trafficked airport and tell the terminal buildingcontroller it's your first time interacting via ATC. If there * '''Remember to read back (repeat) the clearances; it is no ground, the tower only way for the controller can just give a 'taxi to parkingknow whether you received them correctly or not.' order without specialized instructions''* Execute the clearances while reading them back.
That concludes the average flight in ProController, but the next (and last) page of this lesson contains some information that you may want to know, for example: the words used to represent single letter (e.g.: alpha for A in ATIS, and lima for L as in 'taxi-way lima' as opposed to 'taxi-way L').== Notes ==<references />
[[Category:Air Traffic Control]]
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