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Scripted Compilation on Linux Debian/Ubuntu

4,494 bytes added, 17:22, 4 October 2019
add prerequisites section since dnc doesn't automatically pull these needed tools if they are not already installed.
Apart from its main purpose, <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> can be used to find hopefully up-to-date build-dependency information for FlightGear and related software. You would do so by inspecting [https://sourceforge.net/p/flightgear/fgmeta/ci/next/tree/download_and_compile.sh the script] at the point where it installs packages.<ref name="note-inspecting-download-and-compile-sh-to-gather-build-dependency-information">Look for strings such as <tt>zlib1g-dev</tt>, <tt>libglew-dev</tt> or <tt>qt5-default</tt>.</ref>
== Prerequisites == Before embarking on building your own FlightGear binaries, you must have already installed the necessary tools to compile the source code with. These preliminary tools are * build-essential* git* subversion* cmake* automake They can be installed quite simply by running the following command line.  $ sudo apt-get install build-essential git subversion cmake automake Once these tools are installed, the download_and_compile.sh script can be run. It will install possibly needed additional tools and libraries as it runs. == <span id="disk-space-requirements-and-build-time"></span> Disk space requirements and build time ==
As of April 2019, building FlightGear requires about 12 [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gibibyte GiB] of disk space. Note that this includes downloaded source code for [[SimGear]] and FlightGear, generated build files and the large [[FGData]] repository (about 6 GiB for that one).
Of course, it is always possible to make commands shorter by setting up aliases (see tips at the end of [https://sourceforge.net/p/flightgear/mailman/message/36634426/ this message]), by adding the directory containing <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> to your <tt>PATH</tt> or by creating a symbolink link pointing to <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> in a directory that is part of your <tt>PATH</tt>. This is not necessary, though; do it only if you feel the need (when enabled, persistent shell history is often enough for such things).
{{Note|The following commands should be run from an empty directory<ref name="dedicated-directory-won-t-stay-empty-forever">Well, empty before the first time; later, <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> is going to populate it with plenty of FlightGear files and subdirectories, of course.</ref> in a partition that has enough free space (see [[FGData]] currently takes about 5 [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gibibyte GiB] #disk-space-requirements-and you'll need several more gibibytes to download the [[SimGear-build-time | Disk space requirements and build time]] plus FlightGear sources, and build them. As of April 2019, a complete build including SimGear, FlightGear and FGData requires approximately 12 GiB of disk space). As explained in [[#getting-started-with-download-and-compile-sh-notations|Notations]], we are going to choose the directory <tt>~/flightgear/dnc-managed</tt> for this purpose, in order to express that the whole directory tree is managed by <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt>. This is just an example; feel free to choose another directory if you want.
'''Don't run the commands from a non-dedicated directory,''' because it will be filled with files and directories created by <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> and the FlightGear, SimGear, etc. build systems. That would be a complete mess! In particular, ''don't'' run the commands from the directory containing your [[FGMeta]] clone.}}
There we are! You now have a clean, up-to-date [[FGData]] clone in <tt>~/flightgear/dnc-managed/install/flightgear/fgdata</tt> (remember: <tt>~/flightgear/dnc-managed</tt> is the directory from which you ran <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt>). Note this place: the full path of the <tt>~/flightgear/dnc-managed/install/flightgear/fgdata</tt> directory is your [[$FG_ROOT]].
Now open , change the protocol to use for future updates of your FGData clone:<ttref name="changing-the-protocol-for-a-git-remote-manual-method">[[$FG_ROOT]]Another way would be to manually change the relevant line starting with <code><nowiki>url = ssh://SFusername@</nowiki></code> for the <code>origin</code> remote in the <tt>.git/config</tt> file that lives inside your FGData repository clone (i.e., <tt>~/flightgear/dnc-managed/install/flightgear/fgdata/.git/config</tt> in our example). You should see a paragraph resembling this:</ref> [remote "origin"](cd install/flightgear/fgdata && \ git remote set-url = sshorigin <nowiki>https://''SFusername''@git.code.sf.net/p/flightgear/fgdata fetch = +refs/heads/*:refs</remotes/origin/*nowiki>)Replace (you can check at any time the protocol(s) in use with the command <code>ssh://''SFusername''@git remote -v</code> with run inside a Git repository—in this case, inside the folder <codett>https:install/flightgear/fgdata</codett> and save the file). As a consequence of this change, all future updates of your FGData clone will use the <tt>https</tt> protocol, therefore you won't be prompted anymore for your SourceForge password.
All that remains to do is to run, from the same directory as before (<tt>~/flightgear/dnc-managed</tt> in our example):
$ cd ~/flightgear/dnc-managed
$ ./run_fgfs.sh --launcher
(You may omit the <code>--launcher</code> option; this would simply start FlightGear without any launcher, at the default airport and with the default aircraft.)<br />
In case you find this tedious to type or have more arguments to pass on a regular basis, you can follow the advice given at the end of [https://sourceforge.net/p/flightgear/mailman/message/36634426/ this message] or use another launcher such as [[FFGo]] (but the [[FlightGear Qt launcher|FlightGear built-in launcher]] started with <code>run_fgfs.sh --launcher</code> is quite fine, be sure to try it first!).
$ git log -p -- download_and_compile.sh
== <span id="list-of-available-components"></span> List of compiled programs available components ==
The <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> script is able to download and , compile:* [[SimGear]] (”base libraries” that are part of the FlightGear project, when applicable) and required)* FlightGear* [[FGData]] (base data files that are part of install the FlightGear project, and required)* [httpsfollowing components://cmake.org/ CMake] (in case CMake is too old in your distribution)* [[PLIB]]* [[OpenSceneGraph]]* [[FGRun]]* [[FGo!]]* [[FGX]]* [[TerraGear]]* [[TerraGear_GUI]]* [[OpenRadar]]* [[ATC-pie]]* [[FlightGear HLA support (High Level Architecture) | OpenRTI]]
* ATCPIE (for the [[ATC-pie]] air traffic control simulation program)* CMAKE (for the [https://cmake.org/ CMake] build tool—this can be useful in case CMake is too old in your distribution)* DATA (for [[FGData]], the main set of data files used by FlightGear)* FGFS (for FlightGear itself)* FGO (for the [[FGo!]] FlightGear launcher)* FGRUN (for the [[Fgrun|FGRun]] FlightGear launcher)* FGX (for the [[FGX|FGx]] FlightGear launcher<ref name="note-on-the-status-of-FGx-support-in-download-and-compile-sh">Support for FGx in <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> would probably benefit from a code review.</ref>)* OPENRADAR (for the [[OpenRadar]] air traffic control simulation program)* OPENRTI (for [[FlightGear HLA support (High Level Architecture)#OpenRTI | OpenRTI]]<ref name="note-on-the-status-of-OpenRTI-support-in-FG">Note that OpenRTI is just an optional dependency for [[FlightGear high-level architecture support|HLA support]]. For the time being, you should be just fine building without it. Eventually, the idea is for HLA to replace the existing MP system and even increasingly distribute the FlightGear architecture such that more and more components can be more easily run in separate threads or even separate processes, possibly even on different machines. So this is going to be an important feature for professional users, using several computers and screens to create a comprehensive and immersive simulation environment.<p>At the moment, it is probably safe to say that HLA is only of interest to developers and people willing to play with experimental features.</ref>)* OSG (for the [[OpenSceneGraph]] library)* PLIB (for the [[PLIB]] library)* SIMGEAR (for the [[SimGear]] library—foundation for FlightGear and TerraGear)* TERRAGEAR (for the [[TerraGear]] terrain building toolchain)* TERRAGEARGUI (for [[TerraGear GUI]], a graphical interface for TerraGear)
At Each of the moment, it's probably safe to say that HLA items listed above is only of interest to developers and people willing to play with experimental featuresa ''component'' in <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> terminology. Components are written in uppercase by convention.)
Each of the items listed above corresponds to a ''component'' in <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> terminology. Components are written in uppercase. {{Note|The preceding list of supported ones is currently:* SIMGEAR* FGFS (this corresponds to FlightGear)* DATA (this corresponds to [[FGData]])* CMAKE* PLIB* OSG (this corresponds might not be up-to [[OpenSceneGraph]])* FGRUN* FGO* FGX* TERRAGEAR* TERRAGEARGUI* OPENRADAR* ATCPIE* OPENRTI-date. The up-to-date list of components supported by <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> can always be obtained by running: $ <code>download_and_compile.sh --help</code>.}}
What is the point of knowing this? Because you may pass component names to <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> in order to tell it what you want to download, build and install. By default, only the three essential components SIMGEAR, FGFS and DATA are taken care of, which means that the command:
$ download_and_compile.sh
is equivalent to:
$ download_and_compile.sh SIMGEAR FGFS DATA
{{Note|In this section, we assume you've read and followed the advice given in [[#getting-started-with-download-and-compile-sh|Getting started with <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt>]].}}
For === <span id="selecting-the -components-to-work-on"></span> Selecting the components to build === By default, <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> downloads or updates, then compiles, [[SimGear]] and FlightGear, and downloads or updates [[FGData]] (by nature, FGData can't be compiled). This is what happens when running: $ download_and_compile.shThe preceding command is therefore equivalent to: $ download_and_compile.sh SIMGEAR FGFS DATA To make <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> take care of other programs or libraries, use non-option arguments naming the ''components'' you want, for instance: $ download_and_compile.sh SIMGEAR FGFS DATA OSGSIMGEAR, FGFS, DATA and OSG are the component (names respectively corresponding to [[SimGear]], FlightGear, [[FGData]] and [[OpenSceneGraph]] in <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt>'s terminology. A [[#list-of-available-components|list of available components]] is provided on this page, but the fully up-to-date list can always be obtained by running <code>download_and_compile.sh --help</code>. === Choosing between stable and development versions === By default, <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> fetches code and data from development branches of the source repositories (which sometimes causes compilation or runtime errors). However, there it is possible to tell the script to download the latest ”stable” version of each component, for some suitable definition of “stable”. This is by means of the <code>-s</code> option: $ download_and_compile.sh -s ''COMPONENT1 COMPONENT2...'' How does it work?* For [[SimGear]], FlightGear and [[FGData]], it uses the most recent stable release branch of the corresponding Git repository.* For some components, a known-stable version is hardcoded in <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> and used when the <code>-s</code> option is given<ref name="components-with-a-known-stable-version-hardcoded-in-download_and_compile_sh">As of May 2019, apart from SIMGEAR, FGFS and DATA, the only components for which <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> “knows” a stable version are TERRAGEAR and OPENRTI.</ref> (for instance, the hardcoded information can be the name of a Git branch).* For the other components, the <code>-s</code> option has no effect. {{Warning|In a given folder where <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> is run, you should either always use the <code>-s</code> option, or never. Building some components with <code>-s</code> and others without (all within the same base folder) is not supported.}} Applying what we just said to the FGFS component (FlightGear) leaves us with two main options:* build the latest ''stable'' release;
* build the current development version (bleeding edge), which lives in the {{flightgear source
| branch = next
}} branch of the FlightGear repository.
=== Build = Building the latest stable FlightGear release ====
When executing <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt>, use the <code>-s</code> option to build the latest stable release:
{{Note|If you decide to use the <code>-s</code> option in a given directory tree, you should use it for all components in that directory tree (SIMGEAR, FGFS, DATA, etc.). Running <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> in a given directory with the <code>-s</code> option for some components and not for others is not supported.}}
=== Build = Building the current FlightGear development version ====
When executing <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> without any option, the latest development version of every selected component is built:
$ cd ~/flightgear/dnc-managed
$ download_and_compile.sh
(In this example, the implicitly-selected components are SIMGEAR, FGFS and DATA, as explained [[#selecting-the-components-to-work-on | above]].)
{{Note|The development version of FlightGear changes on an almost daily basis. It provides the latest features, but is not guaranteed to always work reliably. If you don't want to take the risk of finding new bugs when updating, you may prefer to use the latest stable release.}}
 
=== Passing custom arguments to CMake ===
 
Sometimes, when building a program, you may want to enable a feature that is not enabled by default, or disable a feature that is enabled by default. With recent versions of <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> (April 2019 or later), the environment variables <tt>SG_CMAKEARGS</tt> and <tt>FG_CMAKEARGS</tt> allow one to do that for SimGear and FlightGear. For instance, in order to link SimGear with the system Expat library, you can do:
$ SG_CMAKEARGS='-DSYSTEM_EXPAT=ON' download_and_compile.sh SIMGEAR
Similarly, disabling HID-based input when building FlightGear can be achieved this way:
$ FG_CMAKEARGS='-DENABLE_HID_INPUT=OFF' download_and_compile.sh FGFS
 
{{Note|Such options are typically defined in <tt>CMakeLists.txt</tt> files, for example {{simgear source
| path = CMakeLists.txt
| text = here
}} for SimGear and {{flightgear source
| path = CMakeLists.txt
| text = here
}} for FlightGear.}}
 
This can be useful for instance to work around bugs in a part of SimGear or FlightGear that you don't need, but causes a build or runtime failure (see {{forum link|t=35740|text=here}} for example). This is often convenient when using the development version of FlightGear, but doesn't mean such bugs shouldn't be reported!
 
If you have several such options to pass, just use spaces to separate them inside the quotes:
$ FG_CMAKEARGS='-DENABLE_SWIFT=ON -DENABLE_HID_INPUT=OFF' download_and_compile.sh FGFS
Of course, the same thing can also be achieved this way in Bourne-style shells:
$ export FG_CMAKEARGS='-DENABLE_SWIFT=ON -DENABLE_HID_INPUT=OFF'
$ download_and_compile.sh FGFS
 
It is also possible to set both <tt>SG_CMAKEARGS</tt> and <tt>FG_CMAKEARGS</tt> at the same time for a given <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> run:
$ export SG_CMAKEARGS='-DSYSTEM_EXPAT=ON'
$ export FG_CMAKEARGS='-DENABLE_SWIFT=ON -DENABLE_HID_INPUT=OFF'
$ download_and_compile.sh
=== Launching FlightGear ===
{{Note|<code>./run_fgfs.sh --launcher</code> starts FlightGear with its built-in launcher. If you just do <code>./run_fgfs.sh</code>, FlightGear will be started without any launcher, at the default airport and with the default aircraft.}}
 
In order to start FlightGear without any launcher, at a given airport (say, [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paro_Airport Paro airport], whose ICAO code is VQPR) and with a chosen aircraft, you can do:
$ cd ~/flightgear/dnc-managed
$ ./run_fgfs.sh --airport=VQPR --aircraft=dhc6
Actually, the directory change is not needed, we only gave it here for readability. Therefore, the following single command does the same:
$ ~/flightgear/dnc-managed/run_fgfs.sh --airport=VQPR --aircraft=dhc6
=== <span id="avoiding-multiple-downloads-of-fgdata"></span> Avoiding multiple downloads of FGData ===
{{Warning|This can only work simply if all trees that share a given FGData repository are from the same release (e.g., current stable or development). Running a “stable“ FlightGear with FGData from the ''next'' branch or the other way round, a development version of FlightGear with FGData from a release branch, doesn't work—and FlightGear should tell you when you start it in such a situation.
That said, people comfortable with Git can check out the correct FGData branch before building or starting FlightGear, for instance:
$ cd /path/to/fgdata && git checkout release/2019.1
or
$ download_and_compile.sh SIMGEAR FGFS DATA OSG
The See [[#list-of-available-components|above]] for the list of available components are (in April 2019):<br />CMAKE, PLIB, OPENRTI, OSG, SIMGEAR, FGFS, DATA, FGRUN, FGO, FGX, OPENRADAR, ATCPIE, TERRAGEAR, TERRAGEARGUI.
The full, up-=== TerraGear === Run <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> with the TERRAGEAR component in order tobuild and install the [[TerraGear]] terrain building toolchain: $ cd ~/flightgear/dnc-date list of these components can always be obtained by runningmanaged $ download_and_compile.sh TERRAGEAR This creates the following scripts in <tt>~/flightgear/dnc-managed</tt>:* <tt>run_genapts850.sh</tt>* <tt>run_ogr-decode.sh</tt>* <tt>run_tg-construct.sh</tt>These scripts themselves run the corresponding TerraGear tools, as expected. === TerraGear GUI === [[TerraGear GUI]] is a graphical interface for [[TerraGear]] written with the Qt toolkit (still Qt 4 in 2019, but it works). In order to install it, run <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> with the TERRAGEARGUI component: $ cd ~/flightgear/dnc-managed $ download_and_compile.sh TERRAGEARGUIThis will create a <tt>run_terrageargui.sh</tt> script in <tt>~/flightgear/dnc-managed</tt>, and also a default configuration file <tt>~/.config/TerraGear/TerraGearGUI.conf</tt>, unless you already have one. This default configuration file contains paths to the TerraGear and [[$FG_ROOT]] directories, assuming you have installed the TERRAGEAR and DATA components. To run TerraGear GUI: $ cd ~/flightgear/dnc-helpmanaged $ ./run_terrageargui.sh
=== FGCom ===
$ rm -rf build/* install/simgear/ install/openrti/ install/flightgear/share/ install/flightgear/bin/
See [https://{{forum.flightgear.org/viewtopic.php?f=45&link|t=26244 |text=this thread] }} for more details.
== Options ==
By default, <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> downloads or updates, then compiles, [[SimGear]] and FlightGear, and downloads or updates [[FGData]] (by nature, FGData can't be compiled). This is what happens when running: $ download_and_compile.shTo make it download or update and compile something else, you may pass non-option arguments naming the ''components'' you want, for instance: $ download_and_compile.sh SIMGEAR FGFS DATA OSGSIMGEAR, FGFS, DATA and OSG are the component names respectively corresponding to [[SimGear]], FlightGear, [[FGData]] and [[OpenSceneGraph]] in <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt>'s terminology.=== Multicore acceleration ===
See the output of <code>download_and_compile.sh --help</code> for more details.
=== Compiling only one program === {{Note|The following is not necessarily up-to-date. See the output of Passing option <code>download_and_compile.sh --helpj x</code> for the up-to-date list of components.}} If you wish to recompile only one of the programs you can launch the script with one of the following parameters:* CMAKE (to compile and install only cmake)* PLIB (to compile and install only plib)* OSG (to compile and install only OpenSceneGraph)* SIMGEAR (to compile and install only Simgear)* FGFS (to compile and install only FlightGear)* DATA (to download / update only data files for FlightGear)* FGRUN (to compile and install only Fgrun)* TERRAGEAR (to compile and install only terragear!)* TERRAGEARGUI (to compile and install only terrageargui!)* OPENRADAR (to compile and install only OpenRadar!)* FGO (to compile and install only Fgo!) === Compiling the last known-stable versions === Even if <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> fetches code and data from development branches of the source repositories by default (which sometimes causes compilation errors), it where ''x'' is possible to tell the script number of your CPU cores you wish to assign to download the latest known versions of the software that were compiling successfully by means of the <code>-s</code> option: $ download_and_compile.sh -s How does it work?* For [[SimGear]], FlightGear and [[FGData]], it uses the most recent stable release branch of the corresponding Git repository.* For some components, a known-stable version is hardcoded in <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> and used when the <code>-s</code> option is given<ref name="components-with-a-known-stable-version-hardcoded-in-download_and_compile_sh">As of May 2019, apart from SIMGEAR, FGFS and DATA, the only components for which <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> “knows” a stable version are TERRAGEAR and OPENRTI.</ref> (for instance, the hardcoded information can be the name of a Git branchjob).* For will considerably speed up the other components, the <code>-s</code> option has no effect. {{Warning|In a given folder where <tt>download_and_compile.sh</tt> is run, you should either always use the <code>-s</code> option, or never. Building some components with <code>-s</code> and others without (all within the same base folder) is not supportedcompilation steps.}}
=== Advanced options ===
This command will only rebuild modified files and reinstall FlightGear. Note that depending on the kind of changes you made, reconfiguring and thus dropping the <code>-d n</code> option may be necessary, though (this is the case in particular if you added or removed C++ files).
 
=== Multicore Acceleration ===
Using the option <code>-j x</code> (where ''x'' is the number of your CPU cores you wish to assign to the job) will speed up the whole compilation process considerably.
== Optimus technology ==
The same can be done for the [[FlightGear_Launch_Control|FGRun]] launcher:
$ sed 's|\./fgrun|optirun ./fgrun|' run_fgrun.sh > run_fgrun_optirun.sh && chmod +x run_fgrun_optirun.sh
 
== Remove warning message for DDS files ==
You can remove the warning message displayed when DDS files are parsed by SimGear by adding the following line just after '''cd "simgear"''' line :
$ sed -i s/SG_ALERT,\ \"Image/SG_WARN,\ \"Image/g simgear/scene/model/ModelRegistry.cxx
== See also ==
| path = compile-scripts
| text = Other FlightGear build scripts
}} can be found present in [[FGMeta]].* Another script for building FlightGear and all its dependencies in an automated fashion can be found {{fgmeta source| path = fg-from-scratch| simplepath = true}}* [http://geoffmclane.com/fg/fgfs-052.htm hereAnother script]for building FlightGear and all its dependencies in an automated fashion. The page seems a bit oldish, though (as of 2019).
== References ==
[[Category:Building from source]]
[[nl:Compileren met een Script op Linux Debian/Ubuntu]]
[[fr:Script de compilation sous Linux Debian/Ubuntu]]
[[nl:Compileren met een Script op Linux Debian/Ubuntu]]
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