Hi fellow wiki editors!

To help newly registered users get more familiar with the wiki (and maybe older users too) there is now a {{Welcome to the wiki}} template. Have a look at it and feel free to add it to new users discussion pages (and perhaps your own).

I have tried to keep the template short, but meaningful. /Johan G

Difference between revisions of "Zh/FlightGear新手"

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(第一次飞行!)
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*磁罗盘转弯错误:磁罗盘在飞行受各种力的影响,在转弯时一个很短的时间里会显示转向相反的方向,这个不是故障。  
 
*磁罗盘转弯错误:磁罗盘在飞行受各种力的影响,在转弯时一个很短的时间里会显示转向相反的方向,这个不是故障。  
 
*VSI(升降速度表)同样有错误。
 
*VSI(升降速度表)同样有错误。
* 水平状况的指示器使用陀螺 (这就是为什么有时叫他方向陀螺),同样受回转仪漂移影响。. For a number of reasons, the gyro will drift from its current heading and must be periodically (about every 15 minutes) calibrated to agree with the magnetic compass heading.
+
* 水平状况的指示器使用陀螺 (这就是为什么有时叫他方向陀螺),同样受回转仪漂移影响。由于各种因素,方向陀螺需要定期的(大概每15分钟)与磁航向进行校正。
  
 
Many forces act on an aircraft in flight as well as on the instruments and systems used for control and navigation, and may be counter-intuitive. Pilots must learn to recognize these phenomena and compensate for their effects. FlightGear models instrument errors that exist in the real world.
 
Many forces act on an aircraft in flight as well as on the instruments and systems used for control and navigation, and may be counter-intuitive. Pilots must learn to recognize these phenomena and compensate for their effects. FlightGear models instrument errors that exist in the real world.

Revision as of 20:45, 19 August 2011

Note some parts of this article have not been updated for 2008


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开始

硬件需求

为了流畅地运行FlightGear,您需要一块支持OpenGL的显卡。同时FlightGear 2.0需要OpenGL 2.0或更新版本。大多数现代PC都支持OpenGL。但是如果您的帧频缓慢,请看硬件建议以获得更多建议。

得到Flightgear

您可以在下载页面得到最新的Flightgear。选择适合您系统的源代码或者二进制文件。如果您有足够高的技术水平,且希望一起开发Flightgear,您也可以选择CVS版本。CVS版本通常有很多功能而且支持许多最新开发的飞机,但是也更不稳定而且安装复杂。

在Windows上安装

在Windows安装 Flightgear后,会有一个对话框让您配置路径。

第一行问的是FlightGear可执行文件的位置。请用浏览按钮来选定fgfs.exe的位置(默认安装位置是C:\Program Files\FlightGear\bin\win32\fgfs.exe).

第二行问的是FlightGear主目录。请用浏览按钮来选定data/目录或者进入'data'所在的目录(默认安装位置是C:\Program Files\FlightGear\data)。这也将填充“风景”框。

当您完成了这些默认配置之后,如下所述继续。

在Mac OS X上安装

安装FlightGear 在 Mac OS X是很简单的。只要选择并将Flightgear图标拖入/Applications目录。这样即可。您第一次运行FlightGear,它的图标会在加载机场和飞机信息时在Dock上弹起数次。当GUI向导出现时,请通过点击名称旁的“Gear”按钮来选择飞机和机场。按下"Start flight"就可以启动模拟器。您可以用GUI向导配置更多选项。参见http://macflightgear.sourceforge.net/home/documents/users-guide/ 。

如果你想要从命令行启动Flightgear,运行/Applications/Utilities/Terminal.app并键入以下内容。

cd /Applications/FlightGear.app/Contents/Resources
./fgfs --options..... 

$FG ROOT$FG SCENERY在Mac OS X上并没有定义。 如果您想亲自为命令行指定这些变量,在Terminal.app运行以下内容:

FG_ROOT=/Applications/FlightGear.app/Contents/Resources/data
FG_SCENERY=$FG_ROOT/Scenery

在运行GUI启动器后,$FG ROOT将成为$HOME/Documents/Flightgear/<version>的别名,因此您可以用Finder来浏览数据目录。

配置OpenGL

FlightGear在恰当的OpenGL驱动程序上运行得最棒。如果您不能流畅地运行FlightGear,请参见配置OpenGL

获取风景

A limited set of scenery comes installed with FlightGear, which consists of the area surrounding KSFO.

In FlightGear, scenery is divided into two kinds of data: Objects and Terrain. Objects are the buildings, bridges and radio towers, etc. that represent three-dimensional structures. Terrain represents the contours, elevations and type of ground you fly over.

All object data goes in an Objects directory and all terrain data goes in a Terrain directory. The location of the scenery and its sub-directories depends on your particular installation.

To download Objects and Terrain for FlightGear, go to the FlightGear website and navigate to the Downloads page. On this page follow the link to download scenery from the map. Choose a block from the map where you will by flying. Once the package has downloaded, extract into your FlightGear scenery directory.

The scenery packages available from the FlightGear website contain both Objects and Terrain for the locations.

You may obtain additional and more up to date scenery Objects as they become available through the FlightGear Scenery Database.

Information beyond this brief overview is available in Installing Scenery and Downloading New Flightgear Scenery for Windows XP

Getting Aircraft

To download additional aircraft for FlightGear individually, go to the FlightGear website and navigate to the Downloads page, then choose [Aircraft Downloads http://flightgear.org/Downloads/aircraft-2.0.0/].

Once the aircraft package has downloaded, decompress and extract the archived files onto your computer. You may extract to a temporary directory and move them, or extract directly into the Aircraft directory in FlightGear. This is typically $FG ROOT/data/Aircraft.

See also Installing Aircraft for more documentation.

启动 FlightGear

许多用户选择从命令行(Unix用户的"终端" 或 "shell")启动FlightGear。 此外也可以使用图形界面如Fgrun (FlightGear Launch Control).

启动FlightGear,命令行中输入:

fgfs

按下回车键。启动FlightGear。

倘若FlightGear启动失败,很可能是FlightGear的执行文件不在你的执行路径中。Unix用户只需将执行目录加入path中,重新启动FlightGear。此外,你可以找到'fgfs'路径,输入绝对路径例如:

/usr/games/fgfs

路径与你系统及编译安装时的选择相关。

对于不使用图形界面启动FlightGear,而完全使用命令行交互尤为重要。启动时命令行指定选项,如察看可用飞机、制定飞机/机场、多人联机等等。 参考 命令行参数列表 。命令行参数对于从图形界面FlightGear Launch Control启动的用户来说也非常有用,因为它也可以指定参数。如果你玩的是 FlightGear 1.0.0 参考这个列表 FlightGear 1.0 aircraft names for command line.

列出所有飞机

命令行输入:

fgfs --show-aircraft

列出所有已安装可用的飞机.

选择飞机

命令行输入:

fgfs --aircraft=foo

foo为所选飞机对应目录名。 参看 命令行参数.

联机多人飞行

1rightarrow.png See Howto: Multiplayer for the main article about this subject.

使用键盘和鼠标

如果没有joystick(控制杆) 或者其他控制设备的话也可以用键盘、鼠标来控制你的飞机。使用键盘来飞行可是一件有点难度的事情,所以还是建议使用鼠标配合键盘。当然在起飞之前可以对键盘进行些调整。

在FlightGear可以通过菜单 Help menu来查看键盘相关命令, 查看基本命令 (模拟器相关) ,一般命令 (各机型特有的命令) 。 一个图表会显示相应按键功能。

如果使用鼠标飞行,右击一次然后可以用鼠标控制飞机了,再次右击可以四周看看,再次右击回到普通模式。

进入机舱啦!

第一次进入机舱很惊奇吧?不过别被那么多东西吓着啊!

虚拟机舱在哪?并不是所有 FlightGear 都有内部虚拟机舱的。 (因为 FlightGear被用于很多的研究工程项目里, 有些飞机甚至没有外部的模型。记住, FlightGear 的应用很灵活的。) 2D面板会显示在3D面板之上,前提是2/3D面板存在。 你可以在 View menu(视图菜单)里关闭这个特性。 否则, 当你选中Cockpit View时 FlightGear 一开始你就已经坐在虚拟机舱里了。

或许你会觉得看表盘上的信息有点难度,调整那些仪表同样不容易,使用变焦键来放大信息吧。 'x' 和 Shift-X 键来控制放大机舱内的视点。 使用控制杆上分配了相应功能的按键来把视点转移到你想看的仪表上,然后放大吧。

另一种方法: 右击鼠标直到鼠标显示两个箭头 (像这样 <=>)。现在你可以用鼠标在机舱内移动视角了。 'x' 和 Shift-X 键来缩放机舱内的视点。

Note: Some functions, such as starter or magneto, may be difficult to use or lack "hotspots" to control with your mouse. Especially when flying an aircraft model that is still undergoing development. In this case, look for equivalent controls on a 2D panel or resort to the keyboard. The keyboard controls always work according to the assignments listed on the Help Menu (unless reassigned by an aircraft or configuration). Go to the main window menu, click Help, then click Basic Keys or Common Aircraft Keys.

One of the first steps I take on entering an unfamiliar cockpit is to press Ctrl-C to highlight all the "hotspots" on the 3d cockpit instrument panel. This enables you to easily see where to place the mouse to operate an instrument's controls, buttons, knobs, etc.

Many aircraft offer a help menu specific to that aircraft on the Aircraft Help menu (go to Help, then Aircraft Help.

第一次飞行!

不管任何模拟器特别是对FlightGear,新飞行员最常问的一个问题是”为什么我的飞机老是像左偏?“或许是因为跑道上有侧风,但是主因还是FlightGear提供的增强显示性。一些其他的飞行模拟器做了一些设置,这样飞起来很简单。这些设置主要是减小了一些影响因素,比如螺旋桨力矩和不对称推力,这些因素都是使飞机有向左偏的趋势。(你可以看看这个多了解下 Understanding Propeller Torque and P-Factor )。

在市场销售的模拟器的设置取消了这些因素,因为他们的市场定位仅仅是游戏,gamer,为了各种原因而游戏除了感受现实。尽管与市场上销售的一些模拟器相异,在 FlightGear里这种现实特性总是默认开启的。

FlightGear 里包含了很多现实特性,这些可能使刚入门的飞行员很迷惑。


  • "左偏综合症" ,以为说那个面提到的原因。
  • 磁罗盘转弯错误:磁罗盘在飞行受各种力的影响,在转弯时一个很短的时间里会显示转向相反的方向,这个不是故障。
  • VSI(升降速度表)同样有错误。
  • 水平状况的指示器使用陀螺 (这就是为什么有时叫他方向陀螺),同样受回转仪漂移影响。由于各种因素,方向陀螺需要定期的(大概每15分钟)与磁航向进行校正。

Many forces act on an aircraft in flight as well as on the instruments and systems used for control and navigation, and may be counter-intuitive. Pilots must learn to recognize these phenomena and compensate for their effects. FlightGear models instrument errors that exist in the real world.

Flying Using Navigational Aids and the Autopilot

To make this very clear for new users: Some aircraft require you to use the autopilot available from the Autopilot menu, which is the original FlightGear autopilot. This is a generic autopilot and as such, many aircraft come with their own specific autopilot, frequently a model of the real life one. For aircraft that provide their own autopilot in the cockpit, you must use the autopilot controls available in the virtual cockpit. This means clicking on the instrument panel in the virtual cockpit. The Autopilot menu will be grayed out and unavailable when the aircraft supplies its own autopilot (generally).

FlightGear, as of version 0.9.9, comes with a "built-in" autopilot. The Autopilot dialog accessible from the FlightGear toolbar in the main FlightGear window _does not work with all aircraft_. It only works with aircraft that a) do not specify an autopilot, or b) aircraft that use the default autopilot. When an aircraft does not specify an autopilot, the default is used.

For aircraft that supply their own autopilot, you must use the autopilot controls in the 2D or virtual cockpit. The Cessna comes with a KAP140 autopilot in its virtual cockpit. You _cannot use_ the Autopilot dialog with this aircraft. It has no effect. You must use the autopilot device in the panel.

For help with navigation see Understanding Navigation

Airports and Navigation Aids

When you first start FlightGear, whether from the command line or the graphical interface, you may wonder how to determine what airports are available. Fgrun displays a list of airports, but you will not see details such as Tower or ILS frequencies. You will not find a map showing VORs and their frequencies. Short of finding an actual sectional map for the area you wish to fly, what can you do?

Google Maps and the FlightGear Online Map for multiplayers are both good resources as well as the FlightGear Community Flight Planner.

获取帮助

在线聊天

获得FlightGear帮助的最快捷方式是加入 FlightGear IRC 聊天室

电子邮件讨论小组

FlightGear的帮助文档目前比较粗略,而且随着新的功能的开发,文档将不断被改变。这使得聊天成为寻找解决运行FlightGear时有关问题的答案的最佳方式。

帮助文档

以下是几种获取FlightGear帮助的方式:

Getting More Detailed Information

This page is designed to give the user the essential things they need to know about using FG for the first time.

You now know enough to get started with FlightGear. To learn more, you may wish to start at the main page of this wiki and read the more detailed Getting Started section, or Using FlightGear section or study the Flying Resources to learn more about flight instruments and how to navigate and fly your aircraft.

Also, note that those using the CVS version of FlightGear may choose to update their aircraft files through the CVS system.

The following are some issues raised by new users of FlightGear. More detailed troubleshooting and answers can be found in Troubleshooting Problems and the FAQ.

I do not want to compile FlightGear, what can I do?

Our website offers precompiled binaries for download and install on a variety of systems. Current platforms are Windows, Linux, Solaris, SGI, Mac OSX and FreeBSD. These are offered as a convienence and availablility may vary at times.

Note: FlightGear is highly configurable through editable XML files. You are free, and encouraged to, make changes to aircraft flight models and any other feature you wish to change for your personal satisfaction or to share with other FlightGear users. The flight model is not defined in a binary file. It is easy to modify (given enough knowledge). Although the install is binary, most of FlightGear's system is open to configuration through XML files and NASAL scripting.

Does FlightGear come with a printed manual?

You are invited to read "The Manual" online as HTML or download a PDF for viewing with Acrobar Reader or printing.

"The Manual" is not always up to date with recent developments but provides a good start for beginners.

How you can help

1rightarrow.png See Volunteer for the main article about this subject.

Testing

  • Build the latest CVS code or download snapshots (link)
  • File Bug Reports

Debugging & Profiling

  • Running FlightGear via valgrind to track down memory leaks

Support

Development

  • Writing documentation! Everyone is welcome to contribute to "The Manual"; having at least a little experience with LaTeX makes the task easier. Please contact the authors of The Manual if you would like to add corrections or whole chapters, you may also simply use this wiki to contribute fixes, modifications and new contents.
  • C/C++ Coding:
    • provide source code cleanups (i.e. help in the process of migrating over to a primarily smart pointer-based memory management approach using SGSharedPtr)
    • provide bug fixes Bugs
    • provide enhanced features Feature Requests / Proposals / Ideas
    • provide new features
    • get involved in any of the other FlightGear-affiliated projects
  • Aircraft development (3D modelling, textures, FDMs, scripting)
  • Scenery development