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Difference between revisions of "Spoken GCA"

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(+-cleanup: Heading levels and line breaks; +-Image layout flow adjustment; +-Code tags for command line and code; +Related content section; +-Some more things)
 
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{{note |   SpokenGCA is being replaced by the [[PAR_instrument|PAR addon]].<br /> We strongly recommend using the new PAR.
+
{{note |SpokenGCA is being replaced by the [[PAR_instrument|PAR addon]].<br /> We strongly recommend using the new PAR.
 
  }}
 
  }}
 
<!--
 
<!--
Line 8: Line 8:
 
[[Spoken GCA]] allows the pilot to listen to the directives of the ''Ground Controlled Approach''.
 
[[Spoken GCA]] allows the pilot to listen to the directives of the ''Ground Controlled Approach''.
 
(see [[Howto:Implementing_a_simple_GCA_system]])
 
(see [[Howto:Implementing_a_simple_GCA_system]])
= Background =
+
 
 +
== Background ==
 
{{FGCquote
 
{{FGCquote
 
   |Is there any work on GCA (ground controlled approach) in progress, or have missed it? GCA is surprisingly accurate and easy to use, both as a pilot and a controller.  |{{cite web |url=http://forum.flightgear.org/viewtopic.php?p=193941#p193941
 
   |Is there any work on GCA (ground controlled approach) in progress, or have missed it? GCA is surprisingly accurate and easy to use, both as a pilot and a controller.  |{{cite web |url=http://forum.flightgear.org/viewtopic.php?p=193941#p193941
Line 16: Line 17:
 
   }}
 
   }}
 
}}
 
}}
= What GCA is =
+
 
 +
== What GCA is ==
 
* https://secretsofcoldwarradar.omeka.net/exhibits/show/cold-war-radar-technology/radar-equipment/ground-controlled-approach-and
 
* https://secretsofcoldwarradar.omeka.net/exhibits/show/cold-war-radar-technology/radar-equipment/ground-controlled-approach-and
 
* https://aroundthepattern.com/training/ground-controlled-approaches-gca/
 
* https://aroundthepattern.com/training/ground-controlled-approaches-gca/
Line 22: Line 24:
 
* http://www.rquirk.com/cdnradar/cor/chapter21.pdf
 
* http://www.rquirk.com/cdnradar/cor/chapter21.pdf
  
= What can you expect from GCA =
+
== What can you expect from GCA ==
 +
[[File:Gca1.png|left|thumb|Horizontal trajectory when pilot follows GCA instructions]]
 +
Arriving in the vicinity of the airport with little or no visibility, the pilot can request the GCA service.
 +
{{-}}
 +
[[File:Gca2.png|left|thumb|Vertical trajectory when pilot follows GCA instructions]]
 +
The Controller, assisted by a PAR (''Precision Approach Radar''), will guide you through a safe path (both in heading and in altitude) that will take you to the head of the used runway.
 +
{{-}}
 +
 
 +
== How to install ==
 +
{{note |    This is the latest version (Nov 24, 2017)
  
[[File:Gca1.png|left|thumb|Horizontal trajectory when pilot follows GCA instructions]]Arriving in the vicinity of the airport with little or no visibility, the pilot can request the GCA service.
+
Latest modifications:
The Controller, assisted by a PAR (''Precision Approach Radar''), will guide you through a safe path (both in heading and in altitude) that will take you to the head of the used runway.[[File:Gca2.png|center|thumb|Vertical trajectory when pilot follows GCA instructions]]<br />
+
<br />
+
<br />
+
  
= How to install =
 
{{note |    This is the latest version (Nov 24, 2017)<br />
 
Latest modifications:<br />
 
 
* plot2D helpers available.  
 
* plot2D helpers available.  
 
* {{key press|Track}} button at PAR screen chooses which aircraft must be tracked.
 
* {{key press|Track}} button at PAR screen chooses which aircraft must be tracked.
Line 37: Line 42:
 
* {{key press|RWY}}, {{key press|FLIP}} and  {{key press|+}}  {{key press|-}} zoom buttons at PAR screen.
 
* {{key press|RWY}}, {{key press|FLIP}} and  {{key press|+}}  {{key press|-}} zoom buttons at PAR screen.
 
  }}
 
  }}
If your FGFS version accepts [[Addons]], you can download this feature from the [https://sourceforge.net/p/flightgear/fgaddon/HEAD/tree/trunk/Addons/SpokenGCA/ Addons Repository]. Download all the 9 files into the directory of your choice.
+
 
Launch FlightGear including --addon argument, eg.:  
+
If your FGFS version accepts [[Addons]], you can download this feature from the [https://sourceforge.net/p/flightgear/fgaddon/HEAD/tree/trunk/Addons/SpokenGCA/ Addons Repository]{{fgaddon source |path=Addons/SpokenGCA |text=Addons Repository}}. Download all the 9 files into the directory of your choice.
 +
Launch FlightGear including <code>--addon</code> argument, in essence:  
 
<syntaxhighlight>
 
<syntaxhighlight>
  fgfs <usual args> --addon=/path/to/fgaddon/SpokenGCA</syntaxhighlight><br />
+
  fgfs <usual args> --addon=/path/to/fgaddon/SpokenGCA</syntaxhighlight>
  
 
Otherwise, you can install it as a submodule. Contact the author for further instructions.
 
Otherwise, you can install it as a submodule. Contact the author for further instructions.
  
And that's all !<br />
+
And that's all!
If you prefer (as I do), you can bind an unused joystick button to request GCA service.<br />
+
  
= How to use it =
+
If you prefer (as I do), you can bind an unused joystick button to request GCA service.
 +
 
 +
== How to use it ==
 
[[File:PARS-by-rleibner.png|thumb|Screenshot showing the latest GCA addon, featuring support for plotting terrain profiles and customizing other parameters of the GCA addon at runtime]]
 
[[File:PARS-by-rleibner.png|thumb|Screenshot showing the latest GCA addon, featuring support for plotting terrain profiles and customizing other parameters of the GCA addon at runtime]]
  
 
When you are about 10 or 15 miles from your destination, tune Comm1 to an available ATC frequency (you can find them at ''Menu/Location/Airfield information''),
 
When you are about 10 or 15 miles from your destination, tune Comm1 to an available ATC frequency (you can find them at ''Menu/Location/Airfield information''),
and press the {{key press|>}} key to request GCA assistance.<br />
+
and press the {{key press|>}} key to request GCA assistance.
You will hear the GCA's answer ''"<callsign>, this will be a PAR approach to <airport> runway <rwy>."''<br />
+
 
 +
You will hear the GCA's answer ''"<callsign>, this will be a PAR approach to <airport> runway <rwy>."'
 +
 
 +
Depending on your position and altitude, it will give you a vector towards the base leg or towards the final one. Also will instruct to climb or descend if necessary.
  
Depending on your position and altitude, it will give you a vector towards the base leg or towards the final one. Also will instruct to climb or descend if necessary.<br />
 
 
Follow closely those instructions making standard turns first, and half standard ones when indicated.
 
Follow closely those instructions making standard turns first, and half standard ones when indicated.
Adopt about 90 to 110 kts IAS until you hear ''"Begin descent"'', and configure a "final" atitude then.<br />
+
Adopt about 90 to 110 kts IAS until you hear ''"Begin descent"'', and configure a "final" atitude then.
If you are adviced ''"<Well/Slightly> <left/right> of course."'' then make "S" turns to fix that. Little ones if "Slightly", big ones if "Well".<br />
+
Correct your vertical speed if you hear ''"<Above/Below> glidepath."''
+
  
 +
If you are adviced ''"<Well/Slightly> <left/right> of course."'' then make "S" turns to fix that. Little ones if "Slightly", big ones if "Well".
  
<br />
+
Correct your vertical speed if you hear ''"<Above/Below> glidepath."''
  
 +
== The PAR screen ==
 +
From version 0.5 onwards, the script calls an enhanced PARscreen. Unlike ''parscreen_class.nas'', which it replaces, the new ''par_class.nas'' provides a stand-alone canvas window.
  
= The PAR screen = 
 
From version 0.5 onwards, the script calls an enhanced PARscreen. Unlike ''parscreen_class.nas'', which it replaces, the new ''par_class.nas'' provides a stand-alone canvas window. <br />
 
 
That means that you can instance as many PAR objects as you like.
 
That means that you can instance as many PAR objects as you like.
 
From the Nasal console try this:
 
From the Nasal console try this:
Line 72: Line 80:
 
var par06= gca.PAR(icao:"SUMU", rwy:"06").flipX();
 
var par06= gca.PAR(icao:"SUMU", rwy:"06").flipX();
 
</syntaxhighlight>[[File:TouchAndGo.png|none]]
 
</syntaxhighlight>[[File:TouchAndGo.png|none]]
 +
 
This way (choosing opposite runways) you can check your ''touch-n-go'' skills. And this without using the GCA itself at all!
 
This way (choosing opposite runways) you can check your ''touch-n-go'' skills. And this without using the GCA itself at all!
  
= Phraseology customization =  
+
== Phraseology customization ==
You can customize the phraseology by editing the "''phraseology.xml''" file.<br />
+
You can customize the phraseology by editing the "''phraseology.xml''" file.
 +
 
 
There you can find groups of tags like:
 
There you can find groups of tags like:
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="xml">
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="xml">
Line 84: Line 94:
 
   <foo type="string">to fly. </foo>
 
   <foo type="string">to fly. </foo>
 
     . . . .  </syntaxhighlight>
 
     . . . .  </syntaxhighlight>
which will be read as a single sentence (''"Hello world. It is a good day to fly. "'').</br>
+
 
 +
which will be read as a single sentence (''"Hello world. It is a good day to fly. "'').
 +
 
 
=== Literals ===  
 
=== Literals ===  
 
Those in the example above are literal sentences that you can change by the strings you want.
 
Those in the example above are literal sentences that you can change by the strings you want.
 
{{note |  
 
{{note |  
* You should not include either " or ' .
+
* You should not include either <code>"</code> or <code>'</code>.
 
* Punctuation is meaningfull. }}
 
* Punctuation is meaningfull. }}
 +
 
=== Substitutions ===  
 
=== Substitutions ===  
Strings starting by '''%''' will call some '''property value'''.
+
Strings starting by <code>%</code> will call some <code>property value</code>.
In the example above replace "'''day'''" by "'''% /sim/startup/time-offset-type'''". </br>
+
In the example above replace <code>day</code> by <code>% /sim/startup/time-offset-type</code>.
Now the sentence will be read as ''"Hello world. It is a good morning to fly. "'' or ''"Hello world. It is a good evening to fly. "'' depending on the time.</br>
+
 
 +
Now the sentence will be read as ''"Hello world. It is a good morning to fly. "'' or ''"Hello world. It is a good evening to fly. "'' depending on the time.
 +
 
 
{{note |  
 
{{note |  
 
* The called property must be a string.}}
 
* The called property must be a string.}}
 +
 
=== Concatenation ===  
 
=== Concatenation ===  
Strings starting by '''~''' will append the sentence with another one.</br>
+
Strings starting by <code>~</code> will append the sentence with another one.
 +
 
 
Try this:  
 
Try this:  
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="xml">
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="xml">
Line 106: Line 123:
 
   <foo type="string">Have a nice fly, </foo>
 
   <foo type="string">Have a nice fly, </foo>
 
   <foo type="string">~short</foo>
 
   <foo type="string">~short</foo>
     . . . .  </syntaxhighlight>when calling ''foo'' you should hear ''"Have a nice fly, <your-callsign> , "'' </br>
+
     . . . .  </syntaxhighlight>when calling ''foo'' you should hear ''"Have a nice fly, <your-callsign> , "''
  
 
=== Word Replacement ===  
 
=== Word Replacement ===  
If you find that the word ''Wind'' is not pronounced clearly, you can change it by ''Winnded'' or similar to increase its intelligibility..</br>
+
If you find that the word ''Wind'' is not pronounced clearly, you can change it by ''Winnded'' or similar to increase its intelligibility..
 +
 
 
Better? Fine, but what about the message on the screen?
 
Better? Fine, but what about the message on the screen?
Include a tag with the pattern  <replace type="string">'''old''':'''new'''</replace> :
+
Include a tag with the pattern  <code><nowiki><replace type="string">'''old''':'''new'''</replace></nowiki></code>:
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="xml">
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="xml">
 
     . . . .  
 
     . . . .  
 
   <replace type="string">Winnded:Wind</replace>  
 
   <replace type="string">Winnded:Wind</replace>  
     . . . .  </syntaxhighlight> </br>
+
     . . . .  </syntaxhighlight>
  
= How control.nas script works =
+
== How control.nas script works ==
 
[[File:Gca schema1.png|right|This is the general (simplified) scheme of the gca module:<ref>{{cite web  |url    =  https://forum.flightgear.org/viewtopic.php?p=319409#p319409  |title  =  <nowiki> Re: Spoken GCA </nowiki>  |author =  <nowiki> rleibner </nowiki>  |date  =  Sep 26th, 2017  |added  =  Sep 26th, 2017  |script_version = 0.40  }}</ref>]]
 
[[File:Gca schema1.png|right|This is the general (simplified) scheme of the gca module:<ref>{{cite web  |url    =  https://forum.flightgear.org/viewtopic.php?p=319409#p319409  |title  =  <nowiki> Re: Spoken GCA </nowiki>  |author =  <nowiki> rleibner </nowiki>  |date  =  Sep 26th, 2017  |added  =  Sep 26th, 2017  |script_version = 0.40  }}</ref>]]
  
The ''gca.Control()'' function instances an object from ''gca_class'' and sets destination values. <br />
+
The <code>gca.Control()</code> function instances an object from <code>gca_class</code> and sets destination values.
That GCAobject contains all the AI to design the approaching path and will check the aircraft's position once per second. Instructions are built and transmitted to the caller.<br />
+
  
It also instances an object from ''PARScreen_class'' to track the aircraft on the PAR screen.<br />
+
That <code>GCAobject</code> contains all the AI to design the approaching path and will check the aircraft's position once per second. Instructions are built and transmitted to the caller.
 +
 
 +
It also instances an object from <code>PARScreen_class</code> to track the aircraft on the PAR screen.
 
   
 
   
Each second, the script receives an instruction. But it is neither possible nor convenient to pass these instructions to the pilot every second !<br />
+
Each second, the script receives an instruction. But it is neither possible nor convenient to pass these instructions to the pilot every second!
So it checks the ''demo.phrase'' and ''demo.maxsecs'' members. (''demo.phrase'' is not the instruction itself, but the "instruction-type". And ''demo.maxsecs'' is the maximum elapsed time between consecutive "spoken" instructions.)<br />
+
 
If the received ''demo.phrase'' is the same as the previous one, the script waits <demo.maxsecs> seconds before instruct the pilot.<br />
+
So it checks the <code>demo.phrase</code> and <code>demo.maxsecs</code> members. (<code>demo.phrase</code> is not the instruction itself, but the <code>instruction-type</code>. And <code>demo.maxsecs</code> is the maximum elapsed time between consecutive "spoken" instructions.)
But if ''demo.phrase'' changes, then the pilot will be instructed immediately.<br />
+
<big>(To be continued . . . )</big><br />
+
  
 +
If the received <code>demo.phrase</code> is the same as the previous one, the script waits <code><nowiki><</nowiki>''demo.maxsecs<nowiki>></nowiki></code> seconds before instruct the pilot.
  
= Roadmap =
+
But if <code>demo.phrase</code> changes, then the pilot will be instructed immediately.
  
 +
<big>(To be continued . . . )</big>
  
 +
== Roadmap ==
 
* In gca_class.nas: add validation of all setters arguments. {{done}}
 
* In gca_class.nas: add validation of all setters arguments. {{done}}
 
* Let user to open the UI dialog from the "Set" button" at Par screen.  {{progressbar|20}}
 
* Let user to open the UI dialog from the "Set" button" at Par screen.  {{progressbar|20}}
Line 151: Line 171:
 
* add [https://sourceforge.net/p/flightgear/fgdata/ci/next/tree/Nasal/canvas/gui/widgets/CheckBox.nas checkboxes] to the PAR dialog to show/hide optional elements (labels, flight history etc) ?
 
* add [https://sourceforge.net/p/flightgear/fgdata/ci/next/tree/Nasal/canvas/gui/widgets/CheckBox.nas checkboxes] to the PAR dialog to show/hide optional elements (labels, flight history etc) ?
  
= Addon Version =
+
== Addon version ==
 
now structured our prototype as an Addon and uploaded to the [https://sourceforge.net/p/flightgear/fgaddon/HEAD/tree/trunk/Addons/SpokenGCA/ Addons repository]
 
now structured our prototype as an Addon and uploaded to the [https://sourceforge.net/p/flightgear/fgaddon/HEAD/tree/trunk/Addons/SpokenGCA/ Addons repository]
  
= Testing =
+
== Testing ==
 
For testing/debugging I'm using a challenging situation:<ref>{{cite web
 
For testing/debugging I'm using a challenging situation:<ref>{{cite web
 
   |url    =  https://forum.flightgear.org/viewtopic.php?p=319553#p319553  
 
   |url    =  https://forum.flightgear.org/viewtopic.php?p=319553#p319553  
Line 186: Line 206:
 
Try editing "Final Approach" and "Glide Slope" values (use the "Apply" button).
 
Try editing "Final Approach" and "Glide Slope" values (use the "Apply" button).
  
= References =
+
== References ==
 
{{Appendix}}
 
{{Appendix}}
 +
 +
== Related content ==
 +
=== Wiki articles ===
 +
* [[Spoken ATC]]
 +
* [[Howto:Implementing a simple GCA system]]
 +
 +
[[Category:Air Traffic Control]]

Latest revision as of 14:15, 27 April 2019

Note  SpokenGCA is being replaced by the PAR addon.
We strongly recommend using the new PAR.
Screenshot showing rleibner's GCA/PAR screen (Canvas based) in conjunction with a Canvas driven GUI dialog to configure the GCA [1]

Spoken GCA allows the pilot to listen to the directives of the Ground Controlled Approach. (see Howto:Implementing_a_simple_GCA_system)

Background

Cquote1.png Is there any work on GCA (ground controlled approach) in progress, or have missed it? GCA is surprisingly accurate and easy to use, both as a pilot and a controller.
— Alant (Sun Ago 13). Re: Spoken ATC.
(powered by Instant-Cquotes)
Cquote2.png

What GCA is

What can you expect from GCA

Horizontal trajectory when pilot follows GCA instructions

Arriving in the vicinity of the airport with little or no visibility, the pilot can request the GCA service.

Vertical trajectory when pilot follows GCA instructions

The Controller, assisted by a PAR (Precision Approach Radar), will guide you through a safe path (both in heading and in altitude) that will take you to the head of the used runway.

How to install

Note  This is the latest version (Nov 24, 2017)

Latest modifications:

  • plot2D helpers available.
  • Track button at PAR screen chooses which aircraft must be tracked.
  • PAR screen shows local traffic.
  • RWY, FLIP and + - zoom buttons at PAR screen.

If your FGFS version accepts Addons, you can download this feature from the Addons RepositoryAddons Repository. Download all the 9 files into the directory of your choice. Launch FlightGear including --addon argument, in essence:

 fgfs <usual args> --addon=/path/to/fgaddon/SpokenGCA

Otherwise, you can install it as a submodule. Contact the author for further instructions.

And that's all!

If you prefer (as I do), you can bind an unused joystick button to request GCA service.

How to use it

Screenshot showing the latest GCA addon, featuring support for plotting terrain profiles and customizing other parameters of the GCA addon at runtime

When you are about 10 or 15 miles from your destination, tune Comm1 to an available ATC frequency (you can find them at Menu/Location/Airfield information), and press the > key to request GCA assistance.

You will hear the GCA's answer "<callsign>, this will be a PAR approach to <airport> runway <rwy>."'

Depending on your position and altitude, it will give you a vector towards the base leg or towards the final one. Also will instruct to climb or descend if necessary.

Follow closely those instructions making standard turns first, and half standard ones when indicated. Adopt about 90 to 110 kts IAS until you hear "Begin descent", and configure a "final" atitude then.

If you are adviced "<Well/Slightly> <left/right> of course." then make "S" turns to fix that. Little ones if "Slightly", big ones if "Well".

Correct your vertical speed if you hear "<Above/Below> glidepath."

The PAR screen

From version 0.5 onwards, the script calls an enhanced PARscreen. Unlike parscreen_class.nas, which it replaces, the new par_class.nas provides a stand-alone canvas window.

That means that you can instance as many PAR objects as you like. From the Nasal console try this:

var par24= gca.PAR(icao:"SUMU", rwy:"24").wndow.move(600,0);
var par06= gca.PAR(icao:"SUMU", rwy:"06").flipX();
TouchAndGo.png

This way (choosing opposite runways) you can check your touch-n-go skills. And this without using the GCA itself at all!

Phraseology customization

You can customize the phraseology by editing the "phraseology.xml" file.

There you can find groups of tags like:

    . . . . 
  <foo type="string">Hello world. </foo>
  <foo type="string">It is a good </foo>
  <foo type="string">day </foo>
  <foo type="string">to fly. </foo>
    . . . .

which will be read as a single sentence ("Hello world. It is a good day to fly. ").

Literals

Those in the example above are literal sentences that you can change by the strings you want.

Note
  • You should not include either " or '.
  • Punctuation is meaningfull.

Substitutions

Strings starting by % will call some property value. In the example above replace day by % /sim/startup/time-offset-type.

Now the sentence will be read as "Hello world. It is a good morning to fly. " or "Hello world. It is a good evening to fly. " depending on the time.

Note
  • The called property must be a string.

Concatenation

Strings starting by ~ will append the sentence with another one.

Try this:

    . . . . 
  <short type="string">% /satc/callsign-fmt</short>	
  <short type="string">, </short>

  <foo type="string">Have a nice fly, </foo>
  <foo type="string">~short</foo>
    . . . .
when calling foo you should hear "Have a nice fly, <your-callsign> , "

Word Replacement

If you find that the word Wind is not pronounced clearly, you can change it by Winnded or similar to increase its intelligibility..

Better? Fine, but what about the message on the screen? Include a tag with the pattern <replace type="string">'''old''':'''new'''</replace>:

    . . . . 
  <replace type="string">Winnded:Wind</replace> 
    . . . .

How control.nas script works

This is the general (simplified) scheme of the gca module:[2]

The gca.Control() function instances an object from gca_class and sets destination values.

That GCAobject contains all the AI to design the approaching path and will check the aircraft's position once per second. Instructions are built and transmitted to the caller.

It also instances an object from PARScreen_class to track the aircraft on the PAR screen.

Each second, the script receives an instruction. But it is neither possible nor convenient to pass these instructions to the pilot every second!

So it checks the demo.phrase and demo.maxsecs members. (demo.phrase is not the instruction itself, but the instruction-type. And demo.maxsecs is the maximum elapsed time between consecutive "spoken" instructions.)

If the received demo.phrase is the same as the previous one, the script waits <demo.maxsecs> seconds before instruct the pilot.

But if demo.phrase changes, then the pilot will be instructed immediately.

(To be continued . . . )

Roadmap

  • In gca_class.nas: add validation of all setters arguments. Done Done
  • Let user to open the UI dialog from the "Set" button" at Par screen. 20}% completed
  • Move join() function and phraseology.xml to be accesible for gca_class.nas.
  • Add a version control. Done Done
  • improvements & optimizations
  • support for different GUI modes/tabs (pilot, controller, developer) Pending Pending [3] ?
  • add support for using AI/MP callsigns for looking up the proper /position root automatically. Done Done [1]
  • add checkboxes to the PAR dialog to show/hide optional elements (labels, flight history etc) ?

Addon version

now structured our prototype as an Addon and uploaded to the Addons repository

Testing

For testing/debugging I'm using a challenging situation:[4]

fgfs --aircraft=c172p --airport=SLLP --com1=119.5 --prop:/engines/engine[0]/running=true --offset-distance=10 --offset-azimuth=280 --altitude=14000 --vc=80 --wind=280@10

If you try it, be careful:

  1. At such altitudes a C172 can hardly fly.
  2. Pilot must manage the Mixture (for starting engines and later often when descending).
  3. You will be soon flying into the "mushing regime".
  4. If you fly a heavy aircraft, select rwy 28, cause the 28R is a grass short one. [5]

Another interesting one:

fgfs --aircraft=c172p --airport=LOWI --com1=119.27 --prop:/engines/engine[0]/running=true --offset-distance=6 --offset-azimuth=82 --altitude=10000 --vc=80 --wind=80@10

Try editing "Final Approach" and "Glide Slope" values (use the "Apply" button).

References

References
  1. https://forum.flightgear.org/viewtopic.php?f=30&t=32882&p=319257#p319257
  2. rleibner  (Sep 26th, 2017).  Re: Spoken GCA .
  3. rleibner  (Oct 10th, 2017).  Re: Spoken GCA .
  4. rleibner  (Sep 28th, 2017).  Re: Spoken GCA .
  5. rleibner  (Sep 28th, 2017).  Re: Spoken GCA .

Related content

Wiki articles