ATC Tutorial

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Approaching the destination airport: correct info
{{WIP|Complete rewrite in progress by [[User:elgaton|elgaton]]}}{{Main article|Air Traffic Controltraffic control}}
[[Air traffic control|Air Traffic Control]] is an agreed procedure and process which keeps the [[aircraft]] separated to ensure that they don't crash into each other or are affected by turbulence when passing through the same air space. This article, written probably more directly useful for controllers and pilots alike, will teach you that procedure and will hopefully help you to enjoy controlled areas and airports on the FlightGear multiplayer servers. == How do I know if an airport is controlled? ==Check the Pilot List in FlightGear or the [[MPMap|Multiplayer map]]. Usually, controllers:* have a callsign ''XXXX_DE'', ''XXXX_GN'', ''XXXX_TW'' or ''XXXX_AP'' (where ''XXXX'' is the ICAO code of the airport they are manning); each callsign has a specific meaning (see "Controller roles" below);* use the ''[[OpenRadar]]'', ''ATC-TOWER'', ''[[ATC-aircraft|ATC]]'' (or similarly named) aircraft.
== Controller roles ==
| xxxx_TW
| Tower
| Controls the ''active'' runways and the airspace up to 10 NM (nautical miles) from the airport; chooses the runways to use; clears planes for takeoff and landing, making sure that they are at least 10 NM or three minutes apart.
| xxxx_AP
* The "xxxx" in the table replace a code used to identify the area that controller is using; these are known as ''ICAO codes'' and can be found on the [ Airport Codes list]. For example, London Gatwick is "EGKK" so a Gatwick Tower Controller would log-in as ''EGKK_TW''. At large airports, multiple controllers may man the same positions. * Center controllers also have ICAO identifiers, but they are not for one airport, but for a larger area. For example, ''LFFF_CT'' is France Center, and ''LFFF_FS'' is the France Flight Service Station.* At large airports, multiple controllers may man the same positions.
=== Controller roles in FlightGear ===
{{Main article|Flight rules}}
A distinction you should know for flying in controlled areas is the one between IFR and VFR flights, as flight planning and some phraseology are different.
* VFR (Visual Flight Rules) can apply when a pilot is able to orientate and recognize other aircraft and obstacles visually (that means he must maintain a low altitude, where at most just a few clouds are presentfor example, the sky should be clear of clouds at low altitudes near the airport when taking off and landing, light must be sufficient, and there must be little or no fog at all); they are used mainly in general aviation;* IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) apply in all the other cases.
== Getting and reading charts ==
== Phraseology ==
=== A sample IFR flight ===
We will teach the phraseology through an IFR sample flight from LEBL (Barcelona) to EDDF (Frankfurt am Main). For simplicity, we assume that all controller positions (delivery, ground, tower, approach/departure and center) are manned; also, we assume our callsign is ''BAW1542'' (to be read as ''Speedbird 1542one five four two'').
==== Planning the flight ====
{{Main article|Flight planning}}
==== Getting the departure clearance ====
We start on the airport apron at terminal T1, stand 246221.
The first thing we need to do is to check the current air pressure and which runway is being used; as a general rule, planes should be heading into the wind for takeoff and landing. To accomplish this, we need to listen to the ''ATIS'' (Automatic Terminal Information Service), a prerecorded message describing weather information, the runways in use and other important information for pilots and ; it's transmitted continuously on a dedicated radio channel. The frequency to use is written in the Airport information chart and can also be found by clicking on ''AI -> ATC Services in Range -> LEBL'': in our case, it's 121.970 MHz.
We open the Radio panel, set the COM1 frequency to 121.97 and listen to the ATIS message:
* '''LEBL ATIS:''' ''This is El Prat information Alpha. Landing runway 25Rtwo five right. Departure runway 25Ltwo five left. Transition level 50five zero. Wind 200 two zero zero degrees, 10 one zero knots. Visibility 10 one zero km or more, few 2500 two thousand five hundred feet. Temperature 22two two, dewpoint 10one zero. QNH 1018one zero one eight. No significant change. On initial contact advise controller you have information Alpha.''
This tells us that:
# We're going to depart from runway 25L.
# We need to set the altimeter to 1018 hPa<ref>European airports generally use hPa (hectopascals) for the QNH while American ones use inHg (inches of mercury). Some airplanes allow you to enter QNH values using both units; if that is not the case, you will need to use a converter.</ref> and set it back to standard pressure (STD) at the transition level (FL050, or 5000 feet).
# Every ATIS broadcast is identified by a progressive letter of the [ NATO phonetic alphabet]; we'll need to tell the delivery controller that we have information "Alpha" so that (s)he can checkwhether check whether we have the latest information or not.Note also that numbers are spelled out for clarity - this will be done in all further communication.
We now get the clearance (authorization to fly to a destination airport) from the delivery controller. The process is as follows.
# We get the Delivery frequency from the Airport information chart or the ATC Services in Range window (in this case, the frequency is 121.800 MHz) and tune COM1 to it (or connect on Mumble and joining join the delivery channel, or just talk on the Multiplayer chat).<ref>Each controller is free to use FGCom, Mumble or just the text chat as (s)he wishes; generally speaking, everyone accepts ATC via chat and, if voice communication is offered, that is announced on initial contact. Prefer voice communication if possible as it enhances realism and because speaking is quicker than typing.</ref>
# We contact the controller and ask for the clearance. (It is the pilot who needs to initiate contact with ATC, not the opposite). ''Tip: note down the clearance on a piece of paper as it's difficult (and risky) to memorize it.''
# The Delivery controller gives us the clearance including:
# The controller corrects any mistakes we've made and then hands us off to the Ground controller.
* '''BAW1542:''' El Prat Delivery, this is Speedbird one five four two at stand two four six, requesting delivery to Frankfurt, flight level two five zero, we have information Alpha.* '''El Prat Delivery:''' Speedbird one five four two, Alpha is current, cleared to Frankfurt via OKABI3WOKABI three Whiskey, initial altitude five hundred feet, expect flight level two five zero after ten minutes, squawk four zero zero zero.* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared to Frankfurt via OKABI3WOKABI three Whiskey, initial altitude five hundred feet, expect flight level 250 two five zero after ten minutes, squawk four zero zero zero, Speedbird one five four two.* '''El Prat Delivery:''' Speedbird one five four two, readback correct, contact El Prat Ground Center on one two one decimal six five zero.* '''BAW1542:''' Contact El Prat Ground Center on one two one decimal six five zero, Speedbird one five four two.
The controller asked us to follow the OKABI3W SID after departure - get the SID charts, find it and look at the chart or read the text route descriptions. In this case, the SID prescribes pilots to climb to 500 ft, turn left to intercept radial 199 PRA and be at least at 2500 ft at 8 NM from PRA; intercept radial 287 VNV and pass VNV at 5000 ft; turn right to KARDO, pass KARDO at FL120 and proceed direct OKABI. If you've got the Level-D files from [ Navigraph], select the SID in the [[Route Manager]] dialog for the route to be automatically entered; otherwise, use the Route Manager to input the VORs and waypoints manually.
We also set the transponder code and switch the transponder to Ground mode (if the aircraft we're using supports this functionality).
==== Starting Pushing back and starting up and pushing back ======== Taxiing to Before pushing back (being pushed away from the runway ======== Taking off ======== Approaching the destination airport ======== Landing ======== Taxiing stand with a tug) and starting up, we need to get appropriate clearances from the stand and shutting down ====Ground controller. This ensures we won't block taxiways unnecessarily.
=== A sample VFR flight ===* '''BAW1542:''' El Prat Ground, Speedbird one five four two at stand two two one, request pushback.<!-- Refer to http* '''El Prat Ground://forum''' Speedbird one five four two, El Prat Ground, pushback approved, facing* '''BAW1542:''' Pushback approved, facing south, Speedbird one five four two.php?f=72&t=19600 -->
----We then push back, making sure the aircraft is turned towards ("facing") south at the end of the maneuver, and ask for permission to start our engines.
== Lesson 3 =='''B-ELIO[[File: BLEBL-ELIO requests startstand220-up pushback.png|center|thumb|800px|Our aircraft's position after pushback (noon and push-backnight view).'''Note that the taxiway centerlines are not lit in proximity of stands.]]
Here a push-back and start-up means he wants a vehicle to pull the plane away from the buildings so he can start his engines... this is a real-world call* '''BAW1542:''' Speedbird one five four two, and is not used in the virtual world, so just approve itrequest startup. He might skip this entirely and just ask if he can taxi* '''El Prat Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, otherwise saystartup approved.* '''BAW1542:''' Startup approved, Speedbird one five four two.
'''You: Cleared to push-back and After that, we start our enginesand complete our checklists as quickly as possible. Call when ready to taxi'''
B-ELIO will then call you when he==== Taxiing to the runway ====We ask for clearance to taxi to the departure runway.* '''BAW1542:'''s Speedbird one five four two is ready to taxi. Note you don* 't have to type B-ELIO''El Prat Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, just click on his icon on the screen taxi to holding point Echo two via Lima and ProController automatically inserts it for youEcho, QNH one zero one eight. You can often just respond with * 'roger' or 'rgrBAW1542:' which means you've heard what the other person has said, or 'wilco' which means you have heard Taxi to holding point Echo two via Lima and will obeyEcho, QNH one zero one eight, Speedbird one five four two. When he calls to taxi:
'''B-ELIO: rgr (The current QNH may be repeated by the ground controller, even if we have just heard it on the ATIS, as a reminder to set it to the pushcorrect value -back so check it. After that, open the ground chart and start-up clearance). Ready to check your taxi to the active runwayroute before starting, as in some cases taxi signs will not be present at all intersections.'''<br />'''You: B-ELIOwill notice that the controller cleared us only to holding point E2, Taxi so, once there, we'll need to runway 9 (or whatever Tower has chosen) report our position and hold short, altimeter 1009await further instructions.The holding point is marked by a ''stop bar'<br ' (a dotted/>'''B-ELIOcontinuous yellow line: the dotted one faces the runway while the continuous line faces the taxiway, to remind you that you need a clearance to cross the runway 9 , and h/s, alt 1009, B-ELIO (h/s it is short for hold shortlit at night by means of pulsing yellow lights)'''.
Hold Taxi to E2 as instructed at a maximum speed of 30 knots and ''hold short asks the plane to get close to the point given '' (here, the runwaystop) without actually getting on to just before the pointstop bar. Each runway has a line painted on Remember that, while the ground (the holding line) at which a plane waiting controller may instruct you to take-off will wait until he is cleared onto the runway (tower's duty'hold position'' (stop). If you put the plane on the runway, tower might be landing a plane and this ''give way'' to another plane might well land on top of it! The altimeter is given now so that you are sure that the plane has the correct altimeter setting, and is just good practice. Even with it in 's still your ATISresponsibility not to collide with buildings, vehicles or other aircraft; also, should you at any point become unsure of your position, stop at once and their take-off checks, it never hurts to be safe. Your aim as ask the ground is just to get a queue ready for takeoff so that tower has aircraft ready to takeoff when there's a gap in arrivalscontroller.
If the pilot needs <gallery widths=400px mode=packed>File:LEBL-E3.png|Taxiing to cross a runwayintersection E3 - no ground signs are present, he'll stop before so you should use the runway and ask for clearanceground chart as a reference. You just direct him to ask the tower for this informationFile:LEBL-E2. Imagine for a second that there's another plane taxiing to the runway as wellpng|Approaching holding point E2.File:LEBL-E2-stopbar.png|Close up of the E2 stop bar. tell the plane to give way:</gallery>
We contact the ground controller to tell him/her we're at E2.* ''You'BAW1542: B-ELIO''' Speedbird one five four two, Taxi to runway 9 and hold we're holding shortEcho two. Give way * '''El Prat Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, cleared to the American Airlines 747 taxiing from left cross runway zero two, taxi to rightholding point Golf one via Echo one and Kilo.* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared to cross runway zero two and taxi to holding point Golf one via Echo one and Kilo, Speedbird one five four two.
Now We then cross the pilot will have to give way to the 747 moving in front of him from his runway without delay and turn left to his righton K. If B-ELIO was also an American Airlines, Near K2 you can use the word notice a 'Company' to mean CAT II/III holding point'of the same company' so (marked by an empty yellow rectangle with vertical lines, equipped with 'Give way to company 747...' fixed'' lights) - that's where we would be legal. As a ground controller, with a detailed map, you might like to give full details of stop if visibility was reduced or if another aircraft was landing using ILS; since that's not the way you want him case and we were cleared to goG1, but normally the controller can just give a simple statement like the ones above:proceed.
'''You<gallery widths=400px mode=packed>File: BLEBL-ELIO, taxi via Inner Taxiway to block 53, then left onto taxiK2.png|The CAT II/III K2 stop bar.File:LEBL-way B to runway 9, and hold shortG1.png|Approaching the G1 stop bar.'''</gallery>
Now We stop at G1 while the plane is ready ground controller instructs us to get onto contact the runway and takeofftower:* '''El Prat Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, you hand him off to TWR, using the method you learnt in Lesson 1 by right-clicking contact El Prat Tower on the planeone one eight decimal three two zero, selecting goodbye!* 'aircraft >' and then 'request handoffBAW1542:'' and select the appropriate controller. This will ask the controller for a hand-off and, when they accept, the circles around the plane will change colour, you can now go through the same menu and choose hand-off which will give B-ELIO the following message. In the real world, you'd actually say itContact El Prat Tower on one one eight decimal three two zero, and in IVAOSpeedbird one five four two, you can just type it without using the automated system: bye!
'''You: B-ELIO, ==== Lining up and taking off ====We contact the tower frequency 119.7 Tower on text chat, FGCom or Mumble (you'd have to look up depending on the frequency in who tools the controller is on-lineusing)to get our takeoff clearance. It will include, in that order:# the wind direction and speed;# wind gusts, if any;# warnings (like wake turbulence, rain...), if any;# the runway number;# the words ''cleared for takeoff''.
So now* '''BAW1542:''' El Prat Tower, itSpeedbird one five four two, holding short Golf one.* 's ''El Prat Tower:'s turn to get this plane off into the sky.'' Speedbird one five four two, wind is two one zero at five, runway two five left, cleared for takeoff.* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared for takeoff two five left, Speedbird one five four two.
{{note|If you were awaiting a plane to landtower controller clears an aircraft for takeoff while it is still on a taxiway, you could just leave the plane queuing, but if you are ready pilot is also cleared to have him on enter the runway tell him to get into position on the runway. Remember, it &ndash; there is your job no need to get aircraft onto issue a separate ''line up and off the runways as quickly as possible, so that planes can land and take-off quickly:wait'' instruction.}}
We set the transponder to ''On'You: B-ELIO, runway 9' so that the controllers and other aircraft will be able to see us on radar screens and the [[Traffic alert and collision avoidance system|TCAS]], line up , take off and waitfollow the SID.After the takeoff, the tower controller will hand us off to the departure controller:* '''<br />El Prat Tower:'''B-ELIO: Runway 9Speedbird one five four two, line up and waitcontact Departure on one two six decimal five zero zero, B-ELIO.goodbye!* '''BAW1542:''' Contact Departure on one two six decimal five zero zero, Speedbird one five four two.
One thing We switch to note, the phrase 'position departure frequency and holdcontact the controller:* ' is no longer used''BAW1542:''' El Prat Departure, since the FAA adopted the ICAO standard "line up Speedbird one five four two passing ''current altitude'', OKABI three Whiskey departure.* '''El Prat Departure:''' Speedbird one five four two, radar contact, climb and maintain flight level two five zero.* '''BAW1542:''' Climb and wait" (since September 30maintain flight level two five zero, 2010)Speedbird one five four two.
You may also use a conditional clearance, We climb to make FL250 and continue following the SID waypoints. When we're approaching the final fix (OKABI) the controller will tell us to follow our flightplan:* '''El Prat Departure:''' Speedbird one five four two, resume your job easierown navigation, frequency change approved, goodbye!* '''BAW1542:''' Resuming our own navigation, frequency change approved, Speedbird one five four two, bye!
We're now free to follow our flightplan - it''You: B-ELIOs a good practice to keep an eye on the multiplayer map to check for traffic and to announce altitude changes/turns on text chat if other pilots are nearby.<ref>In real world flying, runway 9we would be handed off to center controllers and we would report our position over special points, line up and wait [after marked as black triangles in the arriving B747 charts. Since center controllers are not common in FlightGear, this is not usually done.</ following the departing B757]'''ref>
The plane may give a call back when he==== Approaching the destination airport ====We start descending on our own so as to reach FL150 approximately 100 NM from the destination airport. When we's ready re about 80 NM from EDDF we check the ATIS for the destination airport, just like we did at LEBL - in this case the frequency is 118.02. We tune in the COM1 radio to that frequency and listen:* 'ready for departure' or 'on the numbersEDDF ATIS:''' ''This is Frankfurt information Echo. Landing runway zero seven right. Departure runway zero seven center. Transition level five zero. If notWind zero two zero degrees, just wait until his icon stops moving four knots. Visibility one zero km or more, few four thousand eight hundred feet. Temperature one niner<ref>"Niner" is used instead of "nine" to avoid confusion between the similarly sounding "nine" and give him his takeoff clearance:"nein", the German word for "no".</ref>, dewpoint zero seven. QNH one zero one eight. No significant change. On initial contact advise controller you have information Echo.''
We then contact the approach controller (in this case Langen Radar, 118.45 MHz):* '''YouBAW1542: B-ELIO''' Langen Radar, winds calm/110@15Speedbird one five four two at flight level one five zero, runway 9, cleared for takeoffwe have information Echo.* '''<br />Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two, radar contact, Echo is current, descend and maintain five thousand feet, proceed direct UNOKO.* '''B-ELIOBAW1542: Cleared for takeoff.'''Descend and maintain five thousand feet, proceed direct UNOKO, Speedbird one five four two.
The plane will commence his take-off rollWe proceed to the UNOKO waypoint and descend to 5000 ft, and - as soon as he is airborne - you want to get rid of him and get onto your next planeinstructed. You initiate At 5000 ft we set the hand-off altimeter to approach, and handoff as soon as the local QNH (s1018 hPa)he accepts. So now, onto approaches dealings...
== Lesson 4 ==When we''(In this section re near UNOKO the approach controller is presumed to be handling departures, as there are very, very rarely departure controllers. If there were will contact us and assign us a departure controller, STAR (sstandard arrival route)he would deal with a departing plane:* '''Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two, and the approach controller would deal with any planes arriving)cleared UNOKO one Mike arrival.* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared UNOKO one Mike arrival, Speedbird one five four two.Now we follow the altitudes and route in the STAR &ndash; in this case, we fly over UNOKO, IBVIL, MANUV, RAMOB and proceed to TAU.
So approach now has a plane that wants We hold (circle) over TAU until the controller instructs us to get on with its flight. The first thing to notice was continue the clearanceapproach:* ''climb 'Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two, turn right heading one four zero, descend and maintain 6three thousand feet,000..reduce speed to two five zero knots.* '''BAW1542:''' Turn right heading one four zero, descend and maintain three thousand feet, reducing speed to two five zero knots, Speedbird one five four two.
It wasnWe now engage the autopilot't explained last pages heading select mode, but the reason for this low height is to ensure that planes arriving at the airport - also at low heights - that are arriving from the takeoff end of the airfield are kept above the departing planes. If arriving planes are only cleared down to 8,000 ft. then - even if they have to fly over the airport given heading, reduce our speed and turn around - they cannot conflict with departing planescontinue our descent as cleared. For this reasonAfter a couple of minutes, departing planes are usually cleared to 6,000 the controller calls us and arriving planes instructs us to 8,000 until they are on use the [[Instrument Landing System]] to get towards the runway:* 'safe' (non-departure) side of the 'Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two, cleared ILS approach runwayzero seven right.* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared ILS approach runway zero seven right, Speedbird one five four two.
LetAs soon as the localizer is alive we engage the autopilot's look at how localizer mode and, as soon as the hand-off occurs this glideslope is alive, we switch to approach mode and descend on the glide. The controller will call us one last timeto hand us over to Frankfurt Tower:* '''EGLL_TWRLangen Radar: B-ELIO''' Speedbird one five four two, contact EGLL_APP Frankfurt Tower on 119one one niner decimal niner zero.72, good-day.'''<br />* '''B-ELIO (to you)BAW1542: Heathrow Approach, good-day, this is B-ELIO out of 1,700 for 6,000 on runway heading'''Contact Frankfurt Tower on one one niner decimal niner zero, Speedbird one five four two.
This time, because ==== Landing ====We switch to 119.90 MHz and/or join the plane is in the airFrankfurt Tower channel on Mumble, you want then contact the tower controller to acknowledge you can see him on get the radarlanding clearance. It will include:'''You: B-ELIO# the wind direction and speed;# wind gusts, Radar Contact, continue to 6if any;# warnings (like wake turbulence,000rain... (and right to 120), if any;# the runway number;# the words ''cleared to land''.
The aim now is to get the plane heading in the right direction (that is, towards the first VOR or NDB - remember how they* 're shown on the display - listed in the Flight Strip, or just in the general direction of the country he's heading to. When the planes far enough away from the airport'BAW1542:''' Frankfurt Tower, or thereSpeedbird one five four two, ILS approach runway zero niner right.* 's no other traffic''Frankfurt Tower:''' Speedbird one five four two, climb him up to 12Frankfurt Tower,000 - 18wind zero one zero degrees,000ft and hand him off five knots, runway zero seven right, cleared to centerland. Now* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared to land, a few words about giving the plane vectors (headings)runway zero seven right, remember: Speedbird one five four two.
* Don't expect the plane to respond instantly... think ahead. By the time he's got your message and started to turn he might be 1 NM further on that you expected.* If he's heading directly to a 'fix' (any VOR, NDB or Intersection) give them a 'direct <placegallery widths=400px mode=packed>' order like 'BFile:EDDF-ELIO, turn left direct BIG' - don't bother trying finalapproach.png|Short final to figure out headings when you've been given an easy wayrunway 07R. * Consider your heading File:EDDF-landing- are you sure you mean 90 and not 270? If the aircraft is heading to the left of the screen, he's flying a heading of 270 and not 90!! This may seem obvious, but is one of the biggest problems for new controllers07R.png|Landing on 07R.</gallery>
Now the planeWe land on 07R and 's in 'vacate'' (exit) the runway at the skyearliest opportunity, making sure not to block other aircraft and not to enter a taxiway marked with a big, bold few words about separation:''NO ENTRY'Keep your planes at least 3NM from each other' sign; in this case, or at least 1we vacate on the left,000 ft vertically between themsince the terminal is on the left. If you think (On occasion, the planes controller will eventually come too close, don't wait -- turn ask us to vacate on a specific side or descend one immediately! In order to make collisions between planes traveling in opposite directions less likely, use this rulea specific exit). We are now asked to switch to Ground:* '''Frankfurt Tower:''' Speedbird one five four two, contact Frankfurt Ground on one two one decimal eight zero.* '''BAW1542:''' Contact Frankfurt Ground on one two one decimal eight zero, Speedbird one five four two.
{| class="prettytable"! align="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" | ! align="center" bgcolorTaxiing to the stand and shutting down ===="#EFEFEF" ||- |Plane flying headings 0-179 |Fly at ODD FLIGHT LEVELS |-We switch the transponder to ground mode and check the ground chart to get the name of the taxiway we are on; in our case, we have vacated the runway on taxiway M15. We then contact the ground controller:|Plane flying headings 180 - 359 * '''BAW1542:''' Frankfurt Ground, Speedbird one five four two on Mike one five, runway zero seven right vacated.|Fly at EVEN FLIGHT LEVELS * '''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, Frankfurt Ground, taxi to holding point Mike one four via Mike, hold short of Mike one four.|}* '''BAW1542:''' Taxi to holding point Mike one four via Mike, hold short of Mike one four, Speedbird one five four two.
What are Flight Levels? Flight Levels are used We taxi to holding point M14, stop and report our position to shorten heights -- you should recognize them from the plane'controller, so that (s blip -- you simply remove )he can coordinate with Tower and clear us to cross the active runway 07C.* '''BAW1542:''' Speedbird one five four two last digits from the height, holding short Mike one four.* '''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, standby. ''(The controller will ask Tower for example 32crossing clearance &ndash; it might take a bit.)''* '''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two,000ft --> FL320cleared to cross zero seven center, taxi to Lima via Lima niner. Also* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared to cross zero seven center, when you talk about Flight Levelstaxi to Lima via Lima niner, the pilot uses a standard altimeter setting (instead of the local altimeter setting found after the Q in the METAR weather report in the bottom right of your screen); while at low altitudes the plane will use the local barometric pressureSpeedbird one five four two. This means that all planes cruising will think 32At this point,000 ft is at the same placewe resume taxiing, and not vary slightly depending on making sure to cross the local pressurerunway expeditiously.
Your aim is to get Since the planes in taxiways and the right direction at a height ready for apron are managed by two different controllers, the ground controller will hand-us off to an ARTCC (_CTR) and away from the airportapron controller:* '''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, contact Apron East on one two one decimal niner five. Once you* 've done it pass your plane onto the centre controller''BAW1542:''' Contact Apron East on one two one decimal niner five, Speedbird one five four two. It is a good idea We switch to use the new frequency and report:* '''BAW1542:''' Apron East, Speedbird one five four two on Lima nine, request taxi to the <callsign of controller> function * '''Apron South:''' Speedbird one five four two, Apron East, taxi to ensure that you stand Delta five via Lima and your center agree on what places and heights youNovember one.* 'll hand off at''BAW1542:''' Taxi to stand Delta five via Lima and November one, Speedbird one five four two.
Now the planes with Centre. The same hand<gallery widths=400px mode=packed>File:EDDF-off procedure as above appliesM15.png|Taxiing on M15.File:EDDF-crossing-07C. wait for the first contact. When you've got it, identify the plane, png|Approaching holding point M14 and report 'radar contact'. If a plane is in your airspace and won't contact you try asking on your frequency, then try a quick switch preparing to 121cross runway 07C.50 to send a 'Contact EGTT_CTR on 132.600' to get the plane's attention. Using 121.50 (Note that the Guard Frequency) stop bar is used when you can't contact a plane -- all planes within a few hundred miles will hear your broadcastnot lit, irrespective of who it was intended for! Remember to switch back to your frequency -- only the ground sign tells you don't want everyone to hear your broadcasts for hold short of the rest of eternity (or perhaps you dorunway &ndash; I certainly don't)so be careful.File:EDDF-L.png|Taxiing on L.</gallery>
Centers job is pretty easy until its busy. Read We taxi to the planes intended route stand and just get shut down, also switching the plane to fly it. If transponder off &ndash; there are other planes, make sure they don't collide. Since opposite traveling planes will have a 1,000 ft separation (using the table above) you shouldn't s no need to worry ask a clearance for that much. Other than thatOur flight is now finished.==== This tutorial in video format ====The departure and arrival presented in this tutorial have also been recorded. Some interactions were simplified, listen the result should however be more close to what you usually experience on the pilot's requests and help him where you canmultiplayer network. Closed captions are available. When you get to your ARTCC boundary hand-off to the next centre, or - if there isn't one - give the order:
'''You{{#ev: Byoutube|dA-ELIO, no control available in France, resume own navigation to Belgium, radar service terminated'''UXATCHuI|400}}{{#ev:youtube|E3yfeWjlyic|400}}
This statement removes all your requirements to control the plane, as it now knows that your not watching on radar, and you're not going to help him navigate. When you are navigating as centre - if the flight plan doesn't include a route - find the start and end points, and plan a quick route (either direct - give one heading - or by 'hopping' from VOR to VOR).  These terms are used often while controlling to confirm or deny requests and answer any questions: {| class="prettytable"! align="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" | ! alignA sample VFR flight =="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" ||- |Affirmative (sometimes affirm or aff)|Yes or correct|-|Negative (sometimes neg)|No or incorrect|-|Confirm...|Is it correct that...|-|Unable...|Sorry, I cannot accept your request for...|-|Roger (almost always rgr)|I've heard and understood your last transmission|-|Wilco |I will comply with your orders (implies Roger)|-|Standby (sometimes stby)|Please wait, I will call you back when I am free.|} '''Some examples of these[http:'''* '''You: Confirm current altitude is FL310//forum. '''** '''B-ELIO: Negative, FL290'''* '''B-ELIO: Request descent to FL290 '''** '''You: Unable FL290 (there is already traffic at FL290?)''' When the plane is nearing its final destination, make sure it has descended to between 18,000 and 22,000 ftflightgear. This means that the approach controller can take the plane and descend it quickly -- it's no good trying to descend a plane 35,000 ft in 20 NM and still get it to land. Notice that the plane should remain above 18,000 ft (in your airspace) until you've handed off. Approach might decide not to take the plane and have you make it fly circles in the sky for 20 minutes until he has some room; otherwise arrivals and departures might crash while they're being handed over! So: '''You: B-ELIO, dorg/m (descend and maintain) 18,000 on QNH 1221, right to 270 and expect hand-off to approach in five minutesmemberlist.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: down to 18,000 on 1221, will expect approach in five, B-ELIO.''' What is the QNHphp? This is an altimeter setting. As the plane will shortly be moving back to local pressure, and not the flight level standard pressure, the pilot must know the local pressure. This ensures that his diagrams which give him the height of the airfield above sea level are correct -- if everyone used a standard altimeter setting at low altitudes the airport's height would seem to fluctuate over a period of hours by a few hundred feet! And finally: '''You: B-ELIO, contact EGLL_APP on 192.72''' I'm not sure how we ended up at Heathrow, but that's another story! mode=viewprofile&u= Lesson 5 ==Our plane, B-ELIO, is now about 40NM east-south-east of Heathrow ready to start the approach to runway 9L - as tower has chosen runway 9R for departures, with the winds of 87@22 - the plane is at 18,000 ft and is heading at 270 (towards the left of our screen...). Did you remember that the landing direction would be towards the right of the screen? I hope so... Anyway, planes need to be at 2,500 ft about 8NM away from the airport heading in the correct direction to intercept the magical [[Instrument Landing System|ILS12953 de profundis]] device that will guide them perfectly onto the runway. We know we need to keep the plane at 8,000 ft until its past OCK, and then get it down to 2,500 and onto the grey dotted line leading to the left runway (9L) for the ILS and tower to take the passengers safely to the ground. Formulate a plan: accept the hand-off, descend the plane to 8,000 and send it directly towards OCK VOR, at OCK descend it to 2,500 and fly it past OCK on 270, then turn it to 360 (north, easier to read than '0') up the grey dotted line pointing north, then turn it to 45 so that is cuts the grey-dotted line at 90 to runway 9L... when the plane is on a course taking it through extended center-line (an imaginary line representing a line extending from the runway) it is said to be intercepting the localizer. The plane can then be told to get itself onto this extended center-line as the ILS will warn the plane when it needs to turn to establish itself on the line. Since the airplane is on the wrong side of the airport, we fly three sides of a rectangle, the first is known as the down-wind (since you land heading up-wind), then the next 'leg' is known as the base, and the red-line shows the final. If the plane was coming from the west, he could just fly a 'straight-in' approach, also known as an extended final - as the plane only flies a very long final. The orange line shows the 'intercepting the localizer' as the plane will continue to fly this heading until the ILS tells it to turn right onto the center-line of the runway. As soon as the plane reports it's established on the localizer (it has direction signals), it can be cleared for the approach and told to descend with the glideslope which gives the plane height signals. The glideslope and localizer give precision approach information and are known - together - as the ILS (Instrument Landing System). Then get the plane to the tower, because - remember - you may well be dealing with planes taking off which you need to get out of your air-space, and other planes trying to get established on the ILS, as the tower wants written a steady stream of well-separated planes on the ILS. You hopefully now know what you're supposed to be doing, but how do we do it. We'll look at each stage in turn. '''B-ELIO: B-ELIO with you at 18,000 for Heathrow. Information Alpha. (Your ATIS - might contain weather, voice IP?)'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, Radar Contact, alpha is current. d/m 8,000 and direct OCK please.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: rgr, down to 8,000 to OCK.''' Great... B-ELIO will now get to OCK and be at 8,000. Just before he gets to OCK, you need to issue the next instructions so VFR tutorial that he can be ready for them: '''You: B-ELIO, d/m 2,500 continue present heading and expect ILS approach to runway 9L at Heathrow.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: rgr, 2,500 on my heading for 9L, B-ELIO.''' OK so far? Now let's head him towards the airport. This is the base leg: '''You: B-ELIO, turn right heading 360 (for base) the for base is for information and is usually left out.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: t/r (turn right) 360, B-ELIO''' This is where judgment and cunning use of the feature for monitoring heading and distance come into play. It is also your duty to give the plane the frequency for the ILS (in the form xxx.xx) which can be found at (or from database, sector system) using the search facility. The plane just hit the extended center-line at least 8NM away from the airport, so make sure takes you issue the turn to 45 at the correct time, otherwise B-ELIO will miss the ILS. Right place, so... '''You: Turn right heading 45 to intercept the localizer on 119.21 to 9L and report established.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: right to 45 for LLZ to 9L, will report established''' B-ELIO will now get himself onto the localizer and call: '''B-ELIO: established''' This is your cue to clear him for the approach and allow him to descend (otherwise he'll fly perfectly over the runway at 2,500ft). This is done with the following command: '''You: B-ELIO, rgr (I heard the 'established') cleared the ILS approach to 9L, descend with the g/s.<br />B-ELIO: Cleared ILS approach.'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, contact the tower on 118.52 (if there is a tower, else you'll have to do the job... and look up the tower frequency in who's on-line)'''<br />'''B-ELIO: Over to the tower, thanks for your help.''' That's your job done! As the approach controller you have the most work, so don't be afraid to give planes holds. A hold is a request for a plane to circle around a given fix (e.g.: a VOR) at a given height until you can do something with them. In fact, if you have lots of planes all circling a VOR, it's known as a 'stack' because the plane's are stacked there. So, we could get three planes holding at the OCK VOR (while we waited for traffic to decrease) at 6,000 ft, 8,000 ft and 10,000 ft and add new planes to the top and take planes ready for the approach sample flight from the bottom. To give a hold, the basic command is: ''Hold at <vor name> VOR at <current altitude/10,000 etc. / FL120 etc.>, expect further clearance in <time> minutes.'' Which requests the pilot flies around the <vor name> VOR at the assigned altitude until you give him a new clearance. The expect further clearance KRNO (e.g.: expect further clearance in 10 minutesReno Tahoe) just gives the pilot some idea of the delay and does not give the pilot the right to start flying away after that time is over! The full clearance for holding is as follows, but usually you can just use the one above unless you specifically need to avoid a plane coming to a certain side of the VOR: '''Hold <north/east/south/west> of the <vor name> VOR on the <approach heading> radial, expect further clearance in <time> minutes.''' The approach heading is the heading at which you want the plane to approach the VOR. So, hold north of the OCK VOR on the 270 radial would ask the pilot to fly to OCK on a hdg of 270 and then to hold so he's always north of the fix. A hold is a racing track shaped rectangle. The key to remember as the approach controller is to, wherever the planes coming from, remember its height is just as important as its direction when it comes to landing - 2,500 ft KBIH (above ground levelEastern Sierra Regional) for the ILS.  Disaster! You've got a propeller aircraft doing an approach and you've started a 747 on the same approach behind it. There's nothing to hold it at, and there getting very close -- what do you do? You could take the plane away and start the approach again, but using an orbit -- a circle to the left or right and then on the original heading -- will increase your time, just give: '''You: B-ELIO, one orbit to the left please for spacing.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: wilco''' Also, sometimes as approach you will want to slow a plane down to ensure that it isn't conflicting with a plane already on approach in front... if they are too close, the second plane will end up missing his approach because the plane in front will still be on the runway. '''You: B-ELIO, slow to 210kts'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, slow to minimum feasible speed please'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, maintain minimum 190kts ''etc.''''' Anyway, back to our imaginary covers VFR flight in which B-ELIO is flying the approach and is back with the tower... == Lesson 6 ==Tower now has B-ELIO who is now cleared for the ILS approachplanning, so can descend to the decision height. The decision minimum height is the height above the airport to which the plane can descend before being cleared to land. The plane cannot pass the decision height until he has visual contact (that is, he can see) the runway he wants to land on. If he cannot see the runway he will execute a missed approach phraseology and go around for another approach. The pilot will report to the tower: '''B-ELIO: B-ELIO with you to land 9L.'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, Rgr. (you do not need to give radar contact, as the pilot no longer needs a radar service. He is using ILS)''' You can then give the landing clearance, or - more likely - you can delay the clearance until he is 8NM from the airport and so are more certain that he will be able to land. The 8NM point of the approach is marked by a special device that causes a tone and light tips in the plane's cockpit. This device is known as the outer marker (O/M or OM)great detail. You can ask the pilot to tell you at this point for get his clearance: ''Cross Country Tutorial'You: B-ELIO, report the O/M for landing clearance'''<br />'''B-ELIO: rgr<br />'''B-ELIO: at O/M''' '''You: B-ELIO, winds 109@17, runway 9L, cleared to land.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: 9L, cleared to land, B-ELIO.''' Your aim as the tower is to clear the plane to land to avoid it having to miss its approach, and get other planes taking off between the landing planes, whilst maintaining separation between the planes. You must remember to account for the fact that a plane trying to land may miss its approach, and have to fly past the airport -- so make sure you turn slower planes away from the airport quickly in case a jet needs to continue past the runway.  After B-ELIO has landed, while he's still on the runway, you still control him. You want him off your runway as soon as possible, so you can land the next plane (otherwise, if he's still anywhere on the runway, you'd have to give a landing plane a missed approach), so[http'''You: B-ELIO take first taxi-way to <left/right> then contact ground on 121.65 (look up frequency in who's on-line)'''<br />'''B-ELIO: Thanks for your help, switching to groundforum.''' And your job is doneflightgear... let's look at a worse scenario. You landed a plane before B-ELIO and for some reason it hasn't been able to get off the runway yet. You must not let B-ELIO land whilst any other plane is on the runway, so you order B-ELIO to miss his approach: '''You: B-ELIO initiate missed approach immediately, corg/m 6000 on runway heading, and contact approach on 192viewtopic.72 (again, use who's on-line)<br />B-ELIO: Missed approach, and will contact approach.''' Approach will then climb the plane back to 6,000 ft (as it is almost a departure now) and complete the down-wind and base legs again (possibly on the other side of the airfield, depending on traffic). The plane can then be vectored back onto approach by the approach controller, and then given back to tower to try again. Of course a plane can initiate their own missed approach. '''B-ELIO:''' No visual on runway, going around (same as missed approach), B-ELIO.<br />You: Rgr, c/m 6000 left to 60 (perhaps there's traffic straight aheadphp?) and contact approach on 192.f=72.''' Once, B-ELIO is back with the ground controller, having taxied just off the runway, he will be given instructions to taxi to the terminal building. If there is no ground, the tower controller can just give a 'taxi to parking' order without specialized instructions&t=19600 dedicated forum thread].
That concludes the average flight in ProController== Tips ==* This tutorial, but for the next (and last) page sake of this lesson contains some information that simplicity and brevity, assumed no other aircraft was present. On multiplayer servers you may want might be instructed to knowhold your position, give way to other aircraft or hold (make circles) over a point to remain separate from other aircraft; check the [[ATC phraseology]] page for example: the words specific phraseology used to represent single letter (ein those situations.g.: alpha for A * Follow the guidelines detailed in ATIS[[ATC best practices]] to make the experience enjoyable for everyone.* When practicing controlled flying, make sure you know your aircraft well (you should be able to maintain an assigned speed, altitude and lima for L as in heading), go to a less trafficked airport and tell the controller it'taxi-way limas your first time interacting via ATC.* ' as opposed to 'taxi-way L'Remember to read back (repeat)the clearances; it is the only way for the controller to know whether you received them correctly or not.'''* Execute the clearances while reading them back.
== Notes ==