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ATC Tutorial

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Approaching the destination airport: correct info
{{WIP|Complete rewrite in progress by [[User:elgaton|elgaton]]}}{{Main article|Air Traffic Controltraffic control}}
[[Air traffic control|Air Traffic Control]] is an agreed procedure and process which keeps the [[aircraft]] separated to ensure that they don't crash into each other or are affected by turbulence when passing through the same air space. This article, written probably more directly useful for controllers and pilots alike, will teach you that procedure and will hopefully help you to enjoy controlled areas and airports on the FlightGear multiplayer servers. == How do I know if an airport is controlled? ==Check the Pilot List in FlightGear or the [[MPMap|Multiplayer map]]. Usually, controllers:* have a callsign ''XXXX_DE'', ''XXXX_GN'', ''XXXX_TW'' or ''XXXX_AP'' (where ''XXXX'' is the ICAO code of the airport they are manning); each callsign has a specific meaning (see "Controller roles" below);* use the ''[[OpenRadar]]'', ''ATC-TOWER'', ''[[ATC-aircraft|ATC]]'' (or similarly named) aircraft.
== Controller roles ==
| xxxx_GN
| Ground
| Controls the movement of aircraft on the ground at an airport (stands, apron, taxiways). Issues taxi clearances, assisting pilots if needed. Does Controls the ''inactive'' runways, but does not control the runways''active'' ones; thus, a pilot generally needs to contact Tower to enter or cross them (at some fields, Ground coordinates with Tower and is able to issue runway crossing clearances).
| xxxx_TW
| Tower
| Controls the ''active'' runways and the airspace up to 10 NM (nautical miles) from the airport; chooses the runways to use; clears planes for takeoff and landing, making sure that they are at least 10 NM or three minutes apart.
| xxxx_AP
* The "xxxx" in the table replace a code used to identify the area that controller is using; these are known as ''ICAO codes'' and can be found on the [ Airport Codes list]. For example, London Gatwick is "EGKK" so a Gatwick Tower Controller would log-in as ''EGKK_TW''. * Center controllers also have ICAO identifiers, but they are not for one airport, but for a larger area. For example, ''LFFF_CT'' is France Center, and ''LFFF_FS'' is the France Flight Service Station.* At large airports, multiple controllers may man the same positions.
=== Controller roles in FlightGear ===
=== Handoffs ===
If more than one controller is manning an area, the first controller should tell the pilot to contact the second controller when the airplane is about to enter the airspace of the latter. This is usually done with the phrase: "callsign, ''contact'' station ''on'' frequency".
== IFR vs VFR flights ==
{{Main article|Flight rules}}
A distinction you should know for flying in controlled areas is the one between IFR and VFR flights, as flight planning and some phraseology are different.
* VFR (Visual Flight Rules) can apply when a pilot is able to orientate and recognize other aircraft and obstacles visually (that means he must maintain a low altitude, where at most just a few clouds are presentfor example, the sky should be clear of clouds at low altitudes near the airport when taking off and landing, light must be sufficient, and there must be little or no fog at all); they are used mainly in general aviation;* IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) apply in all the other cases.
== Getting and reading charts ==
! scope="col"| Chart type
! scope="col"| Description
| Airport information
| Describes the characteristics of the airport and provides a list of radio frequencies.
| Ground (aerodrome chart/airport diagram)
== Phraseology ==
=== A sample IFR flight ===
We will teach the phraseology through an IFR sample flight from LEBL (Barcelona) to EDDF (Frankfurt am Main). For simplicity, we assume that all controller positions (delivery, ground, tower, approach/departure and center) are manned; also, we assume our callsign is ''BAW1542'' (to be read as ''Speedbird one five four two'').
==== Planning the flight ====
{{Main article|Flight planning}}
It's a good practice to file a flight plan on [ Lenny's website] so that the controllers will be able to know your departure/destination airports, cruising altitude and route without asking you about that every time.
Follow the instructions on the [[Flight planning]] article to file a flightplan from LEBL to EDDF with a cruising altitude of FL250.
==== Getting the departure clearance ====
We start on the airport apron at terminal T1, stand 221.
The first thing we need to do is to check the current air pressure and which runway is being used; as a general rule, planes should be heading into the wind for takeoff and landing.==== Starting up and pushing back ======== Taxiing To accomplish this, we need to listen to the runway ======== Taking off ======== Approaching ''ATIS'' (Automatic Terminal Information Service), a prerecorded message describing weather information, the destination airport ======== Landing ======== Taxiing runways in use and other important information for pilots; it's transmitted continuously on a dedicated radio channel. The frequency to use is written in the stand Airport information chart and shutting down ====can also be found by clicking on ''AI -> ATC Services in Range -> LEBL'': in our case, it's 121.970 MHz.
=== A sample VFR flight ===We open the Radio panel, set the COM1 frequency to 121.97 and listen to the ATIS message:* '''LEBL ATIS:''' ''This is El Prat information Alpha. Landing runway two five right. Departure runway two five left. Transition level five zero. Wind two zero zero degrees, one zero knots. Visibility one zero km or more, few two thousand five hundred feet. Temperature two two, dewpoint one zero. QNH one zero one eight. No significant change. On initial contact advise controller you have information Alpha.''This tells us that:# We're going to depart from runway 25L.# We need to set the altimeter to 1018 hPa<!-- Refer ref>European airports generally use hPa (hectopascals) for the QNH while American ones use inHg (inches of mercury). Some airplanes allow you to enter QNH values using both units; if that is not the case, you will need to use a converter.</ref> and set it back to standard pressure (STD) at the transition level (FL050, or 5000 feet).# Every ATIS broadcast is identified by a progressive letter of the [ NATO phonetic alphabet]; we'll need to tell the delivery controller that we have information "Alpha" so that (s)he can check whether we have the latest information or not.php?f=72&t=19600 Note also that numbers are spelled out for clarity -->this will be done in all further communication.
----We now get the clearance (authorization to fly to a destination airport) from the delivery controller. The process is as follows.# We get the Delivery frequency from the Airport information chart or the ATC Services in Range window (in this case, the frequency is 121.800 MHz) and tune COM1 to it (or connect on Mumble and join the delivery channel, or just talk on the Multiplayer chat).<ref>Each controller is free to use FGCom, Mumble or just the text chat as (s)he wishes; generally speaking, everyone accepts ATC via chat and, if voice communication is offered, that is announced on initial contact. Prefer voice communication if possible as it enhances realism and because speaking is quicker than typing.</ref># We contact the controller and ask for the clearance. (It is the pilot who needs to initiate contact with ATC, not the opposite). ''Tip: note down the clearance on a piece of paper as it's difficult (and risky) to memorize it.''# The Delivery controller gives us the clearance including:#* our callsign;#* whether we've got the latest ("current") ATIS information or not;#* our destination airport;#* the departure SID/waypoints;#* the route we'll need to follow (if it is not mentioned, we'll follow the route we wrote in our flight plan);#* the initial and cruising altitude;#* the squawk ([[transponder]]) code we'll need to set.# We read back (repeat) the clearance to confirm we understood it correctly.# The controller corrects any mistakes we've made and then hands us off to the Ground controller.
== Lesson 3 ==Let* 's look at a plane taxiing to the runway and taking off now. So''BAW1542:''' El Prat Delivery, to do thisis Speedbird one five four two, requesting delivery to Frankfurt, flight level two five zero, wehave information Alpha.* 'll consider ''El Prat Delivery:''' Speedbird one five four two controllers, Alpha is current, cleared to Frankfurt via OKABI three Whiskey, initial altitude five hundred feet, expect flight level two five zero after ten minutes, squawk four zero zero zero.* '''BAW1542: ''' Cleared to Frankfurt via OKABI three Whiskey, initial altitude five hundred feet, expect flight level two five zero after ten minutes, squawk four zero zero zero, Speedbird one five four two.* ''ground control (_GND) and the tower (_TWR)'El Prat Delivery:''' Speedbird one five four two, readback correct, contact El Prat Ground on one two one decimal six five zero.* '''BAW1542:''' Contact El Prat Ground on one two one decimal six five zero, Speedbird one five four two.
First, we have The controller asked us to know which runway is being used so that ground can follow the OKABI3W SID after departure - get the plane to SID charts, find it and look at the right place. The rule is 'planes always like to be heading into the wind for takeoff chart or landing'. The winds are given in read the METAR like 'xxxyy'text route descriptions. The wind heading is given first in 3 digitsIn this case, the SID prescribes pilots to climb to 500 ft, turn left to intercept radial 199 PRA and the speed after that in 2 digitsbe at least at 2500 ft at 8 NM from PRA; intercept radial 287 VNV and pass VNV at 5000 ft; so 11007 indicates winds of 7kts that are coming from 110 degrees (magnetic heading)turn right to KARDO, pass KARDO at FL120 and proceed direct OKABI. Winds under 5 kts can be considered If you'calm' and can be ignoredve got the Level-D files from [http://www.navigraph. Thuscom/ Navigraph], select the basic idea is to match SID in the heading of [[Route Manager]] dialog for the windroute to be automatically entered; otherwise, and use the runway heading (add a '0' Route Manager to input the runway number - 17L is 170) as closely as possible. Runways are numbered by knocking the '0' off the heading, VORs and appending 'L' for left or 'R' for right if there are parallel runwayswaypoints manually.
At Heathrow, there are runways 9L and 9R, and We also set the same runways (used in opposite directions) 27R transponder code and 27L. If switch the wind is 110º @ 15 kts then runways 9L and 9R are most suitable, as 90 and 110 are only 20 degrees away, but 270 and 110 are 160º away! At Heathrow, where there are parallel runways, one runway can be used for landing and the other for taking off - so a plane can be leaving on 9L while another is almost landing on 9R. Where there is only one runway, the same runway can be used transponder to landing and taking off. It is important to notice that Ground mode (if an the aircraft is taking off on runway 7, and another lands shortly after on runway 7, they are travelling in the same direction, so they are not approaching each other, and a collision is impossiblewe're using supports this functionality).
Knowing about your ATIS which can be read by all planes to avoid you repeating information, you would want to put the active runways in your ATIS so that other controllers know which runways you have chosen, ==== Pushing back and so planes have an idea of what they will be expected to do. Always keep your ATIS short starting up ====Before pushing back (as it is hard for being pushed away from the pilots to read stand with a long ATIStug)and starting up, and delete any blank lines at we need to get appropriate clearances from the endGround controller. This ensures we won't block taxiways unnecessarily. The other component of your ATIS should be the current weather, so a good ATIS for a tower or ground controller would be:
* ''London Heathrow Ground/Tower Information <alpha/bravo/charlie/delta/echo...>. Active runways are 9R for departures, and 9L for arrivals. Weather is'BAW1542:' ''El Prat Ground, Speedbird one five four two at stand two two one, request pushback.* '(copy from METAR)''El Prat Ground:' ''110@15 FEW030 OVC090 Q1015 NOSIG. On initial contact report you have <alpha/bravo/charlie/delta/echo...>'' ; the only detail to note here is the use of alpha/bravo, etc. Each time you update your ATIS change the identifier up by Speedbird onefive four two, so start with alphaEl Prat Ground, then use bravopushback approved, then charliefacing south. This is used so that when a plane calls you and says * 'information alpha' you know if he has current information or an old version'BAW1542:''' Pushback approved, facing south, Speedbird one five four two.
Now that We then push back, making sure the active runway has been established and aircraft is turned towards ("facing") south at the ATIS set-upend of the maneuver, you can go about controlling. First, though, you need and ask for permission to know some basic guidelines about contactstart our engines. Usually, expect a plane to call you first. They should give their current location, callsign (used to identify each plane) and which ATIS they have, so:
'''B-ELIO[[File: Ground, this is BLEBL-ELIO at stand220-pushback.png|center|thumb|800px|Our aircraft's position after pushback (noon and night view). Note that the terminal, Information Alphataxiway centerlines are not lit in proximity of stands. Request clearance to Paris Orly.''']]
B-ELIO, a plane* '''BAW1542:''' Speedbird one five four two, has called you telling you where he is, what information he has, and what he wantsrequest startup. To reply* '''El Prat Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, you need to tell him whether the information is current (startup approved.* 'Alpha is current') or new information ('New active runway is 23BAW1542:') and reply to his request'' Startup approved, Speedbird one five four two.
FirstAfter that, we earlier mentioned IFR clearance. This allows the controller to know where the plane is going, start our engines and to plan ahead for the aircraftcomplete our checklists as quickly as possible. If you remember looking at a Flight Strip in lesson 1, you will recall it allows a controller to see the destination of the aircraft, the route the aircraft will follow and the requested altitude. The aim of the clearance is just to confirm these details with the pilot, especially in the real-world where they may be altered due to traffic levels, to make sure there aren't any mistakes and everyone knows what's going to happen. The clearance is as follows:
==== Taxiing to the runway ====We ask for clearance to taxi to the departure runway.* '''<Callsign> is cleared to <destination> as filedBAW1542:''' (give any changes Speedbird one five four two is ready to the flight plan here)taxi. * '''After takeoff c/mEl Prat Ground:''' (climb Speedbird one five four two, taxi to holding point Echo two via Lima and maintain) Echo, QNH one zero one eight.* '''<altitude> on runway heading / and turn <left/right> to <heading>, expect <requested flight level> after 10 minutes. Squawk <transponder code>.BAW1542:'''Taxi to holding point Echo two via Lima and Echo, QNH one zero one eight, Speedbird one five four two.
HereThe current QNH may be repeated by the ground controller, even if we have just heard it on the ATIS, as a reminder to set it to the correct value - so check it. After that, open the ground chart and check your taxi route before starting, as in some cases taxi signs will not be present at all intersections. You will notice that the controller cleared us only to holding point E2, so, once there, we's an example clearancell need to report our position and await further instructions. The holding point is marked by a ''stop bar'' (a dotted/continuous yellow line:the dotted one faces the runway while the continuous line faces the taxiway, to remind you that you need a clearance to cross the runway, and it is lit at night by means of pulsing yellow lights).
Taxi to E2 as instructed at a maximum speed of 30 knots and ''hold short'You: B-ELIO is cleared to Paris Orly as filed' (stop) just before the stop bar. After takeoff c/m 6Remember that,000 and turn left while the controller may instruct you to heading 180 ''hold position'' (southstop) expect FL310 after 10 minutes. Squawk 5201.and ''give way'' to another plane, it's still your responsibility not to collide with buildings, vehicles or other aircraft; also, should you at any point become unsure of your position, stop at once and ask the ground controller.
The clearance can be given whilst on the <gallery widths=400px mode=packed>File:LEBL-E3.png|Taxiing to intersection E3 - no groundsigns are present, and is given by Clearance Delivery (_DEL) if one is online, else so you should use the GROUND (_GND), or TOWER (_TWR) controllerground chart as a reference. The pilot must readFile:LEBL-back the whole clearance, to which you confirm by saying 'readback correct'E2. The Squawk code is a number used to identify the planepng|Approaching holding point E2. It can be seen on the flight plan (will default to 1200) and means File:LEBL- in the real world E2- a controller can tell the dots apart as each one has a numberstopbar. Just assign an available number in png|Close up of the 5000 or 6000 range (eg: 6001, 6002, 6003, etc.)E2 stop bar.</gallery>
We contact the ground controller to tell him/her we're at E2.* ''B-ELIO'BAW1542: B-ELIO cleared to Orly as filed. c/m 6000 left 180 - expect FL310 after 10, and squawk 5201.'''<br />Speedbird one five four two, we're holding short Echo two.* '''YouEl Prat Ground: B-ELIO''' Speedbird one five four two, readback correctcleared to cross runway zero two, call when ready taxi to push-back holding point Golf one via Echo one and start-upKilo.'''<br />* '''B-ELIOBAW1542: B-ELIO requests start-up and push-back.'''Cleared to cross runway zero two and taxi to holding point Golf one via Echo one and Kilo, Speedbird one five four two.
Here a push-back We then cross the runway without delay and start-up means he wants a vehicle to pull the plane away from the buildings so he turn left on K. Near K2 you can start his engines... this is notice a real''CAT II/III holding point'' (marked by an empty yellow rectangle with vertical lines, equipped with ''fixed'' lights) -world call, and is that's where we would stop if visibility was reduced or if another aircraft was landing using ILS; since that's not used in the virtual worldcase and we were cleared to G1, so just approve itproceed. He might skip this entirely and just ask if he can taxi, otherwise say:
'''You<gallery widths=400px mode=packed>File: Cleared to pushLEBL-back and start enginesK2. Call when ready to taxi'''png|The CAT II/III K2 stop bar.File:LEBL-G1.png|Approaching the G1 stop bar.</gallery>
B-ELIO will then call you when he's ready We stop at G1 while the ground controller instructs us to taxi. Note you don't have to type B-ELIO, just click on his icon on contact the screen and ProController automatically inserts it for you. You can often just respond with tower:* 'roger' or 'rgrEl Prat Ground:' which means you've heard what the other person has said' Speedbird one five four two, or contact El Prat Tower on one one eight decimal three two zero, goodbye!* 'wilco' which means you have heard and will obey. When he calls to taxi'BAW1542:''' Contact El Prat Tower on one one eight decimal three two zero, Speedbird one five four two, bye!
'''B-ELIO: rgr ==== Lining up and taking off ====We contact Tower on text chat, FGCom or Mumble (to depending on the push-back and start-up clearancetools the controller is using). Ready to taxi to the active runwayget our takeoff clearance.'''<br />It will include, in that order:# the wind direction and speed;'''You: B-ELIO# wind gusts, Taxi to runway 9 if any;# warnings (or whatever Tower has chosenlike wake turbulence, rain...) and hold short, altimeter 1009.'''<br />if any;# the runway number;# the words '''B-ELIO: to runway 9 and h/s, alt 1009, B-ELIO (h/s is short cleared for hold short)'takeoff''.
Hold short asks the plane to get close to the point given (here* '''BAW1542:''' El Prat Tower, Speedbird one five four two, the runway) without actually getting on to the point. Each runway has a line painted on the ground (the holding line) at which a plane waiting to take-off will wait until he is cleared onto the runway (tower's duty)short Golf one. If you put the plane on the runway* '''El Prat Tower:''' Speedbird one five four two, tower might be landing a plane and this plane might well land on top of it! The altimeter wind is given now so that you are sure that the plane has the correct altimeter settingtwo one zero at five, and is just good practice. Even with it in your ATIS, and their take-off checksrunway two five left, it never hurts to be safe. Your aim as ground is just to get a queue ready cleared for takeoff so that tower has aircraft ready to takeoff when there.* 's a gap in arrivals''BAW1542:''' Cleared for takeoff two five left, Speedbird one five four two.
{{note|If a tower controller clears an aircraft for takeoff while it is still on a taxiway, the pilot needs is also cleared to cross a runway, he'll stop before enter the runway and ask for clearance. You just direct him &ndash; there is no need to ask the tower for this information. Imagine for issue a second that thereseparate ''s another plane taxiing to the runway as wellline up and wait'' instruction... tell the plane to give way:}}
We set the transponder to ''On'You: B-ELIO, Taxi ' so that the controllers and other aircraft will be able to runway 9 see us on radar screens and hold shortthe [[Traffic alert and collision avoidance system|TCAS]], line up, take off and follow the SID. Give way to After the American Airlines 747 taxiing from left takeoff, the tower controller will hand us off to right.the departure controller:* '''El Prat Tower:''' Speedbird one five four two, contact Departure on one two six decimal five zero zero, goodbye!* '''BAW1542:''' Contact Departure on one two six decimal five zero zero, Speedbird one five four two.
Now the pilot will have to give way We switch to the 747 moving in front of him from his left to his right. If B-ELIO was also an American Airlines, you can use departure frequency and contact the word controller:* 'Company' to mean 'of the same companyBAW1542:' so 'Give way to company 747...' would be legal. As a ground controllerEl Prat Departure, with a detailed mapSpeedbird one five four two passing ''current altitude'', you might like to give full details of the way you want him to goOKABI three Whiskey departure.* '''El Prat Departure:''' Speedbird one five four two, but normally the controller can just give a simple statement like the ones aboveradar contact, climb and maintain flight level two five zero.* '''BAW1542:''' Climb and maintain flight level two five zero, Speedbird one five four two.
We climb to FL250 and continue following the SID waypoints. When we're approaching the final fix (OKABI) the controller will tell us to follow our flightplan:* ''You'El Prat Departure: B-ELIO''' Speedbird one five four two, taxi via Inner Taxiway to block 53resume your own navigation, then left onto taxi-way B to runway 9frequency change approved, and hold short.goodbye!* '''BAW1542:''' Resuming our own navigation, frequency change approved, Speedbird one five four two, bye!
Now the plane is ready We're now free to get onto the runway and takeoff, you hand him off follow our flightplan - it's a good practice to TWR, using the method you learnt in Lesson 1 by right-clicking keep an eye on the plane, selecting 'aircraft >' and then 'request handoff' and select the appropriate controller. This will ask the controller multiplayer map to check for a hand-off traffic and, when they accept, the circles around the plane will change colour, you can now go through the same menu and choose hand-off which will give B-ELIO the following messageto announce altitude changes/turns on text chat if other pilots are nearby. <ref>In the real worldflying, you'd actually say itwe would be handed off to center controllers and we would report our position over special points, and marked as black triangles in the charts. Since center controllers are not common in IVAOFlightGear, you can just type it without using the automated system: this is not usually done.</ref>
==== Approaching the destination airport ====We start descending on our own so as to reach FL150 approximately 100 NM from the destination airport. When we're about 80 NM from EDDF we check the ATIS for the destination airport, just like we did at LEBL - in this case the frequency is 118.02. We tune in the COM1 radio to that frequency and listen:* ''You'EDDF ATIS: B-ELIO''' ''This is Frankfurt information Echo. Landing runway zero seven right. Departure runway zero seven center. Transition level five zero. Wind zero two zero degrees, contact four knots. Visibility one zero km or more, few four thousand eight hundred feet. Temperature one niner<ref>"Niner" is used instead of "nine" to avoid confusion between the tower frequency 119similarly sounding "nine" and "nein", the German word for "no".7 (</ref>, dewpoint zero seven. QNH one zero one eight. No significant change. On initial contact advise controller you'd have to look up the frequency in who is on-line)'information Echo.''
So nowWe then contact the approach controller (in this case Langen Radar, it118.45 MHz):* 's Tower's turn to get this plane off into the sky'BAW1542:''' Langen Radar, Speedbird one five four two at flight level one five zero, we have information Echo.* '''Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two, radar contact, Echo is current, descend and maintain five thousand feet, proceed direct UNOKO.* '''BAW1542:''' Descend and maintain five thousand feet, proceed direct UNOKO, Speedbird one five four two.
If you were awaiting a plane We proceed to land, you could just leave the plane queuingUNOKO waypoint and descend to 5000 ft, but if you are ready to have him on as instructed. At 5000 ft we set the runway tell him altimeter to get into position on the runwaylocal QNH (1018 hPa). Remember, it is your job to get aircraft onto and off the runways as quickly as possible, so that planes can land and take-off quickly:
When we're near UNOKO the approach controller will contact us and assign us a STAR (standard arrival route):* '''YouLangen Radar: B-ELIO, runway 9, line up and wait.'''<br />Speedbird one five four two, cleared UNOKO one Mike arrival.* '''B-ELIOBAW1542: Runway 9''' Cleared UNOKO one Mike arrival, line up Speedbird one five four two.Now we follow the altitudes and waitroute in the STAR &ndash; in this case, B-ELIOwe fly over UNOKO, IBVIL, MANUV, RAMOB and proceed to TAU.'''
One thing We hold (circle) over TAU until the controller instructs us to note, continue the phrase approach:* 'position ''Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two, turn right heading one four zero, descend and holdmaintain three thousand feet, reduce speed to two five zero knots.* ' is no longer used''BAW1542:''' Turn right heading one four zero, since the FAA adopted the ICAO standard "line up descend and wait" (since September 30maintain three thousand feet, 2010)reducing speed to two five zero knots, Speedbird one five four two.
You may also use We now engage the autopilot's heading select mode, fly the given heading, reduce our speed and continue our descent as cleared. After a conditional clearancecouple of minutes, the controller calls us and instructs us to make your job easieruse the [[Instrument Landing System]] to get towards the runway:* '''Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two, cleared ILS approach runway zero seven right.* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared ILS approach runway zero seven right, Speedbird one five four two.
As soon as the localizer is alive we engage the autopilot'''You: B-ELIOs localizer mode and, runway 9as soon as the glideslope is alive, line up we switch to approach mode and wait [after descend on the arriving B747 / following the departing B757]glide. The controller will call us one last time to hand us over to Frankfurt Tower:* '''Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two, contact Frankfurt Tower on one one niner decimal niner zero.* '''BAW1542:''' Contact Frankfurt Tower on one one niner decimal niner zero, Speedbird one five four two.
The plane may give a call back when he's ready ==== Landing ====We switch to 119.90 MHz and/or join the Frankfurt Tower channel on Mumble, then contact the tower controller to get the landing clearance. It will include:# the wind direction and speed;# wind gusts, if any;# warnings (like wake turbulence, rain...), if any;# the runway number;# the words 'ready for departure' or cleared to land'on the numbers'. If not, just wait until his icon stops moving and give him his takeoff clearance:
* '''YouBAW1542: B-ELIO''' Frankfurt Tower, winds calm/110@15Speedbird one five four two, ILS approach runway 9, cleared for takeoffzero niner right.* '''<br />Frankfurt Tower:''' Speedbird one five four two, Frankfurt Tower, wind zero one zero degrees, five knots, runway zero seven right, cleared to land.* '''B-ELIOBAW1542: Cleared for takeoff.'''Cleared to land, runway zero seven right, Speedbird one five four two.
The plane will commence his take<gallery widths=400px mode=packed>File:EDDF-off roll, and - as soon as he is airborne - you want finalapproach.png|Short final to get rid of him and get onto your next planerunway 07R. You initiate the handFile:EDDF-off to approach, and handoff as soon as (s)he accepts. So now, onto approaches dealings.landing-07R.png|Landing on 07R.</gallery>
== Lesson 4 ==We land on 07R and ''vacate''(In this section exit) the approach controller is presumed runway at the earliest opportunity, making sure not to be handling departuresblock other aircraft and not to enter a taxiway marked with a ''NO ENTRY'' sign; in this case, as there are verywe vacate on the left, very rarely departure controllerssince the terminal is on the left. If there were a departure controller, (s)he would deal with a departing planeOn occasion, and the approach controller would deal with any planes arrivingwill ask us to vacate on a specific side or to use a specific exit). We are now asked to switch to Ground:* '''Frankfurt Tower:''' Speedbird one five four two, contact Frankfurt Ground on one two one decimal eight zero.* '''BAW1542:''' Contact Frankfurt Ground on one two one decimal eight zero, Speedbird one five four two.
So approach now has a plane that wants ==== Taxiing to the stand and shutting down ====We switch the transponder to ground mode and check the ground chart to get the name of the taxiway we are on with its flight; in our case, we have vacated the runway on taxiway M15. The first thing to notice was We then contact the clearanceground controller:* ''climb and maintain 6'BAW1542:''' Frankfurt Ground, Speedbird one five four two on Mike one five,000.runway zero seven right vacated.* '''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, Frankfurt Ground, taxi to holding point Mike one four via Mike, hold short of Mike one four.* '''BAW1542:''' Taxi to holding point Mike one four via Mike, hold short of Mike one four, Speedbird one five four two.
It wasn't explained last pageWe taxi to holding point M14, but the reason for this low height is stop and report our position to ensure that planes arriving at the airport - also at low heights - controller, so that are arriving from (s)he can coordinate with Tower and clear us to cross the takeoff end of the airfield are kept above the departing planesactive runway 07C. If arriving planes are only cleared down to 8* '''BAW1542:''' Speedbird one five four two,000 ftholding short Mike one four. then - even if they have to fly over the airport and turn around - they cannot conflict with departing planes* '''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, standby. For this reason''(The controller will ask Tower for crossing clearance &ndash; it might take a bit.)''* '''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, departing planes are usually cleared to 6cross zero seven center,000 and arriving planes taxi to 8,000 until they are on the Lima via Lima niner.* 'safe' (non-departure) side of 'BAW1542:''' Cleared to cross zero seven center, taxi to Lima via Lima niner, Speedbird one five four two.At this point, we resume taxiing, making sure to cross the runwayexpeditiously.
Let's look at how Since the taxiways and the apron are managed by two different controllers, the ground controller will hand-us off occurs this timeto the apron controller:* '''EGLL_TWRFrankfurt Ground: B-ELIO''' Speedbird one five four two, contact EGLL_APP Apron East on 119one two one decimal niner five.72* '''BAW1542:''' Contact Apron East on one two one decimal niner five, good-daySpeedbird one five four two.We switch to the new frequency and report:* '''<br />BAW1542:'''B-ELIO (Apron East, Speedbird one five four two on Lima nine, request taxi to you)the stand.* '''Apron South: Heathrow Approach, good-day, this is B-ELIO out of 1''' Speedbird one five four two,700 for 6Apron East,000 on runway headingtaxi to stand Delta five via Lima and November one.* '''BAW1542:''' Taxi to stand Delta five via Lima and November one, Speedbird one five four two.
This time, because <gallery widths=400px mode=packed>File:EDDF-M15.png|Taxiing on M15.File:EDDF-crossing-07C.png|Approaching holding point M14 and preparing to cross runway 07C. Note that the plane stop bar is in the airnot lit, only the ground sign tells you want to acknowledge you can see him on hold short of the radar:runway &ndash; so be careful.'''YouFile: BEDDF-ELIO, Radar Contact, continue to 6,000.L.png|Taxiing on L. (and right to 120)'''</gallery>
The aim now is We taxi to get the plane heading in the right direction (that isstand and shut down, towards also switching the first VOR or NDB - remember how they're shown on the display - listed in the Flight Strip, or just in the general direction of the country he's heading to. When the planes far enough away from the airport, or transponder off &ndash; there's no other traffic, climb him up need to 12,000 - 18,000ft ask a clearance for that. Our flight is now finished.==== This tutorial in video format ====The departure and hand him off to centerarrival presented in this tutorial have also been recorded. NowSome interactions were simplified, a few words about giving the plane vectors (headings), remember: result should however be more close to what you usually experience on the multiplayer network. Closed captions are available.
* Don't expect the plane to respond instantly... think ahead. By the time he's got your message and started to turn he might be 1 NM further on that you expected.* If he's heading directly to a 'fix' (any VOR, NDB or Intersection) give them a 'direct <place>' order like 'B{{#ev:youtube|dA-ELIO, turn left direct BIG' - don't bother trying to figure out headings when you've been given an easy way. UXATCHuI|400}}* Consider your heading -- are you sure you mean 90 and not 270? If the aircraft is heading to the left of the screen, he's flying a heading of 270 and not 90!! This may seem obvious, but is one of the biggest problems for new controllers.{{#ev:youtube|E3yfeWjlyic|400}}
Now the plane's in the sky, a big, bold few words about separation:'''Keep your planes at least 3NM from each other, or at least 1,000 ft vertically between them. If you think the planes will eventually come too close, don't wait -- turn or descend one immediately! In order to make collisions between planes traveling in opposite directions less likely, use this rule:''' {| class="prettytable"! align="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" | ! align="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" ||- |Plane flying headings 0-179 |Fly at ODD FLIGHT LEVELS |-|Plane flying headings 180 - 359 |Fly at EVEN FLIGHT LEVELS |} What are Flight Levels? Flight Levels are used to shorten heights -- you should recognize them from the plane's blip -- you simply remove the two last digits from the height, for example 32,000ft --> FL320. Also, when you talk about Flight Levels, the pilot uses a standard altimeter setting (instead of the local altimeter setting found after the Q in the METAR weather report in the bottom right of your screen); while at low altitudes the plane will use the local barometric pressure. This means that all planes cruising will think 32,000 ft is at the same place, and not vary slightly depending on the local pressure.  Your aim is to get the planes in the right direction at a height ready for hand-off to an ARTCC (_CTR) and away from the airport. Once you've done it pass your plane onto the centre controller. It is a good idea to use the .chat <callsign of controller> function to ensure that you and your center agree on what places and heights you'll hand off at. Now the planes with Centre. The same hand-off procedure as above applies... wait for the first contact. When you've got it, identify the plane, and report 'radar contact'. If a plane is in your airspace and won't contact you try asking on your frequency, then try a quick switch to 121.50 to send a 'Contact EGTT_CTR on 132.600' to get the plane's attention. Using 121.50 (the Guard Frequency) is used when you can't contact a plane -- all planes within a few hundred miles will hear your broadcast, irrespective of who it was intended for! Remember to switch back to your frequency -- you don't want everyone to hear your broadcasts for the rest of eternity (or perhaps you do; I certainly don't). Centers job is pretty easy until its busy. Read the planes intended route and just get the plane to fly it. If there are other planes, make sure they don't collide. Since opposite traveling planes will have a 1,000 ft separation (using the table above) you shouldn't need to worry that much. Other than that, listen to the pilot's requests and help him where you can. When you get to your ARTCC boundary hand-off to the next centre, or - if there isn't one - give the order: '''You: B-ELIO, no control available in France, resume own navigation to Belgium, radar service terminated''' This statement removes all your requirements to control the plane, as it now knows that your not watching on radar, and you're not going to help him navigate. When you are navigating as centre - if the A sample VFR flight plan doesn't include a route - find the start and end points, and plan a quick route (either direct - give one heading - or by 'hopping' from VOR to VOR).  These terms are used often while controlling to confirm or deny requests and answer any questions: {| class="prettytable"! align="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" | ! align="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" ||- |Affirmative (sometimes affirm or aff)|Yes or correct|-|Negative (sometimes neg)|No or incorrect|-|Confirm...|Is it correct that...|-|Unable...|Sorry, I cannot accept your request for...|-|Roger (almost always rgr)|I've heard and understood your last transmission|-|Wilco |I will comply with your orders (implies Roger)|-|Standby (sometimes stby)|Please wait, I will call you back when I am free.|} '''Some examples of these[http:'''* '''You: Confirm current altitude is FL310//forum. '''** '''B-ELIO: Negative, FL290'''* '''B-ELIO: Request descent to FL290 '''** '''You: Unable FL290 (there is already traffic at FL290?)''' When the plane is nearing its final destination, make sure it has descended to between 18,000 and 22,000 ftflightgear. This means that the approach controller can take the plane and descend it quickly -- it's no good trying to descend a plane 35,000 ft in 20 NM and still get it to land. Notice that the plane should remain above 18,000 ft (in your airspace) until you've handed off. Approach might decide not to take the plane and have you make it fly circles in the sky for 20 minutes until he has some room; otherwise arrivals and departures might crash while they're being handed over! So: '''You: B-ELIO, dorg/m (descend and maintain) 18,000 on QNH 1221, right to 270 and expect hand-off to approach in five minutesmemberlist.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: down to 18,000 on 1221, will expect approach in five, B-ELIO.''' What is the QNHphp? This is an altimeter setting. As the plane will shortly be moving back to local pressure, and not the flight level standard pressure, the pilot must know the local pressure. This ensures that his diagrams which give him the height of the airfield above sea level are correct -- if everyone used a standard altimeter setting at low altitudes the airport's height would seem to fluctuate over a period of hours by a few hundred feet! And finally: '''You: B-ELIO, contact EGLL_APP on 192.72''' I'm not sure how we ended up at Heathrow, but that's another story! mode=viewprofile&u= Lesson 5 ==Our plane, B-ELIO, is now about 40NM east-south-east of Heathrow ready to start the approach to runway 9L - as tower has chosen runway 9R for departures, with the winds of 87@22 - the plane is at 18,000 ft and is heading at 270 (towards the left of our screen...). Did you remember that the landing direction would be towards the right of the screen? I hope so... Anyway, planes need to be at 2,500 ft about 8NM away from the airport heading in the correct direction to intercept the magical [[Instrument Landing System|ILS12953 de profundis]] device that will guide them perfectly onto the runway. We know we need to keep the plane at 8,000 ft until its past OCK, and then get it down to 2,500 and onto the grey dotted line leading to the left runway (9L) for the ILS and tower to take the passengers safely to the ground. Formulate a plan: accept the hand-off, descend the plane to 8,000 and send it directly towards OCK VOR, at OCK descend it to 2,500 and fly it past OCK on 270, then turn it to 360 (north, easier to read than '0') up the grey dotted line pointing north, then turn it to 45 so that is cuts the grey-dotted line at 90 to runway 9L... when the plane is on a course taking it through extended center-line (an imaginary line representing a line extending from the runway) it is said to be intercepting the localizer. The plane can then be told to get itself onto this extended center-line as the ILS will warn the plane when it needs to turn to establish itself on the line. Since the airplane is on the wrong side of the airport, we fly three sides of a rectangle, the first is known as the down-wind (since you land heading up-wind), then the next 'leg' is known as the base, and the red-line shows the final. If the plane was coming from the west, he could just fly a 'straight-in' approach, also known as an extended final - as the plane only flies a very long final. The orange line shows the 'intercepting the localizer' as the plane will continue to fly this heading until the ILS tells it to turn right onto the center-line of the runway. As soon as the plane reports it's established on the localizer (it has direction signals), it can be cleared for the approach and told to descend with the glideslope which gives the plane height signals. The glideslope and localizer give precision approach information and are known - together - as the ILS (Instrument Landing System). Then get the plane to the tower, because - remember - you may well be dealing with planes taking off which you need to get out of your air-space, and other planes trying to get established on the ILS, as the tower wants written a steady stream of well-separated planes on the ILS. You hopefully now know what you're supposed to be doing, but how do we do it. We'll look at each stage in turn. '''B-ELIO: B-ELIO with you at 18,000 for Heathrow. Information Alpha. (Your ATIS - might contain weather, voice IP?)'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, Radar Contact, alpha is current. d/m 8,000 and direct OCK please.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: rgr, down to 8,000 to OCK.''' Great... B-ELIO will now get to OCK and be at 8,000. Just before he gets to OCK, you need to issue the next instructions so VFR tutorial that he can be ready for them: '''You: B-ELIO, d/m 2,500 continue present heading and expect ILS approach to runway 9L at Heathrow.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: rgr, 2,500 on my heading for 9L, B-ELIO.''' OK so far? Now let's head him towards the airport. This is the base leg: '''You: B-ELIO, turn right heading 360 (for base) the for base is for information and is usually left out.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: t/r (turn right) 360, B-ELIO''' This is where judgment and cunning use of the feature for monitoring heading and distance come into play. It is also your duty to give the plane the frequency for the ILS (in the form xxx.xx) which can be found at (or from database, sector system) using the search facility. The plane just hit the extended center-line at least 8NM away from the airport, so make sure takes you issue the turn to 45 at the correct time, otherwise B-ELIO will miss the ILS. Right place, so... '''You: Turn right heading 45 to intercept the localizer on 119.21 to 9L and report established.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: right to 45 for LLZ to 9L, will report established''' B-ELIO will now get himself onto the localizer and call: '''B-ELIO: established''' This is your cue to clear him for the approach and allow him to descend (otherwise he'll fly perfectly over the runway at 2,500ft). This is done with the following command: '''You: B-ELIO, rgr (I heard the 'established') cleared the ILS approach to 9L, descend with the g/s.<br />B-ELIO: Cleared ILS approach.'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, contact the tower on 118.52 (if there is a tower, else you'll have to do the job... and look up the tower frequency in who's on-line)'''<br />'''B-ELIO: Over to the tower, thanks for your help.''' That's your job done! As the approach controller you have the most work, so don't be afraid to give planes holds. A hold is a request for a plane to circle around a given fix (e.g.: a VOR) at a given height until you can do something with them. In fact, if you have lots of planes all circling a VOR, it's known as a 'stack' because the plane's are stacked there. So, we could get three planes holding at the OCK VOR (while we waited for traffic to decrease) at 6,000 ft, 8,000 ft and 10,000 ft and add new planes to the top and take planes ready for the approach sample flight from the bottom. To give a hold, the basic command is: ''Hold at <vor name> VOR at <current altitude/10,000 etc. / FL120 etc.>, expect further clearance in <time> minutes.'' Which requests the pilot flies around the <vor name> VOR at the assigned altitude until you give him a new clearance. The expect further clearance KRNO (e.g.: expect further clearance in 10 minutesReno Tahoe) just gives the pilot some idea of the delay and does not give the pilot the right to start flying away after that time is over! The full clearance for holding is as follows, but usually you can just use the one above unless you specifically need to avoid a plane coming to a certain side of the VOR: '''Hold <north/east/south/west> of the <vor name> VOR on the <approach heading> radial, expect further clearance in <time> minutes.''' The approach heading is the heading at which you want the plane to approach the VOR. So, hold north of the OCK VOR on the 270 radial would ask the pilot to fly to OCK on a hdg of 270 and then to hold so he's always north of the fix. A hold is a racing track shaped rectangle. The key to remember as the approach controller is to, wherever the planes coming from, remember its height is just as important as its direction when it comes to landing - 2,500 ft KBIH (above ground levelEastern Sierra Regional) for the ILS.  Disaster! You've got a propeller aircraft doing an approach and you've started a 747 on the same approach behind it. There's nothing to hold it at, and there getting very close -- what do you do? You could take the plane away and start the approach again, but using an orbit -- a circle to the left or right and then on the original heading -- will increase your time, just give: '''You: B-ELIO, one orbit to the left please for spacing.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: wilco''' Also, sometimes as approach you will want to slow a plane down to ensure that it isn't conflicting with a plane already on approach in front... if they are too close, the second plane will end up missing his approach because the plane in front will still be on the runway. '''You: B-ELIO, slow to 210kts'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, slow to minimum feasible speed please'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, maintain minimum 190kts ''etc.''''' Anyway, back to our imaginary covers VFR flight in which B-ELIO is flying the approach and is back with the tower... == Lesson 6 ==Tower now has B-ELIO who is now cleared for the ILS approachplanning, so can descend to the decision height. The decision minimum height is the height above the airport to which the plane can descend before being cleared to land. The plane cannot pass the decision height until he has visual contact (that is, he can see) the runway he wants to land on. If he cannot see the runway he will execute a missed approach phraseology and go around for another approach. The pilot will report to the tower: '''B-ELIO: B-ELIO with you to land 9L.'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, Rgr. (you do not need to give radar contact, as the pilot no longer needs a radar service. He is using ILS)''' You can then give the landing clearance, or - more likely - you can delay the clearance until he is 8NM from the airport and so are more certain that he will be able to land. The 8NM point of the approach is marked by a special device that causes a tone and light tips in the plane's cockpit. This device is known as the outer marker (O/M or OM)great detail. You can ask the pilot to tell you at this point for get his clearance: ''Cross Country Tutorial'You: B-ELIO, report the O/M for landing clearance'''<br />'''B-ELIO: rgr<br />'''B-ELIO: at O/M''' '''You: B-ELIO, winds 109@17, runway 9L, cleared to land.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: 9L, cleared to land, B-ELIO.''' Your aim as the tower is to clear the plane to land to avoid it having to miss its approach, and get other planes taking off between the landing planes, whilst maintaining separation between the planes. You must remember to account for the fact that a plane trying to land may miss its approach, and have to fly past the airport -- so make sure you turn slower planes away from the airport quickly in case a jet needs to continue past the runway.  After B-ELIO has landed, while he's still on the runway, you still control him. You want him off your runway as soon as possible, so you can land the next plane (otherwise, if he's still anywhere on the runway, you'd have to give a landing plane a missed approach), so[http'''You: B-ELIO take first taxi-way to <left/right> then contact ground on 121.65 (look up frequency in who's on-line)'''<br />'''B-ELIO: Thanks for your help, switching to groundforum.''' And your job is doneflightgear... let's look at a worse scenario. You landed a plane before B-ELIO and for some reason it hasn't been able to get off the runway yet. You must not let B-ELIO land whilst any other plane is on the runway, so you order B-ELIO to miss his approach: '''You: B-ELIO initiate missed approach immediately, corg/m 6000 on runway heading, and contact approach on 192viewtopic.72 (again, use who's on-line)<br />B-ELIO: Missed approach, and will contact approach.''' Approach will then climb the plane back to 6,000 ft (as it is almost a departure now) and complete the down-wind and base legs again (possibly on the other side of the airfield, depending on traffic). The plane can then be vectored back onto approach by the approach controller, and then given back to tower to try again. Of course a plane can initiate their own missed approach. '''B-ELIO:''' No visual on runway, going around (same as missed approach), B-ELIO.<br />You: Rgr, c/m 6000 left to 60 (perhaps there's traffic straight aheadphp?) and contact approach on 192.f=72.''' Once, B-ELIO is back with the ground controller, having taxied just off the runway, he will be given instructions to taxi to the terminal building. If there is no ground, the tower controller can just give a 'taxi to parking' order without specialized instructions&t=19600 dedicated forum thread].
That concludes the average flight in ProController== Tips ==* This tutorial, but for the next (and last) page sake of this lesson contains some information that simplicity and brevity, assumed no other aircraft was present. On multiplayer servers you may want might be instructed to knowhold your position, give way to other aircraft or hold (make circles) over a point to remain separate from other aircraft; check the [[ATC phraseology]] page for example: the words specific phraseology used to represent single letter (ein those situations.g.: alpha for A * Follow the guidelines detailed in ATIS[[ATC best practices]] to make the experience enjoyable for everyone.* When practicing controlled flying, make sure you know your aircraft well (you should be able to maintain an assigned speed, altitude and lima for L as in heading), go to a less trafficked airport and tell the controller it'taxi-way limas your first time interacting via ATC.* ' as opposed to 'taxi-way L'Remember to read back (repeat)the clearances; it is the only way for the controller to know whether you received them correctly or not.'''* Execute the clearances while reading them back.
== Notes ==

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