Piper PA34-200T Seneca II

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Revision as of 04:58, 5 July 2006 by 84.142.200.159 (Talk) (Center of Gravity Limits)

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Introduction

The real Seneca II

This is a model of a Piper PA34-200T Seneneca II. The Seneca is made by Piper since the early 1970's and some 4500 were made since then. It has six seats in a pretty large cabin, two turbocharged counterrotating engines producing 200hp up to 12,000 ft. It cruises at 170ktas in 12,000ft at 65% power. Certification for flights into known icing conditions and the nice single engine behaviour made the Seneca a popular multi engine trainer.

The model was built using the Pilots Operating Handbook, a real Seneca (D-GEJL) and some flight performance data derived in real flights.
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General

Engines

Number of Engines 2
Engine Manufacturer Continental
Engine Model Number (L)TSIO-360EB
Rated Horsepower Sea Lever: 200, 12,000ft.: 215
Rated Speed (rpm) 2575
Bore (inches) 4.438
Stroke (inches) 3.875
Displacement (cubic inches) 360
Compression Ratio 7.5:1
Engine Type Six Cylinder, Direct Drive, Horizontally Opposed, Air Cooled

Propellers

Number of Propellers 2
Propeller Manufacturer Hartzell
Number of Blades 2
Propeller Diameter Maximum: 76 inches, Minimum: 75 inches
Propeller Type Constant Speed, Hydraulically Actuated, Full Feathering

Fuel

Fuel Capacity (U.S.gal) (total) 128
Usable Fuel (U.S.gal) (total) 123
Minumum Grade 100 Green or 100LL Blue Aviation Grade

Oil

Oil Capacity (U.S.quarts) (per engine) 8

Maximum Weights

Maximum Takeoff Weight (lbs) 4570
Maximum Landing Weight (lbs) 4362
Maximum Zero Fuel Weight (lbs) - Standard 4000
Maximum Weight in Baggage Compartment (lbs) Forward: 100, Aft: 100

Standard Airplane Weights

Standard Empty Weight (lbs): Weight of a standard airplane including unusable fuel, full operating fluids and full oil. 2823
Maximum Useful Load (lbs): The difference between the Maximum Takeoff Weight and the Standard Empty Weight. (All weight in excess off 4000lbs must consist of fuel) 1747

Specific Loadings

Wing Loading (lbs per sq ft) 22
Power Loading (lbs per hp) Sea Level: 11.4 - 12,000ft: 10.6

Limitations

Airspeed Limitations

Speed KIAS KCAS
Never Exceed Speed (VNE) - Do not exceed this speed in any operation 195 195
Maximum Structural Cruising Speed (VNO) - Do not exceed this speed except in smooth air and then only with caution. 163 165
Design Maneuvering Speed (VA) - Do not make full or abrupt control movements above this speed.    
At 4570 LBS G.W. 136 138
At 3068 LBS G.W. 121 122

CAUTION

Maneuvering speed decreases at lighter weight as the effects of aerodynamic forces become more pronounced. Linear interpolation may be used for imtermediate gross weights. maneuvering speed should not be exceeded while operating in rough air.

Maximum Flaps Extended Speed (VFE) - Do not exceed this speed with flaps extended. 107 109
Maximum Gear Extended Speed (VLE) - Do not exceed this speed with landing gear extended 129 130
Maximum Landing Gear Extending Speed (VLO) - Do not extend landing gear above this speed 129 130
Maximum Landing Gear Retracting Speed (VLO) - Do not retract landing gear above this speed 107 109
Air Minimum Control Speed (VMC) - Lowes airspeed at which airplane is controllable with one engine operating and no flaps 66 69
Best Single Engine Rate of Climb Speed 89 90

Airspeed Indicator Markings

Marking KIAS
Green Arc (Normal Operating Range) 63 to 163
Yellow Arc (Caution Range - Smooth Air) 163 to 195
White Arc (Flaps Extended Range) 61 to 107
Radial Red Line (Never Exceed - Smooth Air) 195
Radial Red Line (Minimum Control Speed - Single Engine) 66
Radial Blue Line (Best Rate of Climb Speed - Single Engine) 89

Power Plant Limitations

Maximum Rotational Speed 2575
Maximum Manifold Pressure (Inches of Mercury) 40
Maximum Cylinder Head Temperature 460 °F
Maximum Oil Temperature 240 °F
Minimum Oil Pressure (red line) 10 PSI
Maximum Oil Pressure (red line) 100 PSI

NOTES

Avoid continuous operation between 2000 and 2000 RPM above 32 IN. HG. manifold pressure.

Avoid continuous ground operation between 1700 and 2100 RPM in cross and tail winds over 10 knots.

Power Plant Instrument Markings

Tachometer  
Green Arc (Normal Operating Range) 500 RPM to 2575 RPM
Red Line (Maximum) 2575 RPM
Fuel Flow and Pressure  
Green Arc (Normal Operating Range) 3.5 PSI to 20 PSI
Red Line (Maximum at Sea Level) 25 GPH (20PSI)
Red Line (Minimum) 3.5 PSI
Cylinder Head Temperature  
Green Arc (Normal Range) either 360 °F to 460 °F
  or 240 °F to 460 °F
Red Line (Maximum) 460 °F
Oil Temperature  
Green Arc (Normal Operating Range) either 75 °F to 240 °F
  or 100 °F to 240 °F
Red Line (Maximum) 240 °F
Oil Pressure  
Green Arc (Normal Operating Range) either 30 PSI to 80 PSI
  or 30 PSI to 60 PSI
Yellow Arc (Caution) either 80 PSI to 100 PSI
  or 60 PSI to 100 PSI
Red Line (Minimum) 10 PSI
Red Line (Maximum) 100 PSI
Manifold Pressure  
Green Arc (Normal Operating Range) 10 IN. to 40 IN. HG.
Red Line (Maximum) 40 IN. HG.
Exhaust Gas Temperature  
Red Line 1650 °F

Center of Gravity Limits

Weight
Ponds
Forward Limit
Inches Aft of Datum
Aft Limit
Inches Aft of Datum
3400 82.0 94.6
4570 90.6 94.6

NOTES

Straight line variation between the points given.

Datum is 78.4 inches forward of wing leading edge from the inboard edge of the inboard fuel tank.

Maneuver Limits

Flight Load Factor Limits

Types of Operations

Fuel Limitations

Gyro Pressuer Limits

Flight Into Known Icing Conditions

Operating Altitude Limitations

Development status/Issues/Todo

FDM (JSBSim):

  • poor single engine performance
  • no EGT indication - EGT is to low
  • supercharger code not realistic on low rpm
  • fuel source not switchable or cuttable

FDM (YASim)

  • not converging

Electrical system

  • Master switch no electrical function
  • Generator L/H and R/H produce the same output when on

Autopilot

  • Just interfacing the generic AP, Altimatic IIIC not implemented
  • LOC NORM and LOC REV not implemented
  • ILS not implemented

Avionics

  • GMA340: on some buttons, the first click after program start gets lost

General:

  • engine sound in cockpit does not differ from outside engine sound
  • animations of structural icing on wings, stabilizer, fin, etc.missing

External links

Related content

Related lists

Aircraft

Aircraft Todo