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Difference between revisions of "Modules.nas"

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(Introduction and motivation)
(modules.nas)
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In ''modules.nas'' the class ''Module'' is defined.  
 
In ''modules.nas'' the class ''Module'' is defined.  
 
A module object holds information about the path and filename of the Nasal script and supports unloading and reloading the code at runtime
 
A module object holds information about the path and filename of the Nasal script and supports unloading and reloading the code at runtime
(e.g. without restarting Flightgear as a whole) by tracking some critical resources like [[Listener|listeners]] and [[Timers|timers]].
+
(e.g. without restarting Flightgear as a whole) by tracking some critical resources like [[Listeners|listeners]] and [[Timers|timers]].
  
 
Parts of this functionality were added to the [[Addons|addons]] manager earlier and have now been extracted to avoid code duplication.
 
Parts of this functionality were added to the [[Addons|addons]] manager earlier and have now been extracted to avoid code duplication.

Revision as of 11:19, 13 January 2020

Nasal runtime loadable modules

Introduction and motivation

Nasal (Flightgears integrated scripting language) comes with a limited number of core functions. The language was extended by C++ functions, as well as libraries written in Nasal (e.g. props, io, math, debug ...).

The latter are stored in the Fgdata repository under /Nasal and loaded automatically by FlightGear. For more information on how and when these files are loaded see Nasal Initialization.

To avoid loading files needlessly modules.nas was written to allow run-time (re-)loadable Nasal modules, that are loaded on demand only.

modules.nas

In modules.nas the class Module is defined. A module object holds information about the path and filename of the Nasal script and supports unloading and reloading the code at runtime (e.g. without restarting Flightgear as a whole) by tracking some critical resources like listeners and timers.

Parts of this functionality were added to the addons manager earlier and have now been extracted to avoid code duplication.

Differences between add-ons and modules

While there are many similarities between add-ons and modules, some words on the differences:

Modules are distributed with FlightGear as part of Fgdata. Add-ons have to be downloaded separately by a FlightGear user from wherever the author of the add-on publishes the add-on.

Modules can be loaded e.g. by an aircraft if the aircraft developer wants to make use of the module. Add-ons are selected by the user before launching FlightGear, thus they may or may not be available at runtime.

Nasal modules

Loadable modules are stored in subdirectories of FGDATA/Nasal/modules/ as these subdirectories will not be loaded automatically by Flightgear on start. However, modules.nas will scan this directory to create a list of available modules (= list of subdirectories). Each module correspondes to one subdirectory and the direcory name is also the module name.

A module must contain at least the file main.nas (default, other filename is possible)

main() function

The main.nas file shall contain a function main that will be called on load with either the module object as parameter or the parameters passed to the module.load() function.

unload() function

If you want the module to be re-/un-loadable, you must make sure to track resources and remove them on onload. For this the main.nas shall contain a function unload that removes any resources which were created by the module. Exception: setlistener and maketimer are automatically tracked by Module class for you, timers will be stopped automatically, listeners will be removed automatically on unload().

Example: any canvas created by the module should have called its del() method here.

Rules for Module names

  1. Module names shall contain only letters (a-z, A-Z), numbers (0-9) and underscores ('_').
  2. The name must contain at least one letter so it cannot be confused with a number
  3. The name shall not match any existing .nas file or directory in FGDATA/Nasal to avoid namespace clashes

library functions

modules.isAvailable()

modules.isAvailable(module_name);

This function returns true, if there is a module (subdirectory) in FGDATA/Nasal/modules/ with the given name.

module_name
The name of the module (=subdirectory in Nasal/modules) to load.

Example

if (modules.isAvailable("foo_bar")) {
    modules.load("foo_bar");
}

modules.setDebug()

modules.setDebug(module_name, [debug=1]);

This function enables debugging for a module. It must be called before load()!

module_name
The name of the module (=subdirectory in Nasal/modules) to load.
debug
Defaults to 1 (true), use 0 to disable debug.

Example

var debug = 1;
modules.setDebug("foo_bar", debug);

modules.load()

modules.load(module_name, [namespace_name]);

This function attempts to load a module from FGDATA/Nasal/modules/

module_name
The name of the module (=subdirectory in Nasal/modules) to load.
namespace_name
Optional, load module to a different namespace.

Example

modules.load("foo_bar");

Methods of class Module

setFilePath()

mymod.setFilePath(path);

Configure where to look for the main file, e.g. aircraft (sub-)directory.

path
File path where the module is stored.

setMainFile()

mymod.setMainFile(filename);

Configure the nasal file to load.

filename
File that will be loaded by load().

Example

var my_foo_sys = modules.Module.new("my_aircraft_foo");
my_foo_sys.setDebug(1);
my_foo_sys.setFilePath(getprop("/sim/aircraft-dir")~"/Nasal");
my_foo_sys.setMainFile("foo.nas");
my_foo_sys.load();

setNamespace()

mymod.setNamespace(namespace);

Configure the Nasal namespace to use. Be really carefull when using existing namespaces! unload() or reload() will destroy them!

namespace
The Nasal namespace the module code will be loaded into.


load()

mymod.load([args]);

This function attempts to load the module into its namespace.

optional args
Arguments are passed to the main() function of the module. If empty, the module object will be passed to main().

unload()

mymod.unload();

This function attempts to remove tracked resources and remove the module by killing its namespace.

reload()

mymod.reload();

Shorthand, calls unload() and load().

get()

mymod.get(var_name);

Returns a variable from modules namespace.

var_name
The variable to get.

Example

var foo = modules.load("foo");
var bar = foo.get("bar"); # get variable "bar" defined in FGDATA/Nasal/modules/foo/main.nas (or a file included by this file)

HowTo / Examples

to be written

Existing modules

Module name Desctiption time added
canvas_efis framework to manage canvas based EFIS screens 01/2020
canvas_draw library of drawing functions for canvas 01/2020