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Difference between revisions of "Cessna 182S"

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The '''Cessna 182S Skylane''' is an American four-seat, single-engine, light [[Aircraft|airplane]], built by [[Cessna]] since 1996.
 
The '''Cessna 182S Skylane''' is an American four-seat, single-engine, light [[Aircraft|airplane]], built by [[Cessna]] since 1996.
  
== Development status/Issues/Todo ==
+
== Features ==
  
=== Outside ===
+
The new Cessna 182S has a very detailed 3D model and cockpit with highly detailed textured. Most of the switches in the cockpit are clickable. It has a very realistic FDM.
;Cockpit instruments can be seen through the aileron
+
: This is presumably not aircraft-specific;  see the Z-buffer burn-through item on the  project-wide [[Bugs]] page.
+
; aircraft has no shadow
+
; <strike>The model has no landing light</strike> (See below)
+
: This detracts only slightly from the realism of the landing, because at touchdown attitude, the pitch attitude is so high  that the landing light is pointing way up in the air;  therefore almost anything that could possibly be lit up by the landing light  is blocked from view by the cowling.  A privately-owned aircraft is  not even required to have a landing light, even when being operated  at night.  Landing with burned-out landing  lights is no big deal ... assuming the runway-edge lights are working. The so-called landing light is mostly just a taxi  light.  The only part of the landing where the landing light is  really useful is for reading the big painted number on the runway,  to confirm that you aren't landing on the wrong runway.
+
  
=== Cockpit ===
+
[[File:c182-panel-detail.jpg|center|800px]]
; No outside-air-temperature gauge.
+
: There are empty spots for extra gauges, should be easy.
+
; The 2D cockpit instruments are visible through the 3D yoke.
+
: This is another example of "burn through".
+
; Can't hear sound when pressing the switches and levers in the cockpit.
+
; No rudder trim control or indicator.
+
  
=== General ===
+
There are currently five liveries available: default Cessna livery, D-ELFP, HB-CZV, N182PJ and N321HW.
; The model doesn't implement cowl flaps.
+
: This  affects the realism, especially if you are using the model for  "transition training" into complex aircraft.  Cowl flaps are part of  the workload that makes the thing complex.  Also they underline the  point that the checklist that works for one aircraft doesn't necessarily work for them all.
+
; Oil pressure problems.
+
: In the model, after flying for a while, the oil  pressure falls below the bottom of the green.  Not by a lot, but  definitely outside the green range, and therefore outside the normal  range.  Is this perhaps because somebody forgot to open the cowl  flaps?  This detracts from the realism;  most pilots would be very unhappy  flying an aircraft with out-of-normal oil pressure.
+
; Unrealistic adverse yaw.
+
: In cruise, the model has much more adverse yaw than a real Skylane. The real thing has differential aileron deflection  which the designers have lovingly tuned so that you can cruise with  your feet on the floor (not on the pedals). At low airspeeds, of course, the real aircraft still has plenty of  adverse yaw.
+
; Unrealistic damping, or lack thereof.
+
: Compared to the real aircraft, the model seems to have  not enough yaw-wise damping and not enough roll-wise damping. (Taken together these imply not enough damping of the Dutch roll  mode, but this is a corollary, not a separate issue.)  Roughly  speaking, this creates the impression that the model is harder to  handle than the real aircraft.
+
; Engine sound in cockpit does not differ from outside engine sound.
+
; Bad "reset" behavior.
+
: Aircraft is sometimes flipped when pressing the reset button.
+
: Aircraft has the wrong elevation (approximately 20 meter above the runway) after pressing the reset key
+
; Flaps/power/trim interaction.
+
: The C182 model does not realistically capture the flap/power/trim interaction. In the model, extending the flaps seems to cause a nose-down pitching moment, which is the wrong direction.  And the power-dependence of the effect is not realistically modelled.  In a real C182 / C172 / C152 / C150, the flap/trim interaction can be described as follows:
+
:* Changing the flap setting has little effect when the engine is at idle.
+
:* Changing the power setting has little effect when the flaps are in the retracted position.
+
:*  However, there is a multiplicative effect: Adding power causes a nose-up pitching moment when flaps are in an extended position. Or, to say the same thing, extending the flaps causes a nose-up pitching moment. The effect is in proportion to the amount of power being developed *times* the amount of flap deflection.
+
  
; Unrealistic brake noise.
+
The aircraft has a simulation of the [[Bendix/King KAP140 Autopilot]]. The cockpit can be illuminated at night using two knobs. These knobs have two modes each, which can be used by clicking and dragging horizontally or vertically.
 +
 
 +
Also, if the user has enabled ALS (Atmospheric light scattering) in the Rendering Options, some effects activated such as cockpit shadows, visible landing lights from the cockpit, rain effect on the windshield.
 +
 
 +
The Cessna 182S comes have static objects which can be activated via the Ground Equipment dialog in the aircraft menu. These include a fuel tan trailer, ladders to access the fuel caps (and which the walker can climb!) and a ground power unit. The aircraft can also go through a pre-flight check: wheel chocks, tie-downs and the pitot tube cover can now be added or removed. Security cones are also available.
 +
 
 +
[[File:c182-objects.jpg|600px|center|Cessna 182S with static elements]]
 +
 
 +
== Handling The Aircraft ==
 +
 
 +
=== Pre-Flight Inspection ===
 +
[[File:C182-ready-for-take-off.jpg|270px||thumb|Cessna 182S ready for take off]]
 +
It's recommended to use any exterior view or activate the walker for these procedures.
 +
* Check fuel quantity on both tanks
 +
* Left wing: remove pitot tube cover
 +
* Left wing: remove tie-down
 +
* Tail: remove tie-down
 +
* Right wing: remove tie-down
 +
* Nose: remove wheel chocks
 +
 
 +
=== Engine Start (manual and complex startup) ===
 +
* Mixture: Rich
 +
* Propeller: High RPM
 +
* Throttle: Open 1/8
 +
* Parking Brake: Applied ({{Key press|Shift|B}})
 +
* Prop Area: Clear
 +
* Master switch: ON (both)
 +
* Auxiliary Fuel Pump Switch: ON
 +
* Magnetos: Both (Press {{Key press|<nowiki>}</nowiki>}} three times)
 +
* Ignition: Start ({{Key press|S}})
 +
 
 +
=== Takeoff ===
 +
* no flaps
 +
* full throttle
 +
* rotate at 55 KIAS
 +
 
 +
=== Climbout ===
 +
* no flaps
 +
* full throttle
 +
* 80 KIAS
 +
 
 +
=== Cruise ===
 +
[[File:c182-default.jpg|270px||thumb|Cessna 182S in the air]]
 +
* 2000-2400 RPM
 +
* mixture rich of peak
 +
* speed between 120-140 knots depending on the power settings
 +
 
 +
=== Landing ===
 +
* full flaps
 +
* 60-70 KIAS
 +
 
 +
=== Airspeeds ===
 +
: ''See also [[Aircraft speed#V speeds]]''
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Airspeed !! CAS
 +
|-
 +
| Stall speed, landing configuration, V<sub>S<sub>0</sub></sub> || 36 kt
 +
|-
 +
| Stall speed, clean, V<sub>S<sub>1</sub></sub> || 43 kt
 +
|-
 +
| Rotation speed, V<sub>R</sub> || 55 kt
 +
|-
 +
| Best angle of climb speed, V<sub>X</sub> || 63 kt
 +
|-
 +
| Best rate of climb speed, V<sub>Y</sub> || 80 kt
 +
|-
 +
| Maximum flap extended speed, V<sub>FE</sub> || 100 kt
 +
|-
 +
| Maneuvering speed, V<sub>A</sub> || 110 kt
 +
|-
 +
| Maximum structural cruising speed, V<sub>NO</sub> || 140 kt
 +
|-
 +
| Never exceed speed, V<sub>NE</sub> || 175 kt
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
[[File:c182-cockpit-at-night.jpg|600px|center|Cessna 182S panel illumination]]
 +
 
 +
== Development status/Issues/TODO ==
 +
 
 +
This aircraft is undergoing a constant development, which can be followed on its [https://github.com/HHS81/c182 repository], where a [https://github.com/HHS81/c182/issues list of issues and future enhancements] can also be found.
  
 
== Gallery ==
 
== Gallery ==
Line 46: Line 98:
 
c182s.jpg|Cessna 182S at dusk
 
c182s.jpg|Cessna 182S at dusk
 
c182-cockpit-view.jpg|Default cockpit view
 
c182-cockpit-view.jpg|Default cockpit view
c182-objects.jpg|Cessna 182S with static elements
 
 
c182-external-at-night.jpg|Default livery at night
 
c182-external-at-night.jpg|Default livery at night
 
c182-external1.jpg|N321HW livery
 
c182-external1.jpg|N321HW livery
Line 52: Line 103:
 
c182-external3.jpg|D-ELFP livery
 
c182-external3.jpg|D-ELFP livery
 
c182-external4.jpg|N182PJ livery
 
c182-external4.jpg|N182PJ livery
c182-cockpit-at-night.jpg|Cockpit illumination
+
c182-rain.jpg|Rain effect in the windshield
 
c182-external5.jpg|Cessna 182S over California
 
c182-external5.jpg|Cessna 182S over California
 
c182-external6.jpg|Another view of the HB-CZV livery
 
c182-external6.jpg|Another view of the HB-CZV livery
 +
C182-4.jpg|Taking off
 
c182-night-take-off.jpg|Ready to take off at night
 
c182-night-take-off.jpg|Ready to take off at night
 
c182-3.jpg|D-ELFP at dusk
 
c182-3.jpg|D-ELFP at dusk

Revision as of 10:01, 25 July 2016

Cessna 182S Skylane
FGAddon
C182s.jpg
C182-cockpit-view.jpg
Type Civil aircraft, Civil utility aircraft
Configuration High wing aircraft, Fixed gear aircraft
Propulsion Propeller aircraft, Single-engine aircraft
Manufacturer Cessna
Author(s)
  • Heiko Schulz
  • Gilberto Agostinho
  • Benedikt Hallinger
  • Wayne Bragg (wlbragg)
  • onox
  • Ron Jensen (jentron)
  • Daniel Dubreuil (Dany93)
  • Stuart Buchanan
  • David Megginson
FDM JSBSim
--aircraft= c182s
Status Advanced production
 FDM Stars-5.png
 Systems Stars-4.png
 Cockpit Stars-5.png
 Model Stars-5.png
Supports Checklists
Development
 Website The website for the Cessna 182S Skylane developments.
 Repository The development repository of the Cessna 182S Skylane.
Download Download the Cessna 182S Skylane aircraft package for the current stable release (2018.3).
Forum 'Cessna 182S Skylane' topic on the FlightGear forum.
License GPLv2+

The Cessna 182S Skylane is an American four-seat, single-engine, light airplane, built by Cessna since 1996.

Features

The new Cessna 182S has a very detailed 3D model and cockpit with highly detailed textured. Most of the switches in the cockpit are clickable. It has a very realistic FDM.

C182-panel-detail.jpg

There are currently five liveries available: default Cessna livery, D-ELFP, HB-CZV, N182PJ and N321HW.

The aircraft has a simulation of the Bendix/King KAP140 Autopilot. The cockpit can be illuminated at night using two knobs. These knobs have two modes each, which can be used by clicking and dragging horizontally or vertically.

Also, if the user has enabled ALS (Atmospheric light scattering) in the Rendering Options, some effects activated such as cockpit shadows, visible landing lights from the cockpit, rain effect on the windshield.

The Cessna 182S comes have static objects which can be activated via the Ground Equipment dialog in the aircraft menu. These include a fuel tan trailer, ladders to access the fuel caps (and which the walker can climb!) and a ground power unit. The aircraft can also go through a pre-flight check: wheel chocks, tie-downs and the pitot tube cover can now be added or removed. Security cones are also available.

Cessna 182S with static elements

Handling The Aircraft

Pre-Flight Inspection

Cessna 182S ready for take off

It's recommended to use any exterior view or activate the walker for these procedures.

  • Check fuel quantity on both tanks
  • Left wing: remove pitot tube cover
  • Left wing: remove tie-down
  • Tail: remove tie-down
  • Right wing: remove tie-down
  • Nose: remove wheel chocks

Engine Start (manual and complex startup)

  • Mixture: Rich
  • Propeller: High RPM
  • Throttle: Open 1/8
  • Parking Brake: Applied ( Shift+B)
  • Prop Area: Clear
  • Master switch: ON (both)
  • Auxiliary Fuel Pump Switch: ON
  • Magnetos: Both (Press } three times)
  • Ignition: Start (S)

Takeoff

  • no flaps
  • full throttle
  • rotate at 55 KIAS

Climbout

  • no flaps
  • full throttle
  • 80 KIAS

Cruise

Cessna 182S in the air
  • 2000-2400 RPM
  • mixture rich of peak
  • speed between 120-140 knots depending on the power settings

Landing

  • full flaps
  • 60-70 KIAS

Airspeeds

See also Aircraft speed#V speeds
Airspeed CAS
Stall speed, landing configuration, VS0 36 kt
Stall speed, clean, VS1 43 kt
Rotation speed, VR 55 kt
Best angle of climb speed, VX 63 kt
Best rate of climb speed, VY 80 kt
Maximum flap extended speed, VFE 100 kt
Maneuvering speed, VA 110 kt
Maximum structural cruising speed, VNO 140 kt
Never exceed speed, VNE 175 kt
Cessna 182S panel illumination

Development status/Issues/TODO

This aircraft is undergoing a constant development, which can be followed on its repository, where a list of issues and future enhancements can also be found.

Gallery

External links

References