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Take Off cleaned

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NOTE: This is a work in progress to clean up the page Take Off

Takeoffs are central to being able to get into the air. In many cases the takeoff is the easiest of all flight maneuvers. Just because it is easy doesn’t mean that it should be taken for granted. Takeoffs occur in a wide variety of weather conditions. First we are going to perform a normal takeoff. Oddly enough this is the least common type of takeoff. Very rarely will the airplane be traveling down a runway perfectly aligned with the current winds. The most common type of takeoff you will experience will be the crosswind takeoff. Once you have mastered these two types of takeoffs, we will learn how to do the short field and soft field takeoffs. These two are really just variations of the normal takeoff, so don’t be too frightened of them. Today we will practice these takeoffs. During your training , we will continue to practice them until you are confident you can takeoff under most circumstances.

Normal Takeoffs

Lesson Requirements

  • Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a normal and crosswind takeoff and climb.
  • Positions the flight controls for the existing wind conditions; sets the flaps as recommended.
  • Clears the area; taxies into the takeoff position and aligns the airplane on the runway centerline.
  • Advances the throttle smoothly to takeoff power.
  • Rotates at the recommended airspeed, lifts off, and accelerates to V Y.
  • Establishes the pitch attitude for V Y and maintains V Y , +10/-5 knots, during the climb.
  • Retracts the landing gear, if retractable, and flaps after a positive rate of climb is established.
  • Maintains takeoff power to a safe maneuvering altitude.
  • Maintains directional control and proper wind-drift correction throughout the takeoff and climb.
  • Complies with noise abatement procedures.
  • Completes the appropriate checklist.

Common errors

  • Improper initial positioning or flight controls and wing flaps.
  • Improper power application.
  • Inappropriate removal of hand from throttle.
  • Poor directional control.
  • Improper use of ailerons.
  • Improper pitch attitude during liftoff.
  • Failure to establish and maintain proper climb configuration and airspeed.
  • Drift during climb.

Perform a normal takeoff

  1. Align the airplane with the runway. Make sure the plane is on the centerline.
  2. Both feet on the rudder pedals. Heels on the floor, away from the brakes.
  3. Apply FULL power. You may need to apply right rudder to counter-act yaw to the left.
  4. Accelerate down the runway to rotation speed. Maintain directional control with the rudder. As airspeed increases, the control surfaces will become more effective. Use smaller inputs to the rudder to maintain control.
  5. Apply slight back pressure to the elevator, just enough to lift the nose off the ground. Watch for left yawing tendency.
  6. Lift off at Vy (best rate of climb).
  7. Continue to climb out according to departure procedure/instructions.
    1. For retractable gear aircraft, retract the gear when there is no useable runway left.
    2. For high performance aircraft you will need to adjust MP and RPM to bring them back within tolerance. THROTTLE FIRST THEN RPM. Keep manifold pressure BELOW rpm at all times.
  8. Pitch for airspeed.
  9. Trim to relieve pressures.

Crosswind Takeoff

Why use crosswind take off techniques? A crosswind tends to lift one of the wings off the ground and could potentially cause an airplane to tip over. During take off, the crosswind could cause the airplane to skip sideways along the runway. This put tremendous loads on the landing gear and could in some instances cause the gear to collapse. Proper crosswind technique minimizes these effects. In simple terms, you keep the wing in the crosswind DOWN until you are airborne. You will lift off with a greater airspeed than normal to help you control the airplane. Otherwise the take off is the same as a normal take off. You may find yourself combining this takeoff with soft or short field takeoffs. Because the wind rarely blows down the center of any runway, this will become your most used takeoff procedure. Always apply full aileron deflection into the crosswind and neutralize it enough to keep the wings level.

Understand a crosswind and its effects on an aircraft on the ground

  1. What is a crosswind component? The crosswind component is that wind that is not blowing directly down the runway.
  2. What effect does crosswind have on the airplane on the ground? Crosswinds have the tendency to lift one of the wings higher than the other. When this occurs on the ground, there is the potential to cause the aircraft to have the opposite wing hit the ground. This is why we use the crosswind taxi technique.
  3. What is the crosswind taxi technique? Simply put it is an attempt to minimize the effect of the crosswind on the airplane. A simple memory tool is to “climb into” a crosswind coming from the front and to “dive away from” a crosswind coming from the tail.
  4. Student Check:
    1. What is the maximum crosswind component of this airplane? _______
    2. What could happen if you exceed the maximum crosswind component? ______

Effects of crosswind on takeoff

  1. What effect does crosswind have on takeoff? Aside from what we discussed earlier, the crosswind will tend to push the airplane to the side of the runway as the airplane gets airborne. This is why we takeoff with aileron down into the crosswind and then upon lift off assume a crab into the wind.
  2. What effect will gusting winds have on takeoff? Gusts can stop in the middle of the takeoff. If this occurs, there may not be enough air moving over the wings to keep takeoff lift. This may cause the airplane to settle back onto the runway. We minimize this by obtaining a higher than normal takeoff speed prior to lift off.

Identify and correct common errors in crosswind takeoffs

The same as above plus:

  • Improper initial positioning or flight controls and wing flaps.
  • Improper power application.
  • Inappropriate removal of hand from throttle.
  • Poor directional control.
  • Improper use of ailerons.
  • Improper pitch attitude during liftoff.
  • Failure to establish and maintain proper climb configuration and airspeed.
  • Drift during climb.

Perform a crosswind takeoff

  1. Align the airplane with the runway. Make sure the plane is on the centerline.
  2. Both feet on the rudder pedals. Heels on the floor, away from the brakes.
  3. Apply FULL aileron down into the wind. This prevents that wing from rising in the wind.
  4. Apply FULL power. You may need to apply right rudder to counter-act yaw to the left.
  5. Accelerate down the runway to rotation speed.
    1. Maintain directional control with the rudder. As airspeed increases, the control surfaces will become more effective. Use smaller inputs to the rudder to maintain control.
    2. Keep the aileron into the wind DOWN until the crosswind becomes more of a headwind. As the ailerons become more effective you can return the yoke SLOWLY to neutral bank.
  6. Apply slight back pressure to the elevator, just enough to lift the nose off the ground. Watch for left yawing tendency.
  7. Lift off at a speed greater than Vy. This will counteract the effects of any gusts and ensure that the airplane does not settle back onto the runway if any gusts should stop.
  8. Wings level.
  9. Crab into the wind.
  10. Continue to climb out according to departure procedure/instructions.
    1. For retractable gear aircraft, retract the gear when there is no useable runway left.
    2. For high performance aircraft you will need to adjust MP and RPM to bring them back within tolerance. THROTTLE FIRST THEN RPM. Keep manifold pressure BELOW rpm at all times.
  11. Pitch for airspeed.
  12. Trim to relieve pressures.

Short field takeoffs

Lesson Requirements

  • Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a short-field takeoff and climb.
  • Positions the flight controls for the existing wind conditions; sets the flaps as recommended.
  • Clears the area; taxies into the takeoff position so as to allow maximum utilization of available takeoff area and aligns the airplane on the runway centerline.
  • Advances the throttle smoothly to takeoff power.
  • Rotates at the recommended airspeed, lifts off and accelerates to the recommended obstacle clearance airspeed or V X .
  • Establishes the pitch attitude for the recommended obstacle clearance airspeed, or V X , and maintains that airspeed, +10/-5 knots, until the obstacle is cleared, or until the airplane is 50 feet (20 meters) above the surface.
  • After clearing the obstacle, accelerates to V Y , establishes the pitch attitude for V Y , and maintains V Y , +10/-5 knots, during the climb.
  • Retracts the landing gear, if retractable, and flaps after a positive rate of climb is established.
  • Maintains takeoff power to a safe maneuvering altitude.
  • Maintains directional control and proper wind-drift correction throughout the takeoff and climb.
  • Complies with noise abatement procedures.
  • Completes the appropriate checklist.

Common Errors

  • Failure to position the airplane for maximum utilization of available takeoff area.
  • Improper initial positioning or flight controls and wing flaps.
  • Improper power application.
  • Inappropriate removal of hand from throttle.
  • Poor directional control.
  • Improper use of ailerons.
  • Improper pitch attitude during liftoff.
  • Failure to establish and maintain proper climb configuration and airspeed.
  • Drift during climb.

Perform a short field takeoff

This takeoff assumes you have a very short runway and there is a 50 foot obstacle at the end of the runway you must clear. You have to get the airplane as high as you can get it in a very short time. You do this by starting your takeoff roll at the runway’s edge with the engine already at full power. You then climb out at Vx (or best angle of climb) until you clear the obstacle. Then climb out as normal.

  • Align the airplane with the runway. Make sure the plane is on the centerline at the END of the runway. You need all the runway you can get!!!!
  • Make sure you have the proper flap setting. (Usually 20 degrees or so) You need all the lift you can get.
  • Both feet on the rudder pedals.
  • Apply full braking power so the plane cannot move.
  • Apply FULL power. Hold the brakes.
  • Check engine instruments and make sure they are operating correctly.
  • Release brakes.
  • Accelerate down the runway to rotation speed. Maintain directional control with the rudder. As airspeed increases, the control surfaces will become more effective. Use smaller inputs to the rudder to maintain control.
  • Apply slight back pressure to the elevator, just enough to lift the nose off the ground. Watch for left yawing tendency.
  • Lift off at Vx (best angle of climb). Maintain Vx until you clear obstacles at the end of the runway. (PTS assumes 50 foot obstacle)
  • After clearing the obstacle accelerate to Vy.
    • For retractable gear aircraft, retract the gear when there is no useable runway left.
    • For high performance aircraft you will need to adjust MP and RPM to bring them back within tolerance. THROTTLE FIRST THEN RPM. Keep manifold pressure BELOW rpm at all times.
  • Continue to climb out according to departure procedure/instructions.
  • Pitch for airspeed.
  • Trim to relieve pressures.

Soft field takeoffs

Wet grass or mud can cause a runway to be so soft that the airplane’s takeoff performance is seriously compromised. The landing gear could even get stuck during the takeoff roll. The intent is to transfer the weight of the airplane from the landing gear to the wings as quickly as possible. In essence you will get flying before you are supposed to. You get the plane airborne at a very low airspeed and stay in ground effect until the airplane accelerates to a safe climb speed.

Lesson requirements

  • Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a soft-field takeoff and climb.
  • Positions the flight controls for the existing wind conditions and so as to maximize lift as quickly as possible; sets the flaps as recommended.
  • Clears the area; taxies onto the takeoff surface at a speed consistent with safety and aligns the airplane without stopping while advancing the throttle smoothly to takeoff power.
  • Establishes and maintains the pitch attitude that will transfer the weight of the airplane from the wheels to the wings as rapidly as possible.
  • Lifts off and remains in ground effect while accelerating to V Y.
  • Establishes the pitch attitude for V Y and maintains V Y , +10/-5 knots, during the climb.
  • Retracts the landing gear, if retractable, and flaps after a positive rate of climb is established.
  • Maintains takeoff power to a safe maneuvering altitude.
  • Maintains directional control and proper wind-drift correction throughout the takeoff and climb.
  • Complies with noise abatement procedures.
  • Completes the appropriate checklist.

Common errors

Identify and correct common errors in soft field takeoffs.

  • Improper initial positioning or flight controls and wing flaps.
  • Hazards of allowing the airplane to stop on the takeoff surface prior to initiating takeoff.
  • Improper power application.
  • Inappropriate removal of hand from throttle.
  • Poor directional control.
  • Improper use of brakes.
  • Improper pitch attitude during takeoff.
  • Hazards of settling back to takeoff surface after becoming airborne.
  • Failure to establish and maintain proper climb configuration.
  • Drift during climb.

Perform a soft field takeoff

  1. Keep back pressure on the elevator. This includes during the taxi. This keeps the nose wheel off the ground and helps prevent it from getting stuck in the mud or some other substance.
  2. Align the airplane with the runway. Make sure the plane is on the centerline. DO NOT STOP!!!
  3. Both feet on the rudder pedals. Heels on the floor, away from the brakes.
  4. Apply FULL power. You will need to apply right rudder to counter-act yaw to the left.
  5. Keeping back pressure on the elevator, allow the nose to lift off the ground, the plane will fly “sooner than it is ready”. This is ok.
  6. As soon as the plane is airborne, bring the nose level. Keep the airplane in ground effect unto you reach Vx.
  7. At Vx begin to climb until you clear any obstacles. (PTS assumes 50 foot obstacle)
  8. After clearing any obstacles accelerate to Vy.
    1. For retractable gear aircraft, retract the gear when there is no useable runway left.
    2. For high performance aircraft you will need to adjust MP and RPM to bring them back within tolerance. THROTTLE FIRST THEN RPM. Keep manifold pressure BELOW rpm at all times.
  9. Continue to climb out according to departure procedure/instructions.
  10. Pitch for airspeed.
  11. Trim to relieve pressures.