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ATC Tutorial

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Approaching the destination airport: correct info
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{{WIP|Complete rewrite in progress by [[User:elgaton|elgaton]]}}{{Main article|Air Traffic Controltraffic control}}
[[Air traffic control|Air Traffic Control]] is an agreed procedure and process which keeps the [[aircraft]] separated to ensure that they don't crash into each other or are affected by turbulence when passing through the same air space. This article, written probably more directly useful for controllers and pilots alike, will teach you that procedure and will hopefully help you to enjoy controlled areas and airports on the FlightGear multiplayer servers. == How do I know if an airport is controlled? ==Check the Pilot List in FlightGear or the [[MPMap|Multiplayer map]]. Usually, controllers:* have a callsign ''XXXX_DE'', ''XXXX_GN'', ''XXXX_TW'' or ''XXXX_AP'' (where ''XXXX'' is the ICAO code of the airport they are manning); each callsign has a specific meaning (see "Controller roles" below);* use the ''[[OpenRadar]]'', ''ATC-TOWER'', ''[[ATC-aircraft|ATC]]'' (or similarly named) aircraft.
== Controller roles ==
| xxxx_DL
| Clearance Delivery
| Checks flight plans submitted by pilots (or creates them) to make sure no aircraft intersects the route of another one at the same time and that visibility conditions and cruise altitude are adequate. Revokes or amends the flight plans as necessary. Assigns squawk (transponder) codes. Gives aircraft clearances (authorizations to fly to a destination airport via a certain route).
|-
| xxxx_GN
| Ground
| Controls the movement of aircraft on the ground at an airport (stands, apron, taxiways). Does Issues taxi clearances, assisting pilots if needed. Controls the ''inactive'' runways, but does not control the runways''active'' ones; thus, a pilot generally needs to contact Tower to enter or cross them.<ref>At (at some airportsfields, where Ground coordinates with Tower, Ground and is allowed able to clear a pilot to cross runways while taxiingissue runway crossing clearances).</ref>
|-
| xxxx_TW
| Tower
| Controls the ''active'' runways and the airspace up to 10 NM (nautical miles) from the airport; chooses the runways to use; clears planes for takeoff and landing, making sure that they are at least 10 NM or three minutes apart.
|-
| xxxx_AP
|}
* The "xxxx" in the table replace a code used to identify the area that controller is using; these are known as ''ICAO codes'' and can be found on the [http://www.airport-technology.com/icao-codes/ Airport Codes list]. For example, London Gatwick is "EGKK" so a Gatwick Tower Controller would log-in as ''EGKK_TW''. * Center controllers also have ICAO identifiers, but they are not for one airport, but for a larger area. For example, ''LFFF_CT'' is France Center, and ''LFFF_FS'' is the France Flight Service Station.* At large airports, multiple controllers may man the same positions.
=== Controller roles in FlightGear ===
Since there are not many ATCs in FlightGear, often a single controller fills more than one position. Generallyspeaking:
* a controller filling a particular position also fills the positions below him/her (the one listed before in the table above) if no one else is covering it; for example, if ''EGKK_TW'' (a Gatwick Tower Controller) is online, but there is no ''EGKK_GN'', the Tower controller acts also as Ground controller;
* as an exception to the rule above, Tower controllers often act also as Approach controllers for the respective airports.
== Lesson 3 = Handoffs ===Let's look at a plane taxiing If more than one controller is manning an area, the first controller should tell the pilot to contact the runway and taking off nowsecond controller when the airplane is about to enter the airspace of the latter. SoThis is usually done with the phrase: "callsign, to do this, we'll consider two controllers: 'contact'ground control (_GND) and the tower (_TWR).'station ''on'' frequency".
First, we have to == IFR vs VFR flights =={{Main article|Flight rules}}A distinction you should know which runway is being used so that ground can get the plane to the right place. The rule is 'planes always like to be heading into the wind for takeoff or landing'. The winds are given flying in controlled areas is the METAR like 'xxxyy'. The wind heading is given first in 3 digitsone between IFR and VFR flights, as flight planning and the speed after that in 2 digits; so 11007 indicates winds of 7kts that some phraseology are coming from 110 degrees different.* VFR (magnetic headingVisual Flight Rules). Winds under 5 kts can be considered 'calm' and can be ignored. Thus, the basic idea apply when a pilot is able to match the heading of the wind, orientate and the runway heading recognize other aircraft and obstacles visually (add a '0' to that means, for example, the runway number - 17L is 170) as closely as possible. Runways are numbered by knocking sky should be clear of clouds at low altitudes near the '0' airport when taking off the headingand landing, light must be sufficient, and appending 'L' for left there must be little or 'R' for right if there no fog at all); they are parallel runwaysused mainly in general aviation;* IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) apply in all other cases.
At Heathrow, there are runways 9L == Getting and 9R, and the same runways (used in opposite directions) 27R and 27L. If the wind is 110º @ 15 kts then runways 9L and 9R are most suitable, as 90 and 110 are only 20 degrees away, but 270 and 110 are 160º away! At Heathrow, where there are parallel runways, one runway can be used for landing and the other for taking off - so a plane can be leaving on 9L while another is almost landing on 9R. Where there is only one runway, the same runway can be used to landing and taking off. It is important to notice that if an aircraft is taking off on runway 7, and another lands shortly after on runway 7, they are travelling in the same direction, so they are not approaching each other, and a collision is impossible.reading charts =={{Main article|Getting aeronautical charts}}Knowing about your ATIS which can be read by all planes to avoid you repeating information, you would want to put the active runways in your ATIS so that other controllers know which runways you have chosen, and so planes have an idea of what they will be expected to do. Always keep your ATIS short (as it is hard for the pilots to read a long ATIS), and delete any blank lines at the end. The other component of your ATIS You should be the current weather, so a good ATIS for a tower or ground controller would be: ''London Heathrow Ground/Tower Information <alpha/bravo/charlie/delta/echo...>. Active runways are 9R for departures, and 9L for arrivals. Weather is'' '''(copy from METAR)''' ''110@15 FEW030 OVC090 Q1015 NOSIG. On initial contact report you have <alpha/bravo/charlie/delta/echo...>'' ; the only detail to note here is the use of alpha/bravo, etc. Each time you update your ATIS change the identifier up by one, so start with alpha, then use bravo, then charlie. This is used so that when a plane calls you and says 'information alpha' you know if he has current information or an old version. Now that the active runway has been established and the ATIS set-up, you can go about controlling. First, though, you need to know some basic guidelines about contact. Usually, expect a plane to call you first. They should give their current location, callsign (used to identify each plane) and which ATIS they have, so: '''B-ELIO: Ground, this is B-ELIO at the terminal, Information Alpha. Request clearance to Paris Orly.''' B-ELIO, a plane, has called you telling you where he is, what information he has, and what he wants. To reply, you need to tell him whether the information is current ('Alpha is current') or new information ('New active runway is 23') and reply to his request.  First, we earlier mentioned IFR clearance. This allows the controller to know where the plane is going, and to plan ahead for the aircraft. If you remember looking at a Flight Strip in lesson 1, you will recall it allows a controller to see the destination of the aircraft, the route the aircraft will follow and the requested altitude. The aim of the clearance is just to confirm these details with the pilot, especially in the real-world where they may be altered due to traffic levels, to make sure there aren't any mistakes and everyone knows what's going to happen. The clearance is as follows: '''<Callsign> is cleared to <destination> as filed''' (give any changes to the flight plan here). '''After takeoff c/m''' (climb and maintain) '''<altitude> on runway heading / and turn <left/right> to <heading>, expect <requested flight level> after 10 minutes. Squawk <transponder code>.''' Here's an example clearance: '''You: B-ELIO is cleared to Paris Orly as filed. After takeoff c/m 6,000 and turn left to heading 180 (south) expect FL310 after 10 minutes. Squawk 5201.''' The clearance can be given whilst on the ground, and is given by Clearance Delivery (_DEL) if one is online, else the GROUND (_GND), or TOWER (_TWR) controller. The pilot must read-back the whole clearance, to which you confirm by saying 'readback correct'. The Squawk code is a number used to identify the plane. It can be seen on the flight plan (will default to 1200) and means - in the real world - a controller can tell the dots apart as each one has a number. Just assign an available number in the 5000 or 6000 range (eg: 6001, 6002, 6003, etc.). '''B-ELIO: B-ELIO cleared to Orly as filed. c/m 6000 left 180 - expect FL310 after 10, and squawk 5201.'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, readback correct, call when ready to push-back and start-up.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: B-ELIO requests start-up and push-back.''' Here a push-back and start-up means he wants a vehicle to pull the plane away from the buildings so he can start his engines... this is a real-world call, and is not used in the virtual world, so just approve it. He might skip this entirely and just ask if he can taxi, otherwise say: '''You: Cleared to push-back and start engines. Call when ready to taxi''' B-ELIO will then call you when he's ready to taxi. Note you don't have to type B-ELIO, just click on his icon on the screen and ProController automatically inserts it for you. You can often just respond with 'roger' or 'rgr' which means you've heard what the other person has said, or 'wilco' which means you have heard and will obey. When he calls to taxi: '''B-ELIO: rgr (to the push-back and start-up clearance). Ready to taxi to the active runway.'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, Taxi to runway 9 (or whatever Tower has chosen) and hold short, altimeter 1009.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: to runway 9 and h/s, alt 1009, B-ELIO (h/s is short for hold short)''' Hold short asks the plane to [[Getting aeronautical charts|get close to the point given (here, the runway) without actually getting on to the point. Each runway has a line painted on the ground (the holding line) at which a plane waiting to take-off will wait until he is cleared onto the runway (tower's duty). If you put the plane on the runway, tower might be landing a plane and this plane might well land on top of it! The altimeter is given now so that you are sure that the plane has the correct altimeter setting, and is just good practice. Even with it in your ATIS, and their take-off checks, it never hurts to be safe. Your aim as ground is just to get a queue ready for takeoff so that tower has aircraft ready to takeoff when there's a gap in arrivals.  If the pilot needs to cross a runway, he'll stop before the runway and ask for clearance. You just direct him to ask the tower for this information. Imagine for a second that there's another plane taxiing to the runway as well... tell the plane to give way: '''You: B-ELIO, Taxi to runway 9 and hold short. Give way to the American Airlines 747 taxiing from left to right.''' Now the pilot will have to give way to the 747 moving in front of him from his left to his right. If B-ELIO was also an American Airlines, you can use the word 'Company' to mean 'of the same company' so 'Give way to company 747...' would be legal. As a ground controller, with a detailed map, you might like to give full details of the way you want him to go, but normally the controller can just give a simple statement like the ones above: '''You: B-ELIO, taxi via Inner Taxiway to block 53, then left onto taxi-way B to runway 9, and hold short.''' Now the plane is ready to get onto the runway and takeoff, you hand him off to TWR, using the method you learnt in Lesson 1 by right-clicking on the plane, selecting 'aircraft >' and then 'request handoff' and select the appropriate controller. This will ask the controller for a hand-off and, when they accept, the circles around the plane will change colour, you can now go through the same menu and choose hand-off which will give B-ELIO the following message. In the real world, you'd actually say it, and in IVAO, you can just type it without using the automated system:  '''You: B-ELIO, contact the tower frequency 119.7 (you'd have to look up the frequency in who is on-line)''' So now, it's Tower's turn to get this plane off into the sky...  If you were awaiting a plane to land, you could just leave the plane queuing, but if you are ready to have him on the runway tell him to get into position on the runway. Remember, it is your job to get aircraft onto and off the runways as quickly as possible, so that planes can land and take-off quickly: '''You: B-ELIO, runway 9, line up and wait.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: Runway 9, line up and wait, B-ELIO.''' One thing to note, the phrase 'position and hold' is no longer used, since the FAA adopted the ICAO standard "line up and wait" (since September 30, 2010). You may also use a conditional clearance, to make your job easier: '''You: B-ELIO, runway 9, line up and wait [after the arriving B747 / following the departing B757aeronautical charts]]''' The plane may give a call back when he's ready like 'ready for departure' or 'on the numbers'. If not, just wait until his icon stops moving and give him his takeoff clearance: '''You: B-ELIO, winds calm/110@15, runway 9, cleared for takeoff'''<br />'''B-ELIO: Cleared for takeoff.''' The plane will commence his take-off roll, and - as soon as he is airborne - airports you want intend to get rid of him and get onto your next plane. You initiate the hand-off to approach, and handoff as soon as (s)he accepts. So now, onto approaches dealings... == Lesson 4 ==''(In this section the approach controller is presumed to be handling departures, as there are very, very rarely departure controllers. If there were a departure controller, (s)he would deal with a departing plane, and the approach controller would deal with any planes arriving)'' So approach now has a plane that wants to get on with its flight. The first thing to notice was the clearance:''climb and maintain 6,000...'' It wasn't explained last page, but the reason for this low height is to ensure that planes arriving at the airport - also at low heights - that are arriving fly from the takeoff end of the airfield are kept above the departing planes. If arriving planes are only cleared down to 8,000 ft. then - even if they have to fly over the airport and turn around - they cannot conflict with departing planes. For this reason, departing planes are usually cleared to 6,000 and arriving planes to 8,000 until they are on the 'safe' (non-departure) side of the runway.  Let's look at how the hand-off occurs this time:'''EGLL_TWR: B-ELIO, contact EGLL_APP on 119.72, good-day.'''<br />'''B-ELIO (to you): Heathrow Approach, good-day, this is B-ELIO out of 1,700 for 6,000 on runway heading''' This time, because the plane is in the air, you want to acknowledge you can see him on the radarspecifically:'''You: B-ELIO, Radar Contact, continue to 6,000... (and right to 120)''' The aim now is to get the plane heading in the right direction (that is, towards the first VOR or NDB - remember how they're shown on the display - listed in the Flight Strip, or just in the general direction of the country he's heading to. When the planes far enough away from the airport, or there's no other traffic, climb him up to 12,000 - 18,000ft and hand him off to center. Now, a few words about giving the plane vectors (headings), remember:  * Don't expect the plane to respond instantly... think ahead. By the time he's got your message and started to turn he might be 1 NM further on that you expected.* If he's heading directly to a 'fix' (any VOR, NDB or Intersection) give them a 'direct <place>' order like 'B-ELIO, turn left direct BIG' - don't bother trying to figure out headings when you've been given an easy way. * Consider your heading -- are you sure you mean 90 and not 270? If the aircraft is heading to the left of the screen, he's flying a heading of 270 and not 90!! This may seem obvious, but is one of the biggest problems for new controllers. Now the plane's in the sky, a big, bold few words about separation:'''Keep your planes at least 3NM from each other, or at least 1,000 ft vertically between them. If you think the planes will eventually come too close, don't wait -- turn or descend one immediately! In order to make collisions between planes traveling in opposite directions less likely, use this rule:''' {| class="prettytablewikitable"! alignscope="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEFcol" | Chart type! alignscope="centercol" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" ||- |Plane flying headings 0-179 |Fly at ODD FLIGHT LEVELS Description
|-
|Plane flying headings 180 - 359 Airport information|Fly at EVEN FLIGHT LEVELS |} What are Flight Levels? Flight Levels are used to shorten heights -- you should recognize them from Describes the plane's blip -- you simply remove the two last digits from the height, for example 32,000ft --> FL320. Also, when you talk about Flight Levels, the pilot uses a standard altimeter setting (instead characteristics of the local altimeter setting found after the Q in the METAR weather report in the bottom right of your screen); while at low altitudes the plane will use the local barometric pressure. This means that all planes cruising will think 32,000 ft is at the same place, and not vary slightly depending on the local pressure.  Your aim is to get the planes in the right direction at a height ready for hand-off to an ARTCC (_CTR) and away from the airport. Once you've done it pass your plane onto the centre controller. It is a good idea to use the .chat <callsign of controller> function to ensure that you and your center agree on what places and heights you'll hand off at. Now the planes with Centre. The same hand-off procedure as above applies... wait for the first contact. When you've got it, identify the plane, and report 'radar contact'. If provides a plane is in your airspace and won't contact you try asking on your frequency, then try a quick switch to 121.50 to send a 'Contact EGTT_CTR on 132.600' to get the plane's attention. Using 121.50 (the Guard Frequency) is used when you can't contact a plane -- all planes within a few hundred miles will hear your broadcast, irrespective list of who it was intended for! Remember to switch back to your frequency -- you don't want everyone to hear your broadcasts for the rest of eternity (or perhaps you do; I certainly don't)radio frequenciesCenters job is pretty easy until its busy. Read the planes intended route and just get the plane to fly it. If there are other planes, make sure they don't collide. Since opposite traveling planes will have a 1,000 ft separation (using the table above) you shouldn't need to worry that much. Other than that, listen to the pilot's requests and help him where you can. When you get to your ARTCC boundary hand-off to the next centre, or - if there isn't one - give the order: '''You: B-ELIO, no control available in France, resume own navigation to Belgium, radar service terminated''' This statement removes all your requirements to control the plane, as it now knows that your not watching on radar, and you're not going to help him navigate. When you are navigating as centre - if the flight plan doesn't include a route - find the start and end points, and plan a quick route (either direct - give one heading - or by 'hopping' from VOR to VOR).  These terms are used often while controlling to confirm or deny requests and answer any questions: {| class="prettytable"! align="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" | ! align="center" bgcolor="#EFEFEF" ||- |Affirmative (sometimes affirm or aff)|Yes or correct
|-
|Negative Ground (sometimes negaerodrome chart/airport diagram)|No or incorrectDepicts the taxiways and runways of a specific airport; used while taxiing from and to the terminal.
|-
|Confirm...SID/STAR|Is it correct that..Used for instrument departures and arrivals.
|-
|Unable...VFR|Sorry, I cannot accept your request Those charts are used for...|-|Roger (almost always rgr)|I've heard VFR flights and understood your last transmission|-|Wilco |I will comply with your orders usually depict minimum safe altitudes for each area, as well as reporting points (implies Roger)|-|Standby (sometimes stby)|Please wait, I will call you back must report your position to ATC when I am freeflying over them).
|}
== Phraseology ===== A sample IFR flight ===We will teach the phraseology through an IFR sample flight from LEBL (Barcelona) to EDDF (Frankfurt am Main). For simplicity, we assume that all controller positions (delivery, ground, tower, approach/departure and center) are manned; also, we assume our callsign is ''BAW1542'Some examples of these:'(to be read as ''* Speedbird one five four two'''You: Confirm current altitude is FL310). '''** ==== Planning the flight ===={{Main article|Flight planning}}It'''B-ELIOs a good practice to file a flight plan on [http: Negative, FL290''//flightgear-atc.alwaysdata.net/ Lenny's website] so that the controllers will be able to know your departure/destination airports, cruising altitude and route without asking you about that every time.* '''B-ELIO: Request descent Follow the instructions on the [[Flight planning]] article to FL290 '''file a flightplan from LEBL to EDDF with a cruising altitude of FL250.** '''You: Unable FL290 (there is already traffic ==== Getting the departure clearance ====We start on the airport apron at FL290?)'''terminal T1, stand 221.
When the plane The first thing we need to do is nearing its final destination, make sure it has descended to between 18,000 check the current air pressure and 22which runway is being used; as a general rule,000 ft. This means that the approach controller can take planes should be heading into the plane wind for takeoff and descend it quickly -- it's no good trying landing. To accomplish this, we need to descend listen to the ''ATIS'' (Automatic Terminal Information Service), a plane 35prerecorded message describing weather information,000 ft the runways in 20 NM use and still get other important information for pilots; it to land. Notice that the plane should remain above 18,000 ft (in your airspace) until you've handed offs transmitted continuously on a dedicated radio channel. Approach might decide not The frequency to take the plane and have you make it fly circles use is written in the sky for 20 minutes until he has some room; otherwise arrivals Airport information chart and departures might crash while theycan also be found by clicking on ''AI -> ATC Services in Range -> LEBL''re being handed over! So:in our case, it's 121.970 MHz.
We open the Radio panel, set the COM1 frequency to 121.97 and listen to the ATIS message:* '''YouLEBL ATIS: B-ELIO''' ''This is El Prat information Alpha. Landing runway two five right. Departure runway two five left. Transition level five zero. Wind two zero zero degrees, d/m (descend and maintain) 18one zero knots. Visibility one zero km or more,000 on QNH 1221, right to 270 and expect hand-off to approach in few two thousand five minuteshundred feet. Temperature two two, dewpoint one zero. QNH one zero one eight. No significant change. On initial contact advise controller you have information Alpha.''This tells us that:# We're going to depart from runway 25L.# We need to set the altimeter to 1018 hPa<ref>European airports generally use hPa (hectopascals) for the QNH while American ones use inHg (inches of mercury). Some airplanes allow you to enter QNH values using both units; if that is not the case, you will need to use a converter.<br /ref>and set it back to standard pressure (STD) at the transition level (FL050, or 5000 feet).'''B-ELIO# Every ATIS broadcast is identified by a progressive letter of the [http: down //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NATO_phonetic_alphabet NATO phonetic alphabet]; we'll need to 18,000 on 1221, tell the delivery controller that we have information "Alpha" so that (s)he can check whether we have the latest information or not.Note also that numbers are spelled out for clarity - this will expect approach be done in five, B-ELIOall further communication.'''
What We now get the clearance (authorization to fly to a destination airport) from the delivery controller. The process is as follows.# We get the QNH? This Delivery frequency from the Airport information chart or the ATC Services in Range window (in this case, the frequency is an altimeter setting121. As 800 MHz) and tune COM1 to it (or connect on Mumble and join the plane will shortly be moving back delivery channel, or just talk on the Multiplayer chat).<ref>Each controller is free to local pressureuse FGCom, and not Mumble or just the flight level standard pressuretext chat as (s)he wishes; generally speaking, everyone accepts ATC via chat and, if voice communication is offered, that is announced on initial contact. Prefer voice communication if possible as it enhances realism and because speaking is quicker than typing.</ref># We contact the controller and ask for the clearance. (It is the pilot must know who needs to initiate contact with ATC, not the local pressureopposite). This ensures that his diagrams which give him ''Tip: note down the height clearance on a piece of paper as it's difficult (and risky) to memorize it.''# The Delivery controller gives us the airfield above sea level are correct -- if everyone used a standard altimeter setting at low altitudes clearance including:#* our callsign;#* whether we've got the latest ("current") ATIS information or not;#* our destination airport;#* the departure SID/waypoints;#* the route we's height would seem ll need to fluctuate over a period of hours by a few hundred feet! And finally:follow (if it is not mentioned, we'll follow the route we wrote in our flight plan);#* the initial and cruising altitude;#* the squawk ([[transponder]]) code we'll need to set.# We read back (repeat) the clearance to confirm we understood it correctly.# The controller corrects any mistakes we've made and then hands us off to the Ground controller.
* '''YouBAW1542: B-ELIO''' El Prat Delivery, this is Speedbird one five four two, requesting delivery to Frankfurt, flight level two five zero, we have information Alpha.* '''El Prat Delivery:''' Speedbird one five four two, Alpha is current, cleared to Frankfurt via OKABI three Whiskey, initial altitude five hundred feet, expect flight level two five zero after ten minutes, squawk four zero zero zero.* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared to Frankfurt via OKABI three Whiskey, initial altitude five hundred feet, expect flight level two five zero after ten minutes, squawk four zero zero zero, Speedbird one five four two.* '''El Prat Delivery:''' Speedbird one five four two, readback correct, contact EGLL_APP El Prat Ground on 192one two one decimal six five zero.72* '''BAW1542:''' Contact El Prat Ground on one two one decimal six five zero, Speedbird one five four two.
I'm not sure how we ended up The controller asked us to follow the OKABI3W SID after departure - get the SID charts, find it and look at Heathrowthe chart or read the text route descriptions. In this case, but thatthe SID prescribes pilots to climb to 500 ft, turn left to intercept radial 199 PRA and be at least at 2500 ft at 8 NM from PRA; intercept radial 287 VNV and pass VNV at 5000 ft; turn right to KARDO, pass KARDO at FL120 and proceed direct OKABI. If you's another story!ve got the Level-D files from [http://www.navigraph.com/ Navigraph], select the SID in the [[Route Manager]] dialog for the route to be automatically entered; otherwise, use the Route Manager to input the VORs and waypoints manually.
== Lesson 5 ==Our plane, B-ELIO, is now about 40NM east-south-east of Heathrow ready to start We also set the approach transponder code and switch the transponder to runway 9L - as tower has chosen runway 9R for departures, with the winds of 87@22 - the plane is at 18,000 ft and is heading at 270 Ground mode (towards if the left of our screen...aircraft we're using supports this functionality).
Did you remember that the landing direction would be towards the right of the screen? I hope so... Anyway, planes need to be at 2,500 ft about 8NM ==== Pushing back and starting up ====Before pushing back (being pushed away from the airport heading in the correct direction to intercept the magical [[Instrument Landing System|ILS]] device that will guide them perfectly onto the runway. We know we need to keep the plane at 8,000 ft until its past OCK, and then get it down to 2,500 and onto the grey dotted line leading to the left runway (9Lstand with a tug) for the ILS and tower to take the passengers safely to the ground. Formulate a plan: accept the hand-off, descend the plane to 8,000 and send it directly towards OCK VOR, at OCK descend it to 2,500 and fly it past OCK on 270, then turn it to 360 (north, easier to read than '0') starting up the grey dotted line pointing north, then turn it we need to 45 so that is cuts the grey-dotted line at 90 to runway 9L... when the plane is on a course taking it through extended center-line (an imaginary line representing a line extending get appropriate clearances from the runway) it is said to be intercepting the localizerGround controller. The plane can then be told to get itself onto this extended center-line as the ILS will warn the plane when it needs to turn to establish itself on the lineThis ensures we won't block taxiways unnecessarily.
Since the airplane is on the wrong side of the airport* '''BAW1542:''' El Prat Ground, we fly three sides of a rectangleSpeedbird one five four two at stand two two one, the first is known as the down-wind (since you land heading up-wind), then the next request pushback.* 'leg' is known as the base'El Prat Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, and the red-line shows the final. If the plane was coming from the westEl Prat Ground, he could just fly a pushback approved, facing south.* 'straight-in' approach'BAW1542:''' Pushback approved, facing south, also known as an extended final - as the plane only flies a very long finalSpeedbird one five four two.
The orange line shows the 'intercepting the localizer' as the plane will continue to fly this heading until the ILS tells it to turn right onto the center-line of the runway. As soon as the plane reports it's established on the localizer (it has direction signals)We then push back, it can be cleared for the approach and told to descend with the glideslope which gives the plane height signals. The glideslope and localizer give precision approach information and are known - together - as making sure the ILS aircraft is turned towards (Instrument Landing System"facing"). Then get south at the plane to end of the tower, because - remember - you may well be dealing with planes taking off which you need to get out of your air-spacemaneuver, and other planes trying ask for permission to get established on the ILS, as the tower wants a steady stream of well-separated planes on the ILS. You hopefully now know what you're supposed to be doing, but how do we do it. We'll look at each stage in turnstart our engines.
'''B-ELIO[[File: BLEBL-ELIO with you at 18,000 for Heathrow. Information Alphastand220-pushback. png|center|thumb|800px|Our aircraft's position after pushback (Your ATIS - might contain weather, voice IP?noon and night view)'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, Radar Contact, alpha is current. d/m 8,000 and direct OCK pleaseNote that the taxiway centerlines are not lit in proximity of stands.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: rgr, down to 8,000 to OCK.''']]
Great... B-ELIO will now get to OCK and be at 8* '''BAW1542:''' Speedbird one five four two,000request startup. Just before he gets to OCK* '''El Prat Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, you need to issue the next instructions so that he can be ready for themstartup approved.* '''BAW1542:''' Startup approved, Speedbird one five four two.
'''You: B-ELIOAfter that, d/m 2,500 continue present heading we start our engines and expect ILS approach to runway 9L at Heathrow.'''<br />'''B-ELIO: rgr, 2,500 on my heading for 9L, B-ELIOcomplete our checklists as quickly as possible.'''
OK so far? Now let's head him towards ==== Taxiing to the airportrunway ====We ask for clearance to taxi to the departure runway. This * '''BAW1542:''' Speedbird one five four two is the base legready to taxi.* '''El Prat Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, taxi to holding point Echo two via Lima and Echo, QNH one zero one eight.* '''BAW1542:''' Taxi to holding point Echo two via Lima and Echo, QNH one zero one eight, Speedbird one five four two.
'''You: BThe current QNH may be repeated by the ground controller, even if we have just heard it on the ATIS, as a reminder to set it to the correct value -ELIOso check it. After that, turn right heading 360 (for base) open the for base is for information ground chart and is usually left outcheck your taxi route before starting, as in some cases taxi signs will not be present at all intersections.You will notice that the controller cleared us only to holding point E2, so, once there, we'll need to report our position and await further instructions. The holding point is marked by a ''<br />stop bar'''B-ELIO: t/r (turn right) 360a dotted/continuous yellow line: the dotted one faces the runway while the continuous line faces the taxiway, B-ELIO'''to remind you that you need a clearance to cross the runway, and it is lit at night by means of pulsing yellow lights).
This is where judgment and cunning use Taxi to E2 as instructed at a maximum speed of the feature for monitoring heading 30 knots and distance come into play. It is also your duty to give the plane the frequency for the ILS ''hold short'' (in stop) just before the form xxxstop bar.xx) which can be found at www.ivao.aero/db/ss Remember that, while the controller may instruct you to ''hold position'' (or from database, sector systemstop) using the search facility. The and ''give way'' to another plane just hit the extended center-line at least 8NM away from the airport, so make sure it's still your responsibility not to collide with buildings, vehicles or other aircraft; also, should you issue the turn to 45 at the correct timeany point become unsure of your position, otherwise B-ELIO will miss stop at once and ask the ILS. Right place, so..ground controller.
'''You<gallery widths=400px mode=packed>File: Turn right heading 45 LEBL-E3.png|Taxiing to intercept intersection E3 - no ground signs are present, so you should use the localizer on 119ground chart as a reference.21 to 9L and report establishedFile:LEBL-E2.'''png|Approaching holding point E2.File:LEBL-E2-stopbar.png|Close up of the E2 stop bar.<br /gallery>'''B-ELIO: right to 45 for LLZ to 9L, will report established'''
B-ELIO will now get himself onto We contact the localizer ground controller to tell him/her we're at E2.* '''BAW1542:''' Speedbird one five four two, we're holding short Echo two.* '''El Prat Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, cleared to cross runway zero two, taxi to holding point Golf one via Echo one and callKilo.* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared to cross runway zero two and taxi to holding point Golf one via Echo one and Kilo, Speedbird one five four two.
We then cross the runway without delay and turn left on K. Near K2 you can notice a ''CAT II/III holding point'B-ELIO: established'(marked by an empty yellow rectangle with vertical lines, equipped with ''fixed'' lights) - that's where we would stop if visibility was reduced or if another aircraft was landing using ILS; since that's not the case and we were cleared to G1, just proceed.
This is your cue to clear him for the approach and allow him to descend (otherwise he'll fly perfectly over the runway at 2,500ft)<gallery widths=400px mode=packed>File:LEBL-K2. This is done with the following commandpng|The CAT II/III K2 stop bar.File:LEBL-G1.png|Approaching the G1 stop bar.</gallery>
'''You: B-ELIO, rgr (I heard We stop at G1 while the 'established') cleared the ILS approach ground controller instructs us to 9L, descend with contact the g/s.<br />B-ELIOtower: Cleared ILS approach.* '''<br />El Prat Ground:'''You: B-ELIOSpeedbird one five four two, contact the tower El Prat Tower on 118.52 (if there is a towerone one eight decimal three two zero, else you'll have to do the job... and look up the tower frequency in who's on-line)'''<br />goodbye!* '''B-ELIOBAW1542: Over to the tower, thanks for your help.'''Contact El Prat Tower on one one eight decimal three two zero, Speedbird one five four two, bye!
That's your job done! As ==== Lining up and taking off ====We contact Tower on text chat, FGCom or Mumble (depending on the tools the approach controller you have is using) to get our takeoff clearance. It will include, in that order:# the most workwind direction and speed;# wind gusts, so don't be afraid to give planes holds. A hold is a request for a plane to circle around a given fix if any;# warnings (elike wake turbulence, rain..g.: a VOR) at a given height until you can do something with them. In fact, if you have lots of planes all circling a VOR, itany;# the runway number;# the words 's known as a 'stackcleared for takeoff' because the plane's are stacked there. So, we could get three planes holding at the OCK VOR (while we waited for traffic to decrease) at 6,000 ft, 8,000 ft and 10,000 ft and add new planes to the top and take planes ready for the approach from the bottom. To give a hold, the basic command is:
* ''Hold at <vor name> VOR at <current altitude/10'BAW1542:''' El Prat Tower,000 etcSpeedbird one five four two, holding short Golf one. / FL120 etc.>* '''El Prat Tower:''' Speedbird one five four two, expect further clearance in <time> minuteswind is two one zero at five, runway two five left, cleared for takeoff.* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared for takeoff two five left, Speedbird one five four two.
Which requests the pilot flies around the <vor name> VOR at the assigned altitude until you give him {{note|If a new clearance. The expect further clearance (e.g.: expect further clearance in 10 minutes) just gives tower controller clears an aircraft for takeoff while it is still on a taxiway, the pilot some idea of is also cleared to enter the delay and does not give the pilot the right to start flying away after that time runway &ndash; there is over! The full clearance for holding is as follows, but usually you can just use the one above unless you specifically no need to avoid issue a plane coming to a certain side of the VOR:separate ''line up and wait'' instruction.}}
We set the transponder to ''On'Hold <north/east/south/west> of ' so that the <vor name> VOR controllers and other aircraft will be able to see us on radar screens and the <approach heading> radial[[Traffic alert and collision avoidance system|TCAS]], expect further clearance in <time> minutesline up, take off and follow the SID.After the takeoff, the tower controller will hand us off to the departure controller:* '''El Prat Tower:''' Speedbird one five four two, contact Departure on one two six decimal five zero zero, goodbye!* '''BAW1542:''' Contact Departure on one two six decimal five zero zero, Speedbird one five four two.
The approach heading is the heading at which you want the plane We switch to approach the VORdeparture frequency and contact the controller:* '''BAW1542:''' El Prat Departure, Speedbird one five four two passing ''current altitude'', OKABI three Whiskey departure. So* '''El Prat Departure:''' Speedbird one five four two, hold north of the OCK VOR on the 270 radial would ask the pilot to fly to OCK on a hdg of 270 radar contact, climb and then to hold so he's always north of the fixmaintain flight level two five zero. A hold is a racing track shaped rectangle* '''BAW1542:''' Climb and maintain flight level two five zero, Speedbird one five four two.
The key We climb to remember as FL250 and continue following the SID waypoints. When we're approaching the final fix (OKABI) the approach controller is will tell us tofollow our flightplan:* '''El Prat Departure:''' Speedbird one five four two, wherever the planes coming fromresume your own navigation, remember its height is just as important as its direction when it comes to landing - 2frequency change approved,500 ft (above ground level) for the ILS. goodbye!* '''BAW1542:''' Resuming our own navigation, frequency change approved, Speedbird one five four two, bye!
Disaster! YouWe've got re now free to follow our flightplan - it's a propeller aircraft doing good practice to keep an approach and you've started a 747 eye on the same approach behind it. There's nothing multiplayer map to hold it at, check for traffic and there getting very close -- what do you do? You could take the plane away and start the approach againto announce altitude changes/turns on text chat if other pilots are nearby.<ref>In real world flying, but using an orbit -- a circle we would be handed off to the left or right center controllers and then on we would report our position over special points, marked as black triangles in the original heading -- will increase your timecharts. Since center controllers are not common in FlightGear, just give:this is not usually done.</ref>
==== Approaching the destination airport ====We start descending on our own so as to reach FL150 approximately 100 NM from the destination airport. When we're about 80 NM from EDDF we check the ATIS for the destination airport, just like we did at LEBL - in this case the frequency is 118.02. We tune in the COM1 radio to that frequency and listen:* ''You'EDDF ATIS: B-ELIO''' ''This is Frankfurt information Echo. Landing runway zero seven right. Departure runway zero seven center. Transition level five zero. Wind zero two zero degrees, four knots. Visibility one orbit zero km or more, few four thousand eight hundred feet. Temperature one niner<ref>"Niner" is used instead of "nine" to avoid confusion between the left please similarly sounding "nine" and "nein", the German word for spacing"no".'''<br /ref>'''B-ELIO: wilco', dewpoint zero seven. QNH one zero one eight. No significant change. On initial contact advise controller you have information Echo.''
Also, sometimes as approach you will want to slow a plane down to ensure that it isn't conflicting with a plane already on We then contact the approach controller (in frontthis case Langen Radar, 118.45 MHz):* '''BAW1542:''' Langen Radar, Speedbird one five four two at flight level one five zero, we have information Echo.* '''Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two, radar contact, Echo is current, descend and maintain five thousand feet, proceed direct UNOKO. if they are too close* '''BAW1542:''' Descend and maintain five thousand feet, the second plane will end up missing his approach because the plane in front will still be on the runwayproceed direct UNOKO, Speedbird one five four two.
'''You: B-ELIO, slow We proceed to 210kts'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO, slow the UNOKO waypoint and descend to minimum feasible speed please'''<br />'''You: B-ELIO5000 ft, maintain minimum 190kts ''etcas instructed. At 5000 ft we set the altimeter to the local QNH (1018 hPa).'''''
Anyway, back to our imaginary flight in which B-ELIO is flying When we're near UNOKO the approach controller will contact us and is back with the towerassign us a STAR (standard arrival route):* '''Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two, cleared UNOKO one Mike arrival.* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared UNOKO one Mike arrival, Speedbird one five four two.Now we follow the altitudes and route in the STAR &ndash; in this case, we fly over UNOKO, IBVIL, MANUV, RAMOB and proceed to TAU.
== Lesson 6 ==Tower now has B-ELIO who is now cleared for We hold (circle) over TAU until the controller instructs us to continue the ILS approach:* '''Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two, turn right heading one four zero, so can descend and maintain three thousand feet, reduce speed to the decision heighttwo five zero knots. The decision minimum height is the height above the airport to which the plane can * '''BAW1542:''' Turn right heading one four zero, descend before being cleared and maintain three thousand feet, reducing speed to land. The plane cannot pass the decision height until he has visual contact (that istwo five zero knots, he can see) the runway he wants to land on. If he cannot see the runway he will execute a missed approach and go around for another approachSpeedbird one five four two.
The pilot will report We now engage the autopilot's heading select mode, fly the given heading, reduce our speed and continue our descent as cleared. After a couple of minutes, the controller calls us and instructs us to use the tower[[Instrument Landing System]] to get towards the runway:* '''Langen Radar:''' Speedbird one five four two, cleared ILS approach runway zero seven right.* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared ILS approach runway zero seven right, Speedbird one five four two.
As soon as the localizer is alive we engage the autopilot'''B-ELIO: B-ELIO with you s localizer mode and, as soon as the glideslope is alive, we switch to land 9Lapproach mode and descend on the glide.The controller will call us one last time to hand us over to Frankfurt Tower:* '''<br />Langen Radar:'''You: B-ELIOSpeedbird one five four two, Rgr. (you do not need to give radar contact, as the pilot no longer needs a radar serviceFrankfurt Tower on one one niner decimal niner zero. He is using ILS)* '''BAW1542:''' Contact Frankfurt Tower on one one niner decimal niner zero, Speedbird one five four two.
You can then give ==== Landing ====We switch to 119.90 MHz and/or join the landing clearanceFrankfurt Tower channel on Mumble, or - more likely - you can delay then contact the clearance until he is 8NM from the airport and so are more certain that he will be able tower controller to land. The 8NM point of get the approach is marked by a special device that causes a tone and light in the plane's cockpitlanding clearance. This device is known as It will include:# the outer marker wind direction and speed;# wind gusts, if any;# warnings (O/M or OM)like wake turbulence, rain. You can ask ..), if any;# the pilot runway number;# the words ''cleared to tell you at this point for his clearance:land''.
* '''YouBAW1542: B-ELIO, report the O/M for landing clearance'''<br />Frankfurt Tower, Speedbird one five four two, ILS approach runway zero niner right.* '''B-ELIOFrankfurt Tower: rgr<br />''' Speedbird one five four two, Frankfurt Tower, wind zero one zero degrees, five knots, runway zero seven right, cleared to land.* '''B-ELIOBAW1542: at O/M'''Cleared to land, runway zero seven right, Speedbird one five four two.
'''You<gallery widths=400px mode=packed>File: BEDDF-ELIO, winds 109@17, runway 9L, cleared finalapproach.png|Short final to landrunway 07R.'''<br />'''B-ELIOFile: 9L, cleared to land, BEDDF-ELIOlanding-07R.'''png|Landing on 07R.</gallery>
Your aim as We land on 07R and ''vacate'' (exit) the tower is to clear runway at the plane earliest opportunity, making sure not to land to avoid it having block other aircraft and not to miss its approachenter a taxiway marked with a ''NO ENTRY'' sign; in this case, and get other planes taking off between we vacate on the landing planesleft, whilst maintaining separation between since the planesterminal is on the left. You must remember to account for (On occasion, the fact that controller will ask us to vacate on a plane trying specific side or to land may miss its approach, and have to fly past the airport -- so make sure you turn slower planes away from the airport quickly in case use a jet needs specific exit). We are now asked to continue past the runwayswitch to Ground:* '''Frankfurt Tower:''' Speedbird one five four two, contact Frankfurt Ground on one two one decimal eight zero.* '''BAW1542:''' Contact Frankfurt Ground on one two one decimal eight zero, Speedbird one five four two.
After B-ELIO has landed, while he's still ==== Taxiing to the stand and shutting down ====We switch the transponder to ground mode and check the ground chart to get the name of the taxiway we are on ; in our case, we have vacated the runway, you still control himon taxiway M15. You want him off your runway as soon as possible, so you can land We then contact the next plane (otherwise, if heground controller:* 's still anywhere ''BAW1542:''' Frankfurt Ground, Speedbird one five four two on the runwayMike one five, yourunway zero seven right vacated.* 'd have ''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, Frankfurt Ground, taxi to give a landing plane a missed approach)holding point Mike one four via Mike, sohold short of Mike one four.* '''BAW1542:''' Taxi to holding point Mike one four via Mike, hold short of Mike one four, Speedbird one five four two.
'''You: B-ELIO take first We taxi-way to <left/right> then contact ground on 121.65 holding point M14, stop and report our position to the controller, so that (look up frequency in who's on-line)he can coordinate with Tower and clear us to cross the active runway 07C.* '''<br />BAW1542:''' Speedbird one five four two, holding short Mike one four.* '''B-ELIOFrankfurt Ground: Thanks ''' Speedbird one five four two, standby. ''(The controller will ask Tower for your helpcrossing clearance &ndash; it might take a bit.)''* '''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, switching cleared to cross zero seven center, taxi to groundLima via Lima niner.* '''BAW1542:''' Cleared to cross zero seven center, taxi to Lima via Lima niner, Speedbird one five four two.At this point, we resume taxiing, making sure to cross the runway expeditiously.
And your job is done.Since the taxiways and the apron are managed by two different controllers, the ground controller will hand us off to the apron controller:* '''Frankfurt Ground:''' Speedbird one five four two, contact Apron East on one two one decimal niner five.. let* 's look at a worse scenario''BAW1542:''' Contact Apron East on one two one decimal niner five, Speedbird one five four two. You landed a plane before B-ELIO We switch to the new frequency and for some reason it hasnreport:* 't been able ''BAW1542:''' Apron East, Speedbird one five four two on Lima nine, request taxi to get off the runway yetstand. You must not let B-ELIO land whilst any other plane is on the runway* '''Apron South:''' Speedbird one five four two, so you order B-ELIO Apron East, taxi to miss his approachstand Delta five via Lima and November one.* '''BAW1542:''' Taxi to stand Delta five via Lima and November one, Speedbird one five four two.
'''You<gallery widths=400px mode=packed>File: BEDDF-ELIO initiate missed approach immediately, c/m 6000 M15.png|Taxiing on runway heading, M15.File:EDDF-crossing-07C.png|Approaching holding point M14 and contact approach on 192preparing to cross runway 07C.72 (againNote that the stop bar is not lit, use who's ononly the ground sign tells you to hold short of the runway &ndash; so be careful.File:EDDF-line)L.png|Taxiing on L.<br /gallery>B-ELIO: Missed approach, and will contact approach.'''
Approach will then climb We taxi to the plane back stand and shut down, also switching the transponder off &ndash; there's no need to 6,000 ft (as it ask a clearance for that. Our flight is almost a now finished.==== This tutorial in video format ====The departure now) and complete arrival presented in this tutorial have also been recorded. Some interactions were simplified, the down-wind and base legs again (possibly result should however be more close to what you usually experience on the other side of the airfield, depending on traffic)multiplayer network. The plane can then be vectored back onto approach by the approach controller, and then given back to tower to try again. Of course a plane can initiate their own missed approachClosed captions are available.
'''B-ELIO{{#ev:''' No visual on runway, going around (same as missed approach), Byoutube|dA-ELIO.<br />UXATCHuI|400}}You{{#ev: Rgr, c/m 6000 left to 60 (perhaps there's traffic straight ahead?) and contact approach on 192.72.'''youtube|E3yfeWjlyic|400}}
Once, B-ELIO is back with the ground controller, having taxied just off the runway, he will be given instructions to taxi to the terminal building=== A sample VFR flight ===[http://forum. If there is no groundflightgear.org/memberlist.php?mode=viewprofile&u=12953 de profundis] has written a VFR tutorial that takes you for a sample flight from KRNO (Reno Tahoe) to KBIH (Eastern Sierra Regional) and covers VFR flight planning, the tower controller phraseology and tips in great detail. You can just give a get his 'taxi to parking' order without specialized instructionsCross Country Tutorial'' from the [http://forum.flightgear.org/viewtopic.php?f=72&t=19600 dedicated forum thread].
That concludes the average flight in ProController== Tips ==* This tutorial, but for the next (and last) page sake of this lesson contains some information that simplicity and brevity, assumed no other aircraft was present. On multiplayer servers you may want might be instructed to knowhold your position, give way to other aircraft or hold (make circles) over a point to remain separate from other aircraft; check the [[ATC phraseology]] page for example: the words specific phraseology used to represent single letter (ein those situations.g.: alpha for A * Follow the guidelines detailed in ATIS[[ATC best practices]] to make the experience enjoyable for everyone.* When practicing controlled flying, make sure you know your aircraft well (you should be able to maintain an assigned speed, altitude and lima for L as in heading), go to a less trafficked airport and tell the controller it'taxi-way limas your first time interacting via ATC.* ' as opposed to 'taxi-way L'Remember to read back (repeat)the clearances; it is the only way for the controller to know whether you received them correctly or not.'''* Execute the clearances while reading them back.
== Notes ==
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