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Howto:Seneca II

3,996 bytes added, 09:59, 21 November 2006
Airwork
And in case of emergency: hit the ESC-key and restart FlightGear.
[[Image:SenecaII_HOWTO_after_takeoff.jpg|thumb|After takeoff]] '''D-GEAR: cleared for takeoff runway 28R'''
When cleared for takeoff, advance the throttle slowly to apply 40" of manifold pressure. In reality you should only advance to 39" of manifold pressure, the remaining inch will build up on the run due to ramair. A warning light in the annunciator panel will illuminate if you exceed 40". Reduce throttle on the corresponding engine in that case to avoid engine damage.
When reaching the target altitude of 2000ft, lower the nose and let the aircraft accelerate for some seconds. Adjust your pitch slowly so the vertical speed indicator shows 0fpm. Reduce the power to 28"/2400RPM. Lean the mixture a little to save some virtual fuel and get best cruise performance. Closing the cowl-flaps (use the 'Seneca' Menuitem) will give you approx. 10knots of additional airspeed.
You should be now on a straight and level flight at 2000ft at some 130 knots. If you want, go to the next section or hit the 'P'-key to pause and have a coffee.
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== Airwork, Turns, Climbs and Decends ==
OK - Now let's have some fun and leave the boring straight and level thing and go for some airwork. We skip the usual clearing turn here, because we don't care about any other virtual aircraft around us.
 
=== Climbs and Decends ===
'''D-GEAR on course climb altitude 4000ft, maintain for 1 minute, thereafter decend altitude 3000ft'''
 
To climb, the aircraft needs more power and less speed. That means the engines need better cooling, so first thing to do is open the cowl flaps. Climb power will be at 75% max power. The according power setting is 32" manifold pressure and 2500RPM. When increasing power, always increase RPM first before increasing manifold pressure. Increase pitch (pull yoke backwards) and slow down to 100 knots indicated.
When reaching the target altitude, level off exactly like you did after takeoff. Reduce power to 28"/2400RPM and close the cowl flaps.
 
After one minute start the decent. Reduce power to 21" and 2300RPM. Reduce manifold pressure before decreasing RPM. Leave the cowl flaps closed to keep the engines warm. Pitch down a few degrees to maintain a rate of decent of 500-1000 feet per minute.
 
Never decent with an idle engine to avoid shock-cooling and severe engine damage.
 
When reaching the target altitude of 3000ft, reset power to 28"/2400RPM (remember: increase RPM first), pitch up and accelerate to cruise speed.
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=== Standard Rate Turn ===
The standart rate turn is defined (for slow aircraft like the Seneca) as turning with a rate of 3 degrees per second. That makes a full circle in 2 minutes. That's why some people call this a 2-minute-turn. The turn coordinator helps you in the correct timing. When the aircraft starts turning (rotate around the vertical axis), the little aircraft symbol starts to bank. When the right wing of that symbol aligns with the R marking, the aircraft turns right at exactly the 3 degrees per second rate. And it works on left turns, too. Just use the L marking and the left wing of the aircraft symbol for that.
 
So much for the theory - start with a 360 degree turn to the right. Bank to the right, a bank angle of 20 degrees should get you a correct rate of turn. Apply a little right rudder to make the turn coordinated and keep the ball in the turn coordinator instrument centered. Try to keep the altitude within a limit of +/- 100ft (2900-3100ft). Align the altitude with small variations of pitch. Slowly roll out 10 degrees before reaching the target heading of 280.
 
Stabilize heading 280 and altitude 3000ft and do the same with a left turn.
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=== Steep Turn ===
This is fun! Steep turn are at 60 degrees bank angle (this is the second long marking on the attitude indicator). In reality this makes you feel the g-force and if you make it perfect, you enter you own wake turbulance when finishing the 360.
 
The high bank angle reduces the aircraft's lift. This will be compensated with a higher power setting - 1" more manifold pressure will do. Apply the higher manifold pressure when passing 30 degrees of bank angle. In the turn, the elevator becomes more a rudder. Pulling the yoke increases the rate of turn. Adjust the bank angle with the ailerons. Adjust the altitude with the bank angle. Reduce the bank angle when altitude decreases and increase bank angle when the altitude increases. Do not pull the elevator when you loose altitude. That will make things worse.
 
Now start again with a steep turn to the right. Bank to the right - at 30 degrees bank angle set manifold pressure to 29". Continue increasing the bank angle and pull the yoke. In reality, you need some force here and you feel the increased weight of you body. Keep an eye on the attitude indicator and the altimeter. Try to maintain altitude within +/- 100ft and bank angle of 60 degrees. Roll out on heading 250, reduce manifold pressure to 28" and settle on heading 280 altitude 3000ft. Do the same to the left.
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=== Slow Flight ===
=== Stalls ===
 
== Approach and Landing ==
== Timed Traffic Pattern, Touch and Go, Go Around ==

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