Changes

Jump to: navigation, search

Sr/Novi u FlightGear-u

19,506 bytes added, 20:19, 17 December 2017
Created page with "'''Dobro Došli u FlightGear!''' Ovde ćemo pokušati da vas podignemo u virtuelno nebo u najkraćem mogućem vremenu. Takođe,upoznaćemo vas sa nekim od funkcija ovog si..."
'''Dobro Došli u [[FlightGear]]!''' Ovde ćemo pokušati da vas podignemo u virtuelno nebo u najkraćem mogućem vremenu. Takođe,upoznaćemo vas sa nekim od funkcija ovog simulatora letenja kao i sa nekim informacijama o njegovoj zajednici.

== Instaliranje i podešavanje ==
=== Hardverski zahtevi ===
Da bi FlightGear radio tečno, potreban je OpenGL drajver 2.0 ili više. Ovo uglavnom nije problem,ali ipak,pogledajte [[Hardware Recommendations]] da bi ste imali bolji uvid.

Poznato je da mnogi laptop računari imaju problema sa pokretanjem FlightGear-a, jer su grafičke kartice u njima slabije. Pogledajte [[notebooks known to run FlightGear]] za recenziju različitih konfiguracija.

=== Dobijanje FlightGear-a ===
Možete skinuti najnovije fajlove sa [http://www.flightgear.org/download/ FlightGear Downloads] stranice. Izaberite izvorne ili binarne fajlove,odgovarajuće za vaš sistem.Većina Linux korisnika će videti da većina distribucija ima paketnu verziju FlightGear-a (naziv paketa može biti <tt>fgfs</tt> ili <tt>flightgear</tt>.)

U zavisnosti od vašeg tehničkog znanja,možete izabrati [[Git]] razvojnu verziju FlightGear-a, koja generalno ima više mogućnosti i može biti zahtevana od strane nekih najnovijih letelica koje su u razvoju, ali može biti nestabilna i komplikovanija je za dobiti za korisnike drugih operativnih sistema. Razvojna verzija nije namenjena prosečnih korisnicima,ali ako želite da uradite neka testiranja, tu je noćno izgrašena verzija za Windows ili Mac dostupna za skinuti na stranici [[FlightGear Build Server]],i dnevno ažuriran Ubuntu PPA. Ako koristite Git kontrolisanu verziju FlightGear-a, možete izabrati da sinhronizujete svoje letelice koristeći verzijom kontrolisan [[FGAddon|FGAddon aircraft development repository]].

Možete takođe naručiti FlightGear na setu DVD-ova, dostupnih na stranici [http://www.flightgear.org/dvd/ FlightGear main site].

=== Instaliranje na Windows-u ===
Nakon što ste skinuli instaler, pokrenite ga i sledite uputsva da instalirate FlightGear.

Vodite računa da privremeno isključite antivirusni program. Neki antivirusni programi pogrešno "misle" da FlightGear sadrži virus.


Kod Windows instalacije,možete izabrati gde ćete instalirati FlightGear. FGROOT folder će biti [vaš izabrani folder]/data .

=== Installing on Mac OS X ===
Installing [[FlightGear Mac OS X|FlightGear on Mac OS X]] is very simple. Just drag and drop the FlightGear icon to the <tt>/Applications</tt> folder. That's it.

The first time you launch FlightGear, its icon on the Dock bounces for several seconds while loading aircraft and airport info. When the GUI launcher appears, select an aircraft and and airport by clicking the "Gear" buttons at the right of the names. Pressing "Start flight" will launch the simulator. You can configure more options using the GUI launcher. see the [http://macflightgear.sourceforge.net/home/documents/users-guide/ Users Guide] for more details.

If you'd like to launch FlightGear using command-line, launch <tt>/Applications/Utilities/Terminal.app</tt> and type the following.

cd /Applications/FlightGear.app/Contents/Resources
./fgfs --options.....

The [[$FG ROOT]] and [[$FG SCENERY]] are not set on Mac OS X. If you want to specify these variables yourself for command-line use, run the followings on Terminal.app:

FG_ROOT=/Applications/FlightGear.app/Contents/Resources/data
FG_SCENERY=[[$FG_ROOT]]/Scenery

After launching the GUI launcher, you will have the alias to [[$FG ROOT]] at <tt>$HOME/Documents/Flightgear/<version></tt> so you can browse the data folder using Finder.

Note: Once you have installed FlightGear, mac users can locate their [[$FG_ROOT]] folder by opening their applications folder in Finder, right clicking on FlightGear, and clicking "Show Package Contents". This will take you inside the FlightGear folder. You are now able to access all files including Data/Aircraft for [[Howto: Install aircraft#Macintosh OS X|installing new aircraft]].

=== Configuring OpenGL ===
FlightGear runs best with current [[OpenGL]] video drivers. If you are having trouble running FlightGear, see [[Graphics drivers configuration]] for more information.

=== Getting scenery ===
A limited set of [[scenery]] comes installed with FlightGear, which consists of the area surrounding [[San Francisco International Airport]] (KSFO).

In FlightGear, scenery is generally stored in you [[$FG_ROOT]] directory, and is divided into three kinds of data:
* '''Airports''' holds airport data, like runway usage and parking spots.
* '''Objects''' and '''Models''' are the buildings, bridges and radio towers, etc. that represent three-dimensional structures.
* '''Terrain''' represents the contours, elevations and type of ground you fly/taxi over.

The current way of "installing" new scenery is enabling [[TerraSync]], which will automatically download and update any place you visit - even on the fly! However, some might have problems with that, so you can also manually download and install new scenery parts, either official, the [[World Scenery]], or custom.

The official, although outdated, scenery is available at [http://www.flightgear.org/download/scenery/ the scenery download section] of the FlightGear website, and can be installed following [[Howto: Install scenery]]. You may obtain additional and more up to date scenery objects as they become available through the [http://scenemodels.flightgear.org/ FlightGear Scenery Database]. '''This is recommended for users with weak internet connections or weak computers!'''

Custom Scenery is available in many places. For example, in our forums ([http://forum.flightgear.org forum.flightgear.org]) or on repositories. An internet search should be able to find them.

=== Getting aircraft ===
Additional [[aircraft]] can be downloaded and installed through the launcher. Alternatively, you can go to the FlightGear website and navigate to the [http://www.flightgear.org/download/ download page], then choose the aircraft download link that fits your FlightGear version. For the installation, see [[Howto: Install aircraft]].

== Running FlightGear ==
=== Starting FlightGear ===
The easiest way to start FlightGear is a graphical interface like [[FlightGear Qt launcher]]. This is a frontend to the command line version.

Many users choose however to start FlightGear directly from the command line. The executable name is <tt>fgfs</tt> and can be run without options. If it's "not found", it is likely not in your [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PATH_(variable) path]. The location depends on your particular system and choices you made during compile and installation. There is a list of [[Command Line Parameters]] which must be used to change many options, like the aircraft you want. The most important:

fgfs --show-aircraft # displays a list of installed aircraft
fgfs --aircraft=c172p # start FG with the aircraft "c172p" (from the list)

=== Using the keyboard and/or mouse ===
Users with limited access to a [[joystick]] or other controllers sometimes use the keyboard or mouse to control their aircraft. Using the keyboard to fly can be difficult and the mouse is recommended over the keyboard for flying, yet even a cheap joystick would improve the experience so much.

To get help with keyboard commands, with FlightGear running, go to the ''Help'' menu, look under ''Basic Keys'' (for simulator related commands) and ''Common Aircraft Keys'' (for commands universal to all aircraft) and ''Aircraft Help'' (for key commands specific to your aircraft).

Coming from an other simulator? Check [[key commands compared to other simulators]] for an overview of the difference between the key commands of that sim and FlightGear and the [[Flightgear dialogs and menubar]].

To use the mouse to fly the aircraft, press tab (the cursor should change to a cross) and move the mouse to direct the aircraft. Tab again to look around (cursor should show a two sided arrow), and tab again to return to normal mode, used to click stuff in the cockpit. In some aircraft, such as the [[A320neo]] and [[A330-200]]/[[A330-300|300]] this unfortunately will not work, so you will have to use right click to look around and mouse mode is disabled. Fortunately, those planes are airliners, which are really stable and easy to fly with the keyboard.

=== First time in the cockpit ===
Finding your way around the cockpit can be daunting the first time.

Where is the "virtual cockpit?" Not all FlightGear aircraft come with an interior actually, some research projects may not even come with an exterior model. A 2D panel may display over the 3D cockpit if one exists. You may turn this off using the ''View'' menu or {{key press|Shift|V}}. Otherwise, you should be sitting in the virtual cockpit when FlightGear starts, as long as the Cockpit View is selected ({{key press|Ctrl|V}}).

You may find it difficult to read some of the displays, dials and gauges on the instrument panel. You can use the ''view'' mode of the mouse (right click until you get a cursor shaped like a double arrow) to pan and the mousewheel to zoom, or pan with the joystick hat and zoom with {{key press|X}} and {{key press|Shift|X}}.

One of the first steps that many take on entering an unfamiliar cockpit is to press {{key press|Ctrl|C}} to highlight all the "hotspots", that is instrument's controls, buttons, knobs, etc. Many aircraft also offer a specific help menu.

Some functions, such as starter or magneto, may be difficult to use or simply lack clickable "hotspots", especially in aircraft models which are in development. In most cases you can go for the equivalent controls on a 2D panel or resort to the keyboard. The keyboard always work according to the assignments listed on the ''Help'' menu, but sometimes these are reassigned by an aircraft or configuration. Again, remember to check all the help dialogs.

=== Starting the engine ===
You're eager to fly, but the engine's off. Well, turning on the engines is not always easy. Some aircraft have an ''autostart'' entry in their custom menu, but here's a general procedure that should work in many cases.

In general to start the engine on a piston-engine type aircraft, you need:
# Fuel: some aircraft start the simulation with no fuel. You can add it in ''Equipment > Fuel and Payload''.
# Correct mixture: this is generally ''rich'', so push the red knob all the way in, or use the key {{key press|m}} to enrich ({{key press|Shift|m}} leans.)
# Magnetos set on ''both'': turn the key or press {{key press|&#125;}} ''three times'' to move through ''R'', ''L'', ''both''.
# Throttle: some engines start better with a little gas.
# Run the starter: click the "start" position of the key on the panel, or press {{key press|s}}. Hold the starter for sufficient time, even 10 seconds.

Starting all engines in a multi-engine aircraft is similar to the single engine--except you must follow the same start sequence for each and every engine. Flightgear provides a convenient way to do this for all engines at once: press {{key press|~}} and all the procedure above will work for all the engines. Note though that the default 2-D panel is connected to ''only one engine'' and the {{key press|~}} trick might not work. Also, give some gas to be sure that all the engines are on.

These instructions may not work for jet aircraft, helicopters, or other types of aircraft with complex start procedures. Check the instructions in the aircraft help menu (Press {{key press|?}}) and/or at [[Aircraft|the aircraft's wiki]]. In general to start the engine on a jet engine type aircraft, you need to:
# Set cutoff ON
# Engage the starter
# Once the engines spools up to approximately 5% N1, set cutoff OFF
# Disengage the starter once the engine has reached operational speed

=== Online multiplayer flying ===
FlightGear has some multiplayer servers that will let you fly in more lively skies, see [[Howto: Multiplayer]]. There are also [[OpenRadar]] and [[ATC-pie]], standalone programs that will let you be an [[Air traffic control|air traffic controller]].

There's also a [[MPMap|multiplayer map]] that lets you see who's online right now,and even what navaids are nearby.

== Making your first flight ==
=== Realism ===
One of the most frequent questions novice pilots ask about any flight sim, but more so to FlightGear, is "why is my aircraft turning left all the time?" Although it could be due to wind gusts crossing the runway, it is more likely due to the [[Understanding Propeller Torque and P-Factor|propeller torque and p-factor]].

In certain other flight simulators, despite marketing slogans to the contrary, some settings are turned down to make the aircraft easier to fly. This reduces effects such as the above. The realism is always turned up in FlightGear.

Here are some of the FlightGear realism points, which may be confusing to first time pilots:
* "Left turning syndrome" for the previously mentioned reasons.
* Compass turning error: A compass, when subjected to the forces of flight, tends to turn in the opposite direction for a brief period before settling on the correct heading. This is not a malfunction ([https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_compass_turns more on this].)
* The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) is also subject to error.
* The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) is driven by a gyroscope (that is why it's sometimes called a Directional Gyroscope), which is subject to ''gyro drift'': the indicator will drift from its current heading and must be periodically (every ~15 minutes) calibrated to agree with the magnetic compass heading.
*You cannot just cancel a turn or climb by centring the yoke or stick. You must turn or push the stick the other way to get to level and level flight. But even then, the plane will not mantain its altitude or heading by itself- a common mistake is trying to find a hands off yoke position. While with trims one could leave the plane for a couple of seconds, one must use autopilot or constantly adjust the yokes.

Many forces act on an aircraft in flight as well as on the [[avionics and instruments]] used for control and navigation, and may be counter-intuitive. Pilots must learn to recognize these phenomena and compensate for their effects. ''FlightGear models instrument errors that exist in the real world''.

=== Airports and navigation aids ===
When you first start FlightGear, whether from the command line or the graphical interface, you may wonder how to determine what airports are available. The launcher displays a list of airports, but you will not see details such as tower or [[ILS]] frequencies. You will not find a map showing [[VOR]]s and their frequencies. What can you do? See [[Getting aeronautical charts]].

In-sim, there is a map you can use in ''Equipment > Map'', which will allow you to see navigation data and the position of airports and aids. For more help with navigation see [[Understanding Navigation]].

=== Flying using the autopilot ===
Some aircraft require you to use the [[autopilot]] available from the ''Autopilot'' menu, which is the original FlightGear autopilot. This is a ''generic'' autopilot and as such, many aircraft come with their own ''specific'' autopilot, frequently a model of the real life one.

For aircraft that provide their own autopilot, you should use the autopilot controls available in the virtual cockpit. This means clicking on the instrument panel in the virtual cockpit. The Autopilot menu will be grayed out and unavailable when the aircraft supplies its own autopilot in some aircraft, including the Airbuses and the [[Cessna 172P|C172P]].

The Cessna 172 comes with a [[Bendix/King KAP140 Autopilot]] in its virtual cockpit. You cannot use the ''Autopilot'' dialog from the menu with this aircraft. You must use the autopilot device in the panel.

== The FlightGear community ==
=== Getting help ===
This page is designed to give the user the essential things they need to know about using FlightGear for the first time. Besides the [[Portal:User|User portal]] of this wiki, there are other pages you may want to read:
* [[Troubleshooting problems]] to help you with the most common issues;
* [[Frequently asked questions]];
...and communication channels that can be used to obtain information or request help:
* The [[FlightGear Manual]], a ''must read'' for beginners;
* [https://forum.flightgear.org FlightGear Forum] and its subforums;
* [[FlightGear IRC channel]], the quickest way to get help;
* [[Mailing list|FlightGear users mailing list]], biggest chance to get in contact with core developers;
* Documents bundled with the release package.

=== Customizing FlightGear without compiling it ===
[http://www.flightgear.org/download/ Our website] offers precompiled binaries for download and install on Windows and Mac OSX, while most Linux distros provide a packaged version in their repositories.

Although the install is binary, most of FlightGear's systems are open to configuration through [[XML]] files and [[NASAL scripting]]. You are free ''and encouraged'' to make changes to aircraft flight models, scenery, textures, OpenGL [[shader]]s and any other feature you wish to change for your personal satisfaction or to share with other FlightGear users. If this is what you intend to do, take a look at the [[Portal:Developer|Developer portal]].

=== How you can help ===
{{Main article|Volunteer}}
FlightGear is an opensource, volunteer based project. That means that whatever you find here comes from passion, spare time and nothing else. This includes the simulator, the scenery, the aircraft, the wiki, the forum and everything else. Volunteers, i.e. ''people that do things'', are fundamental to this project: without them, it wouldn't make a single step forward. So it is essential that contributors have fun in what they do.

If you really plan to contribute to this project, you should take a look at some articles that will give you some hints:
* [[Howto:Understand the FlightGear development process]]
* [[Implementing new features for FlightGear]]
* [[How the FlightGear project works]]

There are never enough people contributing, and the fields where their help would be appreciated are many:
;Testing :
* [[Building Flightgear|Build]] the latest Git code or download snapshots from the [[FlightGear Build Server]]
* [https://sourceforge.net/p/flightgear/codetickets/ File bug reports]
* Running FlightGear via valgrind to track down memory leaks

;Podrška :
* Pomoć novim korisnicima sa skidanjem, compiling, installing and running FlightGear (https://forum.flightgear.org or on IRC)
* Provide ideas & suggestions, see: [[Feature Requests / Proposals / Ideas]]
* Help clean up this wiki
* Help provide new contents for missing wiki pages

;Development :
* C/C++ Coding:
** provide source code cleanups (i.e. help in the process of migrating over to a primarily smart pointer-based memory management approach using SGSharedPtr)
** provide bug fixes [[Bugs]] or new features
** get involved in any of the other FlightGear-affiliated projects
* Aircraft development (3D modelling, textures, FDMs, scripting)
* Scenery development (terrain, model, weather)

[[Category:FlightGear]]
[[ca:Nou a FlightGear]]
[[de:Neu bei FlightGear]]
[[es:Nuevo para FlightGear]]
[[fr:Nouveau sur flightgear]]
[[it:Nuovo per FlightGear]]
[[ja:FlightGear入門]]
[[nl:Nieuw bij FlightGear]]
[[pt:Novo no FlightGear]]
[[zh:FlightGear新手]]
[[th:New to FlightGear]]
[[sr:Novi u FlightGear-u]]
35
edits

Navigation menu